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458.Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "yaṃkiñci abhisaṅkharaṇalakkhaṇaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ ekato katvā saṅkhārakkhandho veditabbo"ti, ettha abhisaṅkharaṇalakkhaṇaṃ nāma rāsikaraṇalakkhaṇaṃ. 131. Now, it was said above, “Whatever has the characteristic of forming should be understood, all taken together, as the formations aggregate” (§81). And here too, what is said to have the characteristic of forming is that which has the characteristic of agglomerating.57 Comm. NT: 57.
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Kiṃ pana tanti, saṅkhārāyeva. What is that? It is formations themselves,
Yathāha – "saṅkhatamabhisaṅkharontīti kho, bhikkhave, tasmā saṅkhārāti vuccantī"ti (saṃ. ni. 3.79). according as it is said, “They form the formed, bhikkhus, that is why they are called formations” (S III 87).
Te abhisaṅkharaṇalakkhaṇā, āyūhanarasā, vipphārapaccupaṭṭhānā, sesakhandhattayapadaṭṭhānā. 132. They have the characteristic of forming. Their function is to accumulate. They are manifested as intervening. 58 Their proximate cause is the remaining three [immaterial] aggregates. Они имеют характеристику конструирования. Их функцией является накапливать. Они проявляются как вмешательство. Их производящей причиной являются три (нематериальные) совокупности. Comm NT: 58. Vipphāra—“intervening” here is explained by Vism-mhṭ (p. 484) as vyāpāra (interest or work); not in this sense in PED. See Ch. VI, note 6...
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Evaṃ lakkhaṇādito ekavidhāpi ca jātivasena tividhā kusalā, akusalā, abyākatāti. So according to characteristic, etc., they are singlefold. And according to kind they are threefold, namely, (I) profitable, (II) unprofitable, and (III) indeterminate.
Tesu kusalaviññāṇasampayuttā kusalā. As regards these, when associated with profitable consciousness they are profitable,
Akusalasampayuttā akusalā. when associated with unprofitable consciousness they are unprofitable,
Abyākatasampayuttā abyākatā. when associated with indeterminate consciousness they are indeterminate.
Tattha kāmāvacarapaṭhamakusalaviññāṇasampayuttā tāva niyatā sarūpena āgatā sattavīsati, yevāpanakā cattāro, aniyatā pañcāti chattiṃsa. [ACCORDING TO ASSOCIATION WITH CONSCIOUSNESS] 133. I. (1) Herein, firstly, those associated with the first sense-sphere profitable consciousness (1) amount to thirty-six, that is to say, the constant ones, which are the twenty-seven given in the texts as such, and the four “or-whatever- states,”59 and also the five inconstant ones (cf. Dhs §1). Comm NT: 59. Yevāpanaka (ye-vā-pana-ka) is commentarial shorthand derived from the Dhammasaṇgaṇī phrase “ye-vā-pana tasmiṃ samaye aññe pi atthi paṭicc...
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Tattha phasso, cetanā, vitakko, vicāro, pīti, vīriyaṃ, jīvitaṃ, samādhi, saddhā, sati, hirī, ottappaṃ, alobho, adoso, amoho, kāyapassaddhi, cittapassaddhi, kāyalahutā, cittalahutā, kāyamudutā, cittamudutā, kāyakammaññatā, cittakammaññatā, kāyapāguññatā, cittapāguññatā, kāyujukatā, cittujukatāti ime sarūpena āgatā sattavīsati (dha. sa. 1; dha. sa. aṭṭha. 1 yevāpanakavaṇṇanā). Herein, the twenty-seven given as such are these:(i) contact, (ii) volition, (iii) applied thought, [463] (iv) sustained thought, (v) happiness (interest), (vi) energy, (vii) life, (viii) concentration, (ix) faith, (x) mindfulness, (xi) conscience, (xii) shame, (xiii) non-greed, (xiv) non-hate, (xv) non-delusion, (xvi) tranquillity of the [mental] body, (xvii) tranquillity of consciousness, (xviii) lightness of the [mental] body, (xix) lightness of consciousness, (xx) malleability of the [mental] body, (xxi) malleability of consciousness, (xxii) wieldiness of the [mental] body, (xxiii) wieldiness of consciousness, (xxiv) proficiency of the [mental] body, (xxv) proficiency of consciousness, (xxvi) rectitude of the [mental) body, (xxvii) rectitude of consciousness.
Chando, adhimokkho, manasikāro, tatramajjhattatāti ime yevāpanakā cattāro (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 1 yevāpanakavaṇṇanā). The four ‘or-whatever-states’ are these: (xxviii) zeal (desire), (xxix) resolution, (xxx) attention (bringing to mind), (xxxi) specific neutrality.
Karuṇā, muditā, kāyaduccaritavirati, vacīduccaritavirati, micchājīvaviratīti ime aniyatā pañca. And the five inconstant are these: (xxxii) compassion, (xxxiii) gladness, (xxxiv) abstinence from bodily misconduct, (xxxv) abstinence from verbal misconduct, (xxxvi) abstinence from wrong livelihood.
Ete hi kadāci uppajjanti, uppajjamānāpi ca na ekato uppajjanti. These last arise sometimes [but not always], and when they arise they do not do so together.
459.Tattha phusatīti phasso. 134. Herein, (i) it touches (phusati), thus it is contact (phassa).
Svāyaṃ phusanalakkhaṇo. This has the characteristic of touching.
Saṅghaṭṭanaraso, sannipātapaccupaṭṭhāno, āpāthagatavisayapadaṭṭhāno. Its function is the act of impingement. It is manifested as concurrence. Its proximate cause is an objective field that has come into focus.
Ayañhi arūpadhammopi samāno ārammaṇe phusanākāreneva pavattati. [As to its characteristic], although this is an immaterial state, it occurs with respect to an object as the act of touching too.60 Comm. NT: 60.
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Ekadesena ca analliyamānopi rūpaṃ viya cakkhu, saddo viya ca sotaṃ cittaṃ ārammaṇañca saṅghaṭṭeti, tikasannipātasaṅkhātassa attano kāraṇassa vasena paveditattā sannipātapaccupaṭṭhāno. And [as to its function], although it is not adherent on anyone side61 as eye-cum-visible-object and ear-cum-sound are, yet it is what makes consciousness and the object impinge. It is said to be manifested as concurrence because it has been described as its own action, namely, the concurrence of the three [(cf. M I 111), that is, eye, visible object, and eye-consciousness]. Comm. NT: 61. For “non-adherent” see §46.
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Tajjāsamannāhārena ceva indriyena ca parikkhate visaye anantarāyeneva uppajjanato āpāthagatavisayapadaṭṭhānoti vuccati. And it is said to have as its proximate cause an objective field that has come into focus because it arises automatically through the appropriate [conscious] reaction and with a faculty when the objective field is presented.
Vedanādhiṭṭhānabhāvato pana niccammagāvī (saṃ. ni. 2.63) viya daṭṭhabbo. But it should be regarded as like a hideless cow (S II 99) because it is the habitat62 of feeling. Comm NT: 62. Adhiṭṭhāna—“habitat” (or site or location or foundation): this meaning not given in PED.
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460.Cetayatīti cetanā. 135. (ii) It wills (cetayati), thus it is volition (cetanā);
Abhisandahatīti attho. it collects, is the meaning.
Sā cetanābhāvalakkhaṇā, āyūhanarasā, saṃvidahanapaccupaṭṭhānā sakiccaparakiccasādhikā jeṭṭhasissamahāvaḍḍhakīādayo viya. Its characteristic is the state of willing. Its function is to accumulate. It is manifested as coordinating. It accomplishes its own and others’ functions, as a senior pupil, a head carpenter, etc., do.
Accāyikakammānussaraṇādīsu ca panāyaṃ sampayuttānaṃ ussahanabhāvena pavattamānā pākaṭā hoti. But it is evident when it occurs in the marshalling (driving) of associated states in connection with urgent work, remembering, and so on. [464]
Vitakkavicārapītīsu yaṃ vattabbaṃ siyā, taṃ sabbaṃ pathavīkasiṇaniddese paṭhamajjhānavaṇṇanāyaṃ (visuddhi. 1.71) vuttameva. 136. (iii)–(v) What should be said about applied thought, sustained thought, and happiness has already been said in the commentary on the first jhāna in the Description of the Earth Kasiṇa (IV.88–98).
461.Vīrabhāvo vīriyaṃ. 137.(vi) Energy (viriya) is the state of one who is vigorous (vīra).
Taṃ ussahanalakkhaṇaṃ, sahajātānaṃ upatthambhanarasaṃ, asaṃsīdanabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Its characteristic is marshalling (driving). Its function is to consolidate conascent states. It is manifested as non-collapse.
"Saṃviggo yoniso padahatī"ti (a. ni. 4.113) vacanato saṃvegapadaṭṭhānaṃ, vīriyārambhavatthupadaṭṭhānaṃ vā, sammā āraddhaṃ sabbasampattīnaṃ mūlaṃ hotīti daṭṭhabbaṃ. Because of the words: “Bestirred, he strives wisely” (A II 115), its proximate cause is a sense of urgency; or its proximate cause is grounds for the initiation of energy. When rightly initiated, it should be regarded as the root of all attainments.
462.Jīvanti tena, sayaṃ vā jīvati, jīvanamattameva vā tanti jīvitaṃ. 138. (vii) By its means they live, or it itself lives, or it is just mere living, thus it is life.
Lakkhaṇādīni panassa rūpajīvite vuttanayeneva veditabbāni. But its characteristic, etc., should be understood in the way stated under material life (§59);
Tañhi rūpadhammānaṃ jīvitaṃ, idaṃ arūpadhammānanti idamevettha nānākaraṇaṃ. for that is life of material things and this is life of immaterial things. This is the only difference here.
463.Ārammaṇe cittaṃ samaṃ ādhiyati, sammā vā ādhiyati, samādhānamattameva vā etaṃ cittassāti samādhi. 139. (viii) It puts (ādhiyati) consciousness evenly (samaṃ) on the object, or it puts it rightly (sammā) on it, or it is just the mere collecting (samādhāna) of the mind, thus it is concentration (samādhi).
So avisāralakkhaṇo, avikkhepalakkhaṇo vā, sahajātānaṃ sampiṇḍanaraso nhāniyacuṇṇānaṃ udakaṃ viya, upasamapaccupaṭṭhāno, visesato sukhapadaṭṭhāno, nivāte dīpaccīnaṃ ṭhiti viya cetaso ṭhitīti daṭṭhabbo. Its characteristic is non-wandering, or its characteristic is non-distraction. Its function is to conglomerate conascent states as water does bath powder. It is manifested as peace. Usually its proximate cause is bliss. It should be regarded as steadiness of the mind, like the steadiness of a lamp’s flame when there is no draught.
464.Saddahanti etāya, sayaṃ vā saddahati, saddahanamattameva vā esāti saddhā. 140. (ix) By its means they have faith (saddahanti), or it itself is the having of faith, or it is just the act of having faith (saddahana), thus it is faith (saddhā). Its characteristic is having faith, or its characteristic is trusting.
Sā saddahanalakkhaṇā, okappanalakkhaṇā vā, pasādanarasā udakappasādakamaṇi viya, pakkhandanarasā vā oghuttaraṇo viya. Its function is to clarify, like a water-clearing gem, or its function is to enter into, like the setting out across a flood (cf. Sn 184).
Akālussiyapaccupaṭṭhānā, adhimuttipaccupaṭṭhānā vā, saddheyyavatthupadaṭṭhānā, saddhammassavanādisotāpattiyaṅga(dī. ni. 3.311; saṃ. ni. 5.1001) padaṭṭhānā vā, hatthavittabījāni viya daṭṭhabbā. It is manifested as non-fogginess, or it is manifested as resolution. Its proximate cause is something to have faith in, or its proximate cause is the things beginning with hearing the Good Dhamma (saddhamma) that constitute the factors of stream-entry. 63 It should be regarded as a hand [because it takes hold of profitable things], as wealth (Sn 182), and as seed (Sn 77). Comm NT: 63. The four factors of stream-entry (see S V 347) are: waiting on good men, hearing the Good Dhamma, wise attention, and practice in accorda...
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465.Saranti tāya, sayaṃ vā sarati saraṇamattameva vā esāti sati. 141.(x) By its means they remember (saranti), or it itself remembers, or it is just mere remembering (saraṇa), thus it is mindfulness (sati).
Sā apilāpanalakkhaṇā, asammosarasā, ārakkhapaccupaṭṭhānā, visayābhimukhabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā vā, thirasaññāpadaṭṭhānā, kāyādisatipaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānā vā. It has the characteristic of not wobbling. 64 Its function is not to forget. It is manifested as guarding, or it is manifested as the state of confronting an objective field. Its proximate cause is strong perception, or its proximate cause is the foundations of mindfulness concerned with the body, and so on (see MN 10). Comm. NT: 64.
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Ārammaṇe daḷhapatiṭṭhitattā pana esikā viya, cakkhudvārādirakkhaṇato dovāriko viya ca daṭṭhabbā. It should be regarded, however, as like a pillar because it is firmly founded, or as like a door-keeper because it guards the eye-door, and so on.
466.Kāyaduccaritādīhi hiriyatīti hirī. 142. (xi)–(xii) It has conscientious scruples (hiriyati) about bodily misconduct, etc., thus it is conscience (hiri).
Lajjāyetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. This is a term for modesty.
Tehiyeva ottappatīti ottappaṃ. It is ashamed (ottappati) of those same things, thus it is shame (ottappa).
Pāpato ubbegassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. This is a term for anxiety about evil.
Tattha pāpato jigucchanalakkhaṇā hirī. Herein, conscience has the characteristic of disgust at evil,
Uttāsanalakkhaṇaṃ ottappaṃ. while shame has the characteristic of dread of it.
Lajjākārena pāpānaṃ akaraṇarasā hirī. Conscience has the function of not doing evil and that in the mode of modesty,
Uttāsākārena ottappaṃ. while shame has the function of not doing it and that in the mode of dread.
Vuttappakāreneva ca pāpato saṅkocanapaccupaṭṭhānā etā, attagāravaparagāravapadaṭṭhānā. They are manifested as shrinking from evil in the way already stated. Their proximate causes are self-respect and respect of others [respectively].
Attānaṃ garuṃ katvā hiriyā pāpaṃ jahāti kulavadhū viya. A man rejects evil through conscience out of respect for himself, as the daughter of a good family does;
Paraṃ garuṃ katvā ottappena pāpaṃ jahāti vesiyā viya. he rejects evil through shame out of respect for another, as a courtesan does.
Ime ca pana dve dhammā lokapālakāti (a. ni. 2.9) daṭṭhabbā. But these two states should be regarded as the guardians of the world (see A I 51).
467.Na lubbhanti tena, sayaṃ vā na lubbhati, alubbhanamattameva vā tanti alobho. 143. (xiii)–(xv) By its means they are not greedy (na lubbhanti), or it itself is not greedy, or it is just the mere not being greedy (alubbhana), thus it is non-greed (alobha).
Adosāmohesupi eseva nayo. The same method applies to non-hate (adosa) and non-delusion (amoha) [na dussanti, adussana = adosa, and na muyhanti, amuyhana = amoha (see §§171,161)].
Tesu alobho ārammaṇe cittassa agedhalakkhaṇo, alaggabhāvalakkhaṇo vā kamaladale jalabindu viya. Of these, non-greed has the characteristic of the mind’s lack of desire for an object, or it has the characteristic of non-adherence, like a water drop on a lotus leaf.
Apariggaharaso muttabhikkhu viya, anallīnabhāvapaccupaṭṭhāno asucimhi patitapuriso viya. Its function is not to lay hold, like a liberated bhikkhu. It is manifested as a state of not treating as a shelter, like that of a man who has fallen into filth.
468.Adosoacaṇḍikkalakkhaṇo, avirodhalakkhaṇo vā anukūlamitto viya, āghātavinayaraso, pariḷāhavinayaraso vā candanaṃ viya, sommabhāvapaccupaṭṭhāno puṇṇacando viya. Non- hate has the characteristic of lack of savagery, or the characteristic of non- opposing, like a gentle friend. Its function is to remove annoyance, or its function is to remove fever, as sandalwood does. It is manifested as agreeableness, like the full moon.
469.Amoho yathāsabhāvapaṭivedhalakkhaṇo, akkhalitapaṭivedhalakkhaṇo vā kusalissāsakhittausupaṭivedho viya, visayobhāsanaraso padīpo viya. Non-delusion has the characteristic of penetrating [things] according to their individual essences, or it has the characteristic of sure penetration, like the penetration of an arrow shot by a skilful archer. Its function is to illuminate the objective field, like a lamp.
Asammohapaccupaṭṭhāno araññagatasudesako viya. It is manifested as non-bewilderment, like a guide in a forest.
Tayopi cete sabbakusalānaṃ mūlabhūtāti daṭṭhabbā. The three should be regarded as the roots of all that is profitable.
470.Kāyassa passambhanaṃ kāyapassaddhi. 144. (xvi)–(xvii) The tranquillizing of the body is tranquillity of the body.
Cittassa passambhanaṃ cittapassaddhi. The tranquillizing of consciousness is tranquillity of consciousness.
Kāyoti cettha vedanādayo tayo khandhā. And here body means the three [mental] aggregates, feeling, [perception and formations] (see Dhs 40).
Ubhopi panetā ekato katvā kāyacittadarathavūpasamalakkhaṇā kāyacittapassaddhiyo, kāyacittadarathanimaddanarasā, kāyacittānaṃ aparipphandanasītibhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, kāyacittapadaṭṭhānā. But both tranquillity of that body and of consciousness have, together, the characteristic of quieting disturbance of that body and of consciousness. Their function is to crush disturbance of the [mental] body and of consciousness. They are manifested as inactivity and coolness of the [mental] body and of consciousness. Their proximate cause is the [mental] body and consciousness.
Kāyacittānaṃ avūpasamakarauddhaccādikilesapaṭipakkhabhūtāti daṭṭhabbā. They should be regarded as opposed to the defilements of agitation, etc., which cause unpeacefulness in the [mental] body and in consciousness.
Kāyassa lahubhāvo kāyalahutā. 145. (xviii)–(xix) The light (quick) state of the [mental] body is lightness of the body.
Cittassa lahubhāvo cittalahutā. The light (quick) state of consciousness is lightness of consciousness.
Tā kāyacittagarubhāvavūpasamalakkhaṇā, kāyacittagarubhāvanimaddanarasā, kāyacittānaṃ adandhatāpaccupaṭṭhānā, kāyacittapadaṭṭhānā. They have the characteristic of quieting heaviness in the [mental] body and in consciousness. Their function is to crush heaviness in the [mental] body and in consciousness. They are manifested as non-sluggishness of the [mental] body and of consciousness. Their proximate cause is the [mental] body and consciousness.
Kāyacittānaṃ garubhāvakarathinamiddhādikilesapaṭipakkhabhūtāti daṭṭhabbā. They should be regarded as opposed to the defilements of stiffness and torpor, which cause heaviness in the [mental] body and in consciousness.
Kāyassa mudubhāvo kāyamudutā. 146. (xx)–(xxi) The malleable state of the [mental] body is malleability of body.
Cittassa mudubhāvo cittamudutā. The malleable state of consciousness is malleability of consciousness.
Tā kāyacittatthambhavūpasamalakkhaṇā, kāyacittathaddhabhāvanimaddanarasā, appaṭighātapaccupaṭṭhānā, kāyacittapadaṭṭhānā. They have the characteristic of quieting rigidity in the [mental] body and in consciousness. Their function is to crush stiffening in the [mental] body and in consciousness. They are manifested as non-resistance. Their proximate cause is the [mental body and consciousness.
Kāyacittānaṃ thaddhabhāvakaradiṭṭhimānādikilesapaṭipakkhabhūtāti daṭṭhabbā. They should be regarded as opposed to the defilements of views, conceit (pride), etc., which cause stiffening of the [mental] body and of consciousness.
Kāyassa kammaññabhāvo kāyakammaññatā. 147. (xxii)–(xxiii) The wieldy state of the [mental] body is wieldiness of body.
Cittassa kammaññabhāvo cittakammaññatā. The wieldy state of consciousness is wieldiness of consciousness.
Tā kāyacittākammaññabhāvavūpasamalakkhaṇā, kāyacittākammaññabhāvanimaddanarasā, kāyacittānaṃ ārammaṇakaraṇasampattipaccupaṭṭhānā, kāyacittapadaṭṭhānā. They have the characteristic of quieting unwieldiness in the [mental] body and in consciousness. [466] Their function is to crush unwieldiness in the [mental] body and in consciousness. They are manifested as success in making [something] an object of the [mental] body and consciousness. Their proximate cause is the [mental] body and consciousness.
Kāyacittānaṃ akammaññabhāvakarāvasesanīvaraṇādipaṭipakkhabhūtā, pasādanīyavatthūsu pasādāvahā, hitakiriyāsu viniyogakkhamabhāvāvahā suvaṇṇavisuddhi viyāti daṭṭhabbā. As bringing trust in things that should be trusted in and as bringing susceptibility of application to beneficial acts, like the refining of gold, they should be regarded as opposed to the remaining hindrances, etc., that cause unwieldiness in the [mental] body and in consciousness.
Kāyassa pāguññabhāvo kāyapāguññatā. 148. (xxiv)–(xxv) The proficient state of the [mental] body is proficiency of body.
Cittassa pāguññabhāvo cittapāguññatā. The proficient state of consciousness is proficiency of consciousness.
Tā kāyacittānaṃ agelaññabhāvalakkhaṇā, kāyacittagelaññanimaddanarasā, nirādīnavapaccupaṭṭhānā, kāyacittapadaṭṭhānā. They have the characteristic of healthiness of the [mental] body and of consciousness. Their function is to crush unhealthiness of the [mental] body and of consciousness. They are manifested as absence of disability. Their proximate cause is the [mental] body and consciousness.
Kāyacittānaṃ gelaññakaraasaddhiyādipaṭipakkhabhūtāti daṭṭhabbā. They should be regarded as opposed to faithlessness, etc., which cause unhealthiness in the [mental] body and in consciousness.
Kāyassa ujukabhāvo kāyujukatā. 149. (xxvi)–(xxvii) The straight state of the [mental] body is rectitude of body.
Cittassa ujukabhāvo cittujukatā. The straight state of consciousness is rectitude of consciousness.
Tā kāyacittaajjavalakkhaṇā, kāyacittakuṭilabhāvanimaddanarasā, ajimhatāpaccupaṭṭhānā, kāyacittapadaṭṭhānā. They have the characteristic of uprightness of the [mental] body and of consciousness. Their function is to crush tortuousness in the [mental] body and in consciousness. They are manifested as non-crookedness. Their proximate cause is the [mental] body and consciousness.
Kāyacittānaṃ kuṭilabhāvakaramāyāsāṭheyyādipaṭipakkhabhūtāti daṭṭhabbā. They should be regarded as opposed to deceit, fraud, etc., which cause tortuousness in the [mental] body and in consciousness. 65 Comm. NT: 65.
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471.Chandoti kattukāmatāyetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. 150. (xxviii) Zeal (desire) is a term for desire to act.
Tasmā so kattukāmatālakkhaṇo chando, ārammaṇapariyesanaraso, ārammaṇena atthikatāpaccupaṭṭhāno, tadevassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. So that zeal has the characteristic of desire to act. Its function is scanning for an object. It is manifested as need for an object. That same [object] is its proximate cause.
Ārammaṇaggahaṇe ayaṃ cetaso hatthappasāraṇaṃ viya daṭṭhabbo. It should be regarded as the extending of the mental hand in the apprehending of an object.
472.Adhimuccanaṃ adhimokkho. 151. (xxix) The act of resolving66 is resolution. Comm. NT: 66. See §140.
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So sanniṭṭhānalakkhaṇo, asaṃsappanaraso, nicchayapaccupaṭṭhāno, sanniṭṭheyyadhammapadaṭṭhāno, ārammaṇe niccalabhāvena indakhīlo viya daṭṭhabbo. It has the characteristic of conviction. Its function is not to grope. It is manifested as decisiveness. Its proximate cause is a thing to be convinced about. It should be regarded as like a boundary-post owing to its immovableness with respect to the object.
473.Kiriyā kāro. 152.(xxx) It is the maker of what is to be made,
Manamhi kāro manasikāro. it is the maker in the mind (manamhi kāro), thus it is attention (bringing-to-mind—manasi-kāra).
Purimamanato visadisamanaṃ karotītipi manasikāro. It makes the mind different from the previous [life-continuum] mind, thus it is attention.
Svāyaṃ ārammaṇapaṭipādako, vīthipaṭipādako, javanapaṭipādakoti tippakāro. It has three ways of doing this: as the controller of the object, as the controller of the cognitive series, and as the controller of impulsions.
Tattha ārammaṇapaṭipādako manamhi kāroti manasikāro. Herein, the controller of the object is the maker in the mind, thus it is attention.
So sāraṇalakkhaṇo, sampayuttānaṃ ārammaṇe saṃyojanaraso, ārammaṇābhimukhabhāvapaccupaṭṭhāno, ārammaṇapadaṭṭhāno. That has the characteristic of conducting (sāraṇa). Its function is to yoke associated states to the object. It is manifested as confrontation with an object. Its proximate cause is an object.
Saṅkhārakkhandhapariyāpanno, ārammaṇapaṭipādakattena sampayuttānaṃ sārathi viya daṭṭhabbo. It should be regarded as the conductor (sārathi) of associated states by controlling the object, itself being included in the formations aggregate.
Vīthipaṭipādakoti pana pañcadvārāvajjanassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Controller of the cognitive series is a term for five-door adverting (70).
Javanapaṭipādakoti manodvārāvajjanassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Controller of impulsions is a term for mind-door adverting (71).
Na te idha adhippetā. These last two are not included here.
474.Tesu dhammesu majjhattatā tatramajjhattatā. 153. (xxxi) Specific neutrality (tatra-majjhattatā—lit. “neutrality in regard thereto”) is neutrality (majjhattatā) in regard to those states [of consciousness and consciousness-concomitants arisen in association with it].
Sā cittacetasikānaṃ samavāhitalakkhaṇā, ūnādhikatānivāraṇarasā, pakkhapātupacchedanarasā vā, majjhattabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, cittacetasikānaṃ ajjhupekkhanabhāvena samappavattānaṃ ājānīyānaṃ ajjhupekkhakasārathi viya daṭṭhabbā. It has the characteristic of conveying consciousness and consciousness-concomitants evenly. Its function is to prevent deficiency and excess, [467] or its function is to inhibit partiality. It is manifested as neutrality. It should be regarded as like a conductor (driver) who looks with equanimity on thoroughbreds progressing evenly.
Karuṇāmuditāca brahmavihāraniddese (visuddhi. 1.262) vuttanayeneva veditabbā. 154. (xxxii)–(xxxiii) Compassion and gladness should be understood as given in the Description of the Divine Abodes (IX.§92, 94, 95),
Kevalañhi tā appanāppattā rūpāvacarā, imā kāmāvacarāti ayameva viseso. except that those are of the fine-material sphere and have attained to absorption, while these are of the sense sphere. This is the only difference.
Keci pana mettupekkhāyopi aniyatesu icchanti, taṃ na gahetabbaṃ. Some, however, want to include among the inconstant both loving-kindness and equanimity. That cannot be accepted for,
Atthato hi adosoyeva mettā, tatramajjhattupekkhāyeva upekkhāti. as to meaning, non-hate itself is loving-kindness, and specific neutrality is equanimity.
475.Kāyaduccaritato virati kāyaduccaritavirati. 155. (xxxiv)–(xxxvi) Abstinence from bodily misconduct: the compound kāyaduccaritavirati resolves as kāyaduccaritato virati;
Esa nayo sesāsupi. so also with the other two.
Lakkhaṇādito panetā tissopi kāyaduccaritādivatthūnaṃ avītikkamalakkhaṇā, amaddanalakkhaṇāti vuttaṃ hoti. But as regards characteristic, etc., these three have the characteristic of non- transgression in the respective fields of bodily conduct, etc.; they have the characteristic of not treading there, is what is said.
Kāyaduccaritādivatthuto saṅkocanarasā, akiriyapaccupaṭṭhānā, saddhāhirottappaappicchatādiguṇapadaṭṭhānā, pāpakiriyato cittassa vimukhabhāvabhūtāti daṭṭhabbā. Their function is to draw back from the fields of bodily misconduct, and so on. They are manifested as the not doing of these things. Their proximate causes are the special qualities of faith, conscience, shame, fewness of wishes, and so on. They should be regarded as the mind’s averseness from evil-doing.
476.Iti imeva chattiṃsa saṅkhārā paṭhamena kāmāvacarakusalaviññāṇena sampayogaṃ gacchantīti veditabbā. 156. So these are the thirty-six formations that should be understood to come into association with the first profitable consciousness of the sense sphere (1).
Yathā ca paṭhamena, evaṃ dutiyenāpi. And as with the first, so with the second (2),
Sasaṅkhārabhāvamattameva hettha viseso. the only difference here being promptedness.
Tatiyena pana ṭhapetvā amohaṃ avasesā veditabbā. (3)–(4) Those associated with the third (3) should be understood as all the foregoing except non-delusion (xv).
Tathā catutthena. Likewise with the fourth (4),
Sasaṅkhārabhāvamattameva hettha viseso. the only difference here being promptedness.
Paṭhame vuttesu pana ṭhapetvā pītiṃ avasesā pañcamena sampayogaṃ gacchanti. (5)–(6) All those stated in the first instance, except happiness (v), come into association with the fifth (5).
Yathā ca pañcamena, evaṃ chaṭṭhenāpi. Likewise with the sixth (6),
Sasaṅkhārabhāvamattameva hettha viseso. the only difference here being promptedness.
Sattamena ca pana ṭhapetvā amohaṃ avasesā veditabbā. (7)–(8) [Those associated] with the seventh (7) should be understood as [the last] except non-delusion (xv).
Tathā aṭṭhamena. Likewise with the eighth (8),
Sasaṅkhārabhāvamattameva hettha viseso. the only difference here being promptedness.
Paṭhame vuttesu ṭhapetvā viratittayaṃ sesā rūpāvacarakusalesu paṭhamena sampayogaṃ gacchanti. 157. (9)–(13) All those stated in the first instance, except the three abstinences (xxxiv-xxxvi), come into association with the first of the fine-material profitable [kinds of consciousness] (9).
Dutiyena tato vitakkavajjā. With the second (10) applied thought (iii) is also lacking.
Tatiyena tato vicāravajjā. With the third (11) sustained thought (iv) is also lacking.
Catutthena tato pītivajjā. With the fourth (12) happiness (v) is also lacking.
Pañcamena tato aniyatesu karuṇāmuditāvajjā. With the fifth (13) compassion (xxxii) and gladness (xxxiii), among the inconstant, are also lacking.
Teyeva catūsu āruppakusalesu. (14)–(17) In the case of the four kinds of immaterial [profitable consciousness] these are the same as the last-mentioned,
Arūpāvacarabhāvoyeva hi ettha viseso. for it is only the immaterialness that is the difference here.
Lokuttaresu paṭhamajjhānike tāva maggaviññāṇe paṭhamarūpāvacaraviññāṇe vuttanayena, dutiyajjhānikādibhede dutiyarūpāvacaraviññāṇādīsu vuttanayeneva veditabbā. 158. (18)–(21) As regards the supramundane, firstly, in the case of the path consciousness having the first jhāna they should be understood to be as stated in the case of the first fine-material-sphere consciousness (9). The paths classed as belonging to the second jhāna, etc., should be understood to be as stated in the cases [respectively] of the second fine-material-sphere jhāna, and so on (10)– (13).
Karuṇāmuditānaṃ pana abhāvo, niyataviratitā, lokuttaratā cāti ayamettha viseso. But the difference here is absence of compassion (xxxii) and gladness (xxxiii),67 constancy of the abstinences (xxxiv-xxxvi), and supramundaneness. Comm. NT: 67.
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Evaṃ tāva kusalāyeva saṅkhārā veditabbā.
477.Akusalesu lobhamūle paṭhamākusalasampayuttā tāva niyatā sarūpena āgatā terasa, yevāpanakā cattāroti sattarasa. 159. II. (22) As regards the unprofitable, there are firstly seventeen associated with the first unprofitable consciousness rooted in greed (22), that is to say, thirteen constant given in the texts as such (see Dhs § 365) and four or-what- ever-states.
Tattha phasso, cetanā, vitakko, vicāro, pīti, vīriyaṃ, jīvitaṃ, samādhi, ahirikaṃ, anottappaṃ, lobho, moho, micchādiṭṭhīti ime sarūpena āgatā terasa (dha. sa. 365; dha. sa. aṭṭha. 365). Herein, the thirteen given as such are these: contact (i), volition (ii), applied thought (iii), sustained thought (iv), happiness (v), energy (vi), life (vii), concentration (viii), (xxxvii) consciencelessness, (xxxviii) shamelessness, (xxxix) greed, (xl) delusion, (xli) wrong view.
Chando, adhimokkho, uddhaccaṃ, manasikāroti ime yevāpanakā cattāro (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 365). The four or-whatever-states are these: zeal (xxviii), resolution (xxix), (xlii) agitation, attention (xxx).
478.Tattha na hiriyatīti ahiriko. 160. Herein, (xxxvii) it has no conscientious scruples, thus it is consciencelessness.
Ahirikassa bhāvo ahirikaṃ.
Na otappatīti anottappaṃ. (xxxviii) It is unashamed, thus it is shamelessness.
Tesu ahirikaṃ kāyaduccaritādīhi ajigucchanalakkhaṇaṃ, alajjālakkhaṇaṃ vā. Of these, consciencelessness has the characteristic of absence of disgust at bodily misconduct, etc., or it has the characteristic of immodesty.
Anottappaṃ teheva asārajjalakkhaṇaṃ, anuttāsalakkhaṇaṃ vā. Shamelessness has the characteristic of absence of dread on their account, or it has the characteristic of absence of anxiety about them.
Ayamettha saṅkhepo. This is in brief here.
Vitthāro pana hirottappānaṃ vuttapaṭipakkhavasena veditabbo. The detail, however, is the opposite of what was said above under conscience (xi) and shame (xii).
479.Lubbhanti tena, sayaṃ vā lubbhati, lubbhanamattameva vā tanti lobho. 161. (xxxix) By its means they are greedy, or it itself is greedy, or it is just the mere being greedy, thus is it greed.
Muyhanti tena, sayaṃ vā muyhati, muyhanamattameva vā tanti moho. (xl) By its means they are deluded, or it itself is deluded, or it is just the mere being deluded, thus it is delusion.
Tesu lobho ārammaṇaggahaṇalakkhaṇo makkaṭālepo viya, abhisaṅgaraso tattakapāle khittamaṃsapesi viya. 162.Of these, greed has the characteristic of grasping an object, like birdlime (lit. “monkey lime”). Its function is sticking, like meat put in a hot pan. Алчность обладает характеристикой схватывания опоры. Её функцией является прилипание как мясо к горячей сковороде.
Apariccāgapaccupaṭṭhāno telañjanarāgo viya. It is manifested as not giving up, like the dye of lamp-black. Она проявляется как не отпускание, как отметки, оставленные сажей.
Saṃyojaniyadhammesu assādadassanapadaṭṭhāno. Its proximate cause is seeing enjoyment in things that lead to bondage. Его производящей причиной является видеть усладу в том, что приводит к скованности.
Taṇhānadībhāvena vaḍḍhamāno sīghasotā nadī iva mahāsamuddaṃ apāyameva gahetvā gacchatīti daṭṭhabbo. Swelling with the current of craving, it should be regarded as taking [beings] with it to states of loss, as a swift-flowing river does to the great ocean. Разбухающая с потоком жажды, её следует считать несущей существ вместе с собой в дурные уделы как быстрая река течёт к гигантскому океану.
480.Moho cittassa andhabhāvalakkhaṇo, aññāṇalakkhaṇo vā, asampaṭivedharaso, ārammaṇasabhāvacchādanaraso vā, asammāpaṭipattipaccupaṭṭhāno, andhakārapaccupaṭṭhāno vā, ayonisomanasikārapadaṭṭhāno, sabbākusalānaṃ mūlanti daṭṭhabbo. 163. Delusion has the characteristic of blindness, or it has the characteristic of unknowing. Its function is non-penetration, or its function is to conceal the individual essence of an object. It is manifested as the absence of right theory (see Ch. XVII, §52), or it is manifested as darkness. Its proximate cause is unwise (unjustified) attention. It should be regarded as the root of all that is unprofitable. Заблуждение имеет характеристику слепоты или она имеет характеристику незнания. Его функцией является непостижение или его функцией является сокрытие истинной природы объекта. Оно проявляется как отсутствие надлежащего взгляда или оно проявляется как темнота. Его производящей причиной является неосновательное внимание. Его следует считать корнем всего неблаготворного.
481.Micchā passanti tāya, sayaṃ vā micchā passati, micchādassanamattaṃ vā esāti micchādiṭṭhi. 164. (xli) By its means they see wrongly, or it itself sees wrongly, or it is just the mere seeing wrongly, thus it is wrong view.
Sā ayoniso abhinivesalakkhaṇā, parāmāsarasā, micchābhinivesapaccupaṭṭhānā, ariyānaṃ adassanakāmatādipadaṭṭhānā, paramaṃ vajjanti daṭṭhabbā. Its characteristic [469] is unwise (unjustified) interpreting. Its function is to presume. It is manifested as wrong interpreting. Its proximate cause is unwillingness to see Noble Ones, and so on. It should be regarded as the most reprehensible of all.
482.Uddhatabhāvo uddhaccaṃ. 165. (xlii) Agitation is agitatedness.
Taṃ avūpasamalakkhaṇaṃ vātābhighātacalajalaṃ viya, anavaṭṭhānarasaṃ vātābhighātacaladhajapaṭākā viya, bhantattapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ pāsāṇābhighātasamuddhatabhasmaṃ viya, cetaso avūpasame ayonisomanasikārapadaṭṭhānaṃ, cittavikkhepoti daṭṭhabbaṃ. It has the characteristic of disquiet, like water whipped by the wind. Its function is unsteadiness, like a flag or banner whipped by the wind. It is manifested as turmoil, like ashes flung up by pelting with stones. Its proximate cause is unwise attention to mental disquiet. It should be regarded as distraction of consciousness.
Sesā kusale vuttanayeneva veditabbā. 166.The remaining formations here should be understood as already stated under the profitable.
Akusalabhāvoyeva hi akusalabhāvena ca lāmakattaṃ etesaṃ tehi viseso. For it is only the unprofitableness that differentiates them as bad.
483.Iti ime sattarasa saṅkhārā paṭhamena akusalaviññāṇena sampayogaṃ gacchantīti veditabbā. So these are the seventeen formations that should be understood to come into association with the first unprofitable consciousness (22).
Yathā ca paṭhamena, evaṃ dutiyenāpi. (23) And as with the first, so with the second (23),
Sasaṅkhāratā panettha thinamiddhassa ca aniyatatā viseso. but here the difference is promptedness and inconstant [occurrence] of (xliii) stiffening and torpor.
Tattha thinanatā thinaṃ. 167. Herein, (xliii) stiffening (thīnanatā) is stiffness (thīna);
Middhanatā middhaṃ. making torpid (middhanatā) is torpor (middha).
Anussāhasaṃhananatā asattivighāto cāti attho. The meaning is, paralysis due to lack of urgency, and loss of vigour.
Thinañca middhañca thinamiddhaṃ. The compound thīnamiddha (stiffness-and-torpor) should be resolved into thīnañ ca middhañ ca.
Tattha thinaṃ anussāhalakkhaṇaṃ, vīriyavinodanarasaṃ, saṃsīdanapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Herein, stiffness has the characteristic of lack of driving power. Its function is to remove energy. It is manifested as subsiding.
Middhaṃ akammaññatālakkhaṇaṃ, onahanarasaṃ, līnatāpaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, pacalāyikāniddāpaccupaṭṭhānaṃ vā. Torpor has the characteristic of unwieldiness. Its function is to smother. It is manifested as laziness, or it is manifested as nodding and sleep.68 Comm. NT: 68.
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Ubhayampi arativijambhikādīsu ayonisomanasikārapadaṭṭhānaṃ. The proximate cause of both is unwise attention to boredom, sloth, and so on.
Tatiyena paṭhame vuttesu ṭhapetvā micchādiṭṭhiṃ avasesā veditabbā. 168. (24) With the third [unprofitable consciousness] (24) there should be understood to be associated those given for the first (22), excepting wrong view (xli).
Māno panettha aniyato hoti. But here the difference is that there is inconstant [occurrence] of (xliv) pride (conceit).
Ayaṃ viseso, so uṇṇatilakkhaṇo, sampaggaharaso, ketukamyatāpaccupaṭṭhāno, diṭṭhivippayuttalobhapadaṭṭhāno, ummādo viya daṭṭhabbo. That [pride] has the characteristic of haughtiness. Its function is arrogance. It is manifested as vain gloriousness. Its proximate cause is greed dissociated from views. It should be regarded as like madness.
Catutthena dutiye vuttesu ṭhapetvā micchādiṭṭhiṃ avasesā veditabbā. (25) With the fourth (25) should be understood to be associated those given for the second (23), excepting wrong view (xli).
Etthāpi ca māno aniyatesu hotiyeva. And here pride (xliv) is among the inconstant too.
Paṭhame vuttesu pana ṭhapetvā pītiṃ avasesā pañcamena sampayogaṃ gacchanti. 169. (26) Those given for the first (22), excepting happiness (v), come into association with the fifth (26).
Yathā ca pañcamena, evaṃ chaṭṭhenāpi. (27) And as with the fifth (26), so with the sixth too (27);
Sasaṅkhāratā panettha thinamiddhassa ca aniyatabhāvo viseso. but the difference here is promptedness and the inconstant [occurrence] of stiffness-and-torpor (xliii).
Sattamena pañcame vuttesu ṭhapetvā diṭṭhiṃ avasesā veditabbā. (28) With the seventh (28) should be understood to be associated those given for the fifth (26), except views (xli);
Māno panettha aniyato hoti. but pride (xliv) is inconstant here.
Aṭṭhamena chaṭṭhe vuttesu ṭhapetvā diṭṭhiṃ avasesā veditabbā. (29) With the eighth (29) should be understood to be associated those given for the sixth (27), except views (xli);
Etthāpi ca māno aniyatesu hotiyevāti. and here too pride (xliv) is among the inconstant.
484.Dosamūlesu pana dvīsu paṭhamasampayuttā tāva niyatā sarūpena āgatā ekādasa, yevāpanakā cattāro, aniyatā tayoti aṭṭhārasa. 170. (30)–(31) As regards the two [kinds of unprofitable consciousness] rooted in hate, [470] there are, firstly, eighteen associated with the first (30), that is, eleven constant given in the texts as such (see Dhs § 413), four or-whatever- states, and three inconstant.
Tattha phasso, cetanā, vitakko, vicāro, vīriyaṃ, jīvitaṃ, samādhi, ahirikaṃ, anoppattaṃ, doso, mohoti ime sarūpena āgatā ekādasa (dha. sa. 413; dha. sa. aṭṭha. 413). Herein the eleven given as such are these: contact (i), volition (ii), applied thought (iii), sustained thought (iv), energy (vi), life (vii), concentration (viii), consciencelessness (xxxvii), shamelessness (xxxviii), (xiv) hate, delusion (xl).
Chando, adhimokkho, uddhaccaṃ, manasikāroti ime yevāpanakā cattāro (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 413). The four or-whatever-states are these: zeal (xxviii), resolution (xxix), agitation (xlii), attention (xxx).
Issā, macchariyaṃ, kukkuccanti ime aniyatā tayo (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 413). The three inconstant are these: (xlvi) envy, (xlvii) avarice, (xlviii) worry.
485.Tattha dussanti tena, sayaṃ vā dussati, dussanamattameva vā tanti doso. 171. Herein, (xlv) by its means they hate, or it itself hates, or it is just mere hating, thus it is hate (dosa).
So caṇḍikkalakkhaṇo pahaṭāsīviso viya, visappanaraso visanipāto viya, attano nissayadahanaraso vā dāvaggi viya. It has the characteristic of savageness, like a provoked snake. Its function is to spread, like a drop of poison, or its function is to burn up its own support, like a forest fire. Отвращение имеет характеристику жестокости как взбешённая змея. Его функцией является распространяться как капля яда, или его функцией является сжигать свою основу как лесной пожар.
Dūsanapaccupaṭṭhāno laddhokāso viya sapatto, āghātavatthupadaṭṭhāno, visasaṃsaṭṭhapūtimuttaṃ viya daṭṭhabbo. It is manifested as persecuting (dūsana), like an enemy who has got his chance. Its proximate cause is the grounds for annoyance (see A V 150). It should be regarded as like stale urine mixed with poison. Оно проявляется как преследование, подобно врагу, которому удалось добиться своего. Его производящей причиной являются основы раздражения. Его следует считать протухшей мочой, смешанной с ядом.
486.Issāyanā issā. 172. (xlvi) Envying is envy.
Sā parasampattīnaṃ usūyanalakkhaṇā. It has the characteristic of being jealous of other’s success.
Tattheva anabhiratirasā, tato vimukhabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, parasampattipadaṭṭhānā, saṃyojananti daṭṭhabbā. Its function is to be dissatisfied with that. It is manifested as averseness from that. Its proximate cause is another’s success. It should be regarded as a fetter.
487.Maccharabhāvo macchariyaṃ. 173. (xlvii) Avariciousness is avarice.
Taṃ laddhānaṃ vā labhitabbānaṃ vā attano sampattīnaṃ nigūhanalakkhaṇaṃ, tāsaṃyeva parehi sādhāraṇabhāvaakkhamanarasaṃ, saṅkocanapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, kaṭukañcukatāpaccupaṭṭhānaṃ vā, attasampattipadaṭṭhānaṃ, cetaso virūpabhāvoti daṭṭhabbaṃ. Its characteristic is the hiding of one’s own success that has been or can be obtained. Its function is not to bear sharing these with others. It is manifested as shrinking, or it is manifested as meanness. Its proximate cause is one’s own success. It should be regarded as a mental disfigurement.
488.Kucchitaṃ kataṃ kukataṃ. 174.(xlviii) The vile (kucchita) that is done (kata) is villainy (kukata).69 Comm NT: 69. Kukata is not in PED. It is impossible to render into English this “portmanteau” etymology, e.g. kucchita-kata—kukata, kukutatā … kukkucc...
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Tassa bhāvo kukkuccaṃ. The state of that is worry (kukkucca).
Taṃ pacchānutāpalakkhaṇaṃ, katākatānusocanarasaṃ, vippaṭisārapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, katākatapadaṭṭhānaṃ, dāsabyamiva daṭṭhabbaṃ. It has subsequent regret as its characteristic. Its function is to sorrow about what has and what has not been done. It is manifested as remorse. Its proximate cause is what has and what has not been done. It should be regarded as slavery.
Sesā vuttappakārāyevāti. 175. The rest are of the kind already described.
Iti ime aṭṭhārasa saṅkhārā paṭhamena dosamūlena sampayogaṃ gacchantīti veditabbā. So these eighteen formations should be understood to come into association with the first [unprofitable consciousness] rooted in hate (30).
Yathā ca paṭhamena, evaṃ dutiyenāpi. (31) And as with the first (30), so with the second (31),
Sasaṅkhāratā pana aniyatesu ca thinamiddhasambhavova viseso. the only difference, however, being promptedness and the presence of stiffness and torpor (xliii) among the inconstant.
489.Mohamūlesu dvīsu vicikicchāsampayuttena tāva phasso, cetanā, vitakko, vicāro, vīriyaṃ, jīvitaṃ, cittaṭṭhiti, ahirikaṃ, anottappaṃ, moho, vicikicchāti sarūpena āgatā ekādasa (dha. sa. 422; dha. sa. aṭṭha. 422), uddhaccaṃ, manasikāroti yevāpanakā dve cāti terasa. 176. (32)–(33) As regards the two rooted in delusion, firstly: [associated] with [the consciousness that is] associated with uncertainty (32) [471] are the eleven given in the texts as such thus: contact (i), volition (ii), applied thought (iii), sustained thought (iv), energy (vi), life (vii), (xlix) steadiness of consciousness, consciencelessness (xxxvii), shamelessness (xxxviii), delusion (xl), (l) uncertainty. The or-whatever-states are these two: agitation (xlii), attention (xxx). And these together total thirteen.
490.Tattha cittaṭṭhitīti pavattiṭṭhitimatto dubbalo samādhi. 177. Herein, (xlix) steadiness of consciousness is weak concentration (viii) consisting in mere steadiness in occurrence.70 Comm. NT: 70.
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Vigatā cikicchāti vicikicchā. (1) It is without wish to cure (vigatā cikicchā), thus it is uncertainty (vicikicchā).
Sā saṃsayalakkhaṇā, kampanarasā, anicchayapaccupaṭṭhānā, anekaṃsagāhapaccupaṭṭhānā vā, vicikicchāyaṃ ayonisomanasikārapadaṭṭhānā, paṭipattiantarāyakarāti daṭṭhabbā. It has the characteristic of doubt. Its function is to waver. It is manifested as indecisiveness, or it is manifested as taking various sides. Its proximate cause is unwise attention. It should be regarded as obstructive of theory (see XVII.52).
Sesā vuttappakārāyeva. The rest are as already described.
Uddhaccasampayuttena vicikicchāsampayutte vuttesu ṭhapetvā vicikicchaṃ sesā dvādasa. 178. (33) [The consciousness] associated with agitation (33) has the same [formations as the consciousness] associated with uncertainty (32), except for uncertainty (1).
Vicikicchāya abhāvena panettha adhimokkho uppajjati. But with the absence of uncertainty resolution (xxix) arises here.
Tena saddhiṃ teraseva, adhimokkhasabbhāvato ca balavataro samādhi hoti. So with that they are likewise thirteen, and concentration (viii) is stronger because of the presence of resolution.
Yañcettha uddhaccaṃ, taṃ sarūpeneva āgataṃ. Also agitation is given in the texts as such,
Adhimokkhamanasikārā yevāpanakavasenāti evaṃ akusalasaṅkhārā veditabbā. while resolution (xxix) and attention (xxx) are among the or-whatever-states. Thus should the unprofitable formations be understood.
491.Abyākatesu vipākābyākatā tāva ahetukasahetukabhedato duvidhā. 179.III. As regards the indeterminate, firstly, the resultant indeterminate (34)–(69) are twofold, classed as those without root-cause and those with root-cause.
Tesu ahetukavipākaviññāṇasampayuttā ahetukā. Those associated with resultant consciousness without root-cause (34)–(41), (50)–(56) are those without root-cause.
Tattha kusalākusalavipākacakkhuviññāṇasampayuttā tāva phasso, cetanā, jīvitaṃ, cittaṭṭhitīti sarūpena āgatā cattāro (dha. sa. 431; dha. sa. aṭṭha. 431), yevāpanako manasikāroyevāti pañca. Herein, firstly, those associated with the profitable resultant (34) and unprofitable resultant (50) eye-consciousness are the four given in the texts as such, namely: contact (i), volition (ii), life (vii), steadiness of consciousness (xlix), which amount to five with attention (xxx) as the only or-whatever-state.
Sotaghānajivhākāyaviññāṇasampayuttāpi eteyeva. These same kinds are associated with ear-, nose-, tongue-, and body- consciousness (35)–(38), (51)–(54).
Ubhayavipākamanodhātuyā ete ceva vitakkavicārādhimokkhā cāti aṭṭha, tathā tividhāyapi ahetukamanoviññāṇadhātuyā. 180. Those associated with both kinds of resultant mind-element (39), (55) come to eight by adding applied thought (iii), sustained thought (iv) and resolution (xxix). Likewise those associated with the threefold mind- consciousness-element with root-cause (40), (41), (56).
Yā panettha somanassasahagatā, tāya saddhiṃ pīti adhikā hotīti veditabbā. But here (40) that accompanied by joy should be understood to have happiness (v) also in addition to that.
Sahetukavipākaviññāṇasampayuttā pana sahetukā. 181. The [formations] associated with resultant consciousness with root-cause (42)–(49) are those with root-cause.
Tesu aṭṭhakāmāvacaravipākasampayuttā tāva aṭṭhahi kāmāvacarakusalehi sampayuttasaṅkhārasadisāyeva. Of these, firstly, those associated with the sense-sphere resultant [consciousness] with root-cause are similar to the formations associated with the eight sense-sphere [consciousnesses] (1)–(8).
Yā pana tā aniyatesu karuṇāmuditā, tā sattārammaṇattā vipākesu na santi. But of the inconstant ones, compassion (xxxii) and gladness (xxxiii) are not among the resultant because they have living beings as their object.
Ekantaparittārammaṇā hi kāmāvacaravipākā. For the resultant ones of the sense-sphere have only limited objects.
Na kevalañca karuṇāmuditā, viratiyopi vipākesu na santi. And not only compassion and gladness but also the three abstinences (xxxiv)–(xxxvi) are not among the resultant; [472]
"Pañca sikkhāpadā kusalāyevā"ti hi vuttaṃ. for it is said that “the five training precepts are profitable only” (Vibh 291).
Rūpāvacarārūpāvacaralokuttaravipākaviññāṇasampayuttā pana tesaṃ kusalaviññāṇasampayuttasaṅkhārehi sadisā eva. 182. (57)–(69) Those associated with the resultant consciousness of the fine- material sphere (57)–(61), the immaterial sphere (62)–(65), and the supramundane (66)–(69) are similar to the formations associated with the profitable consciousnesses of those kinds (9)–(21) too.
492.Kiriyābyākatāpi ahetukasahetukabhedato duvidhā. 183. (70)–(89) Functional indeterminate [formations] are also twofold classed as those without root-cause (70)–(72) and those with root-cause (73)–(80).
Tesu ahetukakiriyaviññāṇasampayuttā ahetukā. Those without root-cause are associated with functional consciousness without root- cause;
Te ca kusalavipākamanodhātuahetukamanoviññāṇadhātudvayayuttehi samānā. and they are the same as those associated [respectively] with profitable resultant mind-element (39) and the pair of mind-consciousness-elements without root-cause (40)–(41).
Manoviññāṇadhātudvaye pana vīriyaṃ adhikaṃ. But in the case of the two mind-consciousness- elements (71)–(72), energy (vi) is additional,
Vīriyasabbhāvato balappatto samādhi hoti. and because of the presence of energy, concentration (viii) is strong.
Ayamettha viseso. This is the difference here.
Sahetukakiriyaviññāṇasampayuttā pana sahetukā. 184. Those associated with functional consciousness with root-cause (73)– (80) are those with root-cause.
Tesu aṭṭhakāmāvacarakiriyaviññāṇasampayuttā tāva ṭhapetvā viratiyo aṭṭhahi kāmāvacarakusalehi sampayuttasaṅkhārasadisā. Of these, firstly, those associated with the eight sense-sphere functional consciousnesses (73)–(80) are similar to the formations associated with the eight sense-sphere profitable (1)–(8), except for the abstinences (xxxiv)–(xxxvi).
Rūpāvacarārūpāvacarakiriyasampayuttā pana sabbākārenapi tesaṃ kusalaviññāṇasampayuttasadisāyevāti evaṃ abyākatāpi saṅkhārā veditabbāti. Those associated with the functional [consciousnesses] of the fine-material sphere (81)–(85) and the immaterial sphere (86)–(89) are in all aspects similar to those associated with profitable consciousness (9)–(17). This is how formations should be understood as indeterminate.
Idaṃ saṅkhārakkhandhe vitthārakathāmukhaṃ. This is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with the formations aggregate.
Idaṃ tāva abhidhamme padabhājanīyanayena khandhesu vitthārakathāmukhaṃ. 185. The foregoing section, firstly, is that of the detailed explanation of the aggregates according to the Abhidhamma-Bhājaniya [of the Vibhaṅga].
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