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Подробное объяснение способностей чувственного восприятия Палийский оригинал

пали Nyanamoli thera - english Комментарии
525.Dhātūnaṃ anantaraṃ uddiṭṭhāni pana indriyānīti bāvīsatindriyāni – cakkhundriyaṃ sotindriyaṃ ghānindriyaṃ jivhindriyaṃ kāyindriyaṃ manindriyaṃ itthindriyaṃ purisindriyaṃ jīvitindriyaṃ sukhindriyaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ somanassindriyaṃ domanassindriyaṃ upekkhindriyaṃ saddhindriyaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ satindriyaṃ samādhindriyaṃ paññindriyaṃ anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ aññindriyaṃ aññātāvindriyanti. 1.The “faculties” listed next to the elements (XIV.32) are the twenty-two faculties, namely, eye faculty, ear faculty, nose faculty, tongue faculty, body faculty, mind faculty, femininity faculty, masculinity faculty, life faculty, [bodily] pleasure faculty, [bodily] pain faculty, [mental] joy faculty, [mental] grief faculty, equanimity faculty, faith faculty, energy faculty, mindfulness faculty, concentration faculty, understanding faculty, “I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown” faculty, final- knowledge faculty, final-knower faculty.
Tattha – 2. Herein:
Atthato lakkhaṇādīhi, kamato ca vijāniyā; (l) As to meaning, (2) character and so on, (3) Order, should be known.
Bhedābhedā tathā kiccā, bhūmito ca vinicchayaṃ. (4) divided and undivided, (5) Likewise function, and (6) also plane— The exposition.
Tattha cakkhādīnaṃ tāva cakkhatīti cakkhūtiādinā nayena attho pakāsito. 3.1. Herein, firstly, the meaning of eye, etc., is explained in the way beginning: “It relishes (cakkhati), thus it is an eye (cakkhu)” (XV.3).
Pacchimesu pana tīsu paṭhamaṃ pubbabhāge anaññātaṃ amataṃ padaṃ catusaccadhammaṃ vā jānissāmīti evaṃ paṭipannassa uppajjanato indriyaṭṭhasambhavato ca anaññātaññassāmītindriyanti vuttaṃ. But as regards the last three, the first is called the “I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown” faculty because it arises in the initial stage [of the stream-entry path moment] in one who has entered on the way thus “I shall come to know the deathless state, or the Dhamma of the Four (Noble) Truths, not known,”1 and because it carries the meaning of faculty (rulership). Comm. NT: 1.
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Dutiyaṃ ājānanato indriyaṭṭhasambhavato ca aññindriyaṃ. The second of them is called the final-knowledge faculty because of knowing finally, and because it carries the meaning of faculty.
Tatiyaṃ aññātāvino catūsu saccesu niṭṭhitaññāṇakiccassa khīṇāsavassa uppajjanato indriyaṭṭhasambhavato ca aññātāvindriyaṃ. The third is called the final-knower faculty because it arises in one who has destroyed cankers, who possesses final knowledge, and whose task of getting to know the four truths is finished, and because it carries the meaning of faculty.
Ko pana nesaṃ indriyaṭṭho nāmāti? 4.But what is this meaning of faculty (rulership—indriyattha) that they have?
Indaliṅgaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. (a) The meaning of being the mark of a ruler (inda) is the meaning of faculty (rulership).
Indadesitaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. (b) The meaning of being taught by a ruler is the meaning of faculty,
Indadiṭṭhaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. (c) The meaning of being seen by a ruler is the meaning of faculty,
Indasiṭṭhaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. (d) The meaning of having been prepared by a ruler is the meaning of faculty,
Indajuṭṭhaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. (e) The meaning of having been fostered by a ruler is the meaning of faculty.2 Comm. NT: 2. The words siṭṭha (prepared—sajjita, uppādita Vism-mhṭ 520), and juṭṭha (fostered—sevita, Vism-mhṭ 520) are not in PED. The Pali is: indal...
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So sabbopi idha yathāyogaṃ yujjati. And all that applies here in one instance or another.
Bhagavā hi sammāsambuddho paramissariyabhāvato indo. 5. The Blessed One, Fully Enlightened, is a ruler (inda) because of supreme lordship.
Kusalākusalañca kammaṃ, kammesu kassaci issariyābhāvato. And so is kamma, profitable and unprofitable; for no one has lordship over the kinds of kamma.
Tenevettha kammasañjanitāni tāva indriyāni kusalākusalakammaṃ ulliṅgenti. So here, the faculties (indriya), which are created by kamma, are the mark of profitable and unprofitable kamma.
Tena ca siṭṭhānīti indaliṅgaṭṭhena indasiṭṭhaṭṭhena ca indriyāni. And since they are prepared by it, they are faculties in the sense of (a) being the mark of a ruler and (d) in the sense of having been prepared by a ruler.
Sabbāneva panetāni bhagavatā yathābhūtato pakāsitāni abhisambuddhāni cāti indadesitaṭṭhena indadiṭṭhaṭṭhena ca indriyāni. But since they have also been correctly made evident and disclosed by the Blessed One, they are all faculties (b) in the sense of being taught by a ruler and (c) in the sense of being seen by a ruler.
Teneva bhagavatā munindena kānici gocarāsevanāya kānici bhāvanāsevanāya sevitānīti indajuṭṭhaṭṭhenāpi indriyāni. And since some of them were cultivated by the Blessed One, Ruler of Sages, in his cultivation of domain and some in his cultivation of development, they are faculties (e) in the sense of being fostered by a ruler.
Apica ādhipaccasaṅkhātena issariyaṭṭhenāpi etāni indriyāni. 6. Furthermore, they are faculties (rulership) in the sense of lordship called predominance.
Cakkhuviññāṇādippavattiyañhi cakkhādīnaṃ siddhaṃ ādhipaccaṃ, tasmiṃ tikkhe tikkhattā mande ca mandattāti. For predominance of the eye, etc., is implied in the occurrence of eye-consciousness, etc., because of the (consciousness’) keenness when that [faculty] is keen and slowness when it is slow.
Ayaṃ tāvettha atthato vinicchayo. This, firstly, is the exposition as to meaning.
Lakkhaṇādīhīti lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānehipi cakkhādīnaṃ vinicchayaṃ vijāniyāti attho. 7.2. As to character and so on: the meaning is that the exposition of the eye and so on should be known according to characteristic, function, manifestation, proximate cause, and so on.
Tāni ca nesaṃ lakkhaṇādīni khandhaniddese vuttāneva. But these characteristics, etc., of theirs are given above in the Description of the Aggregates (XIV.37ff.).
Paññindriyādīni hi cattāri atthato amohoyeva. For the four beginning with the understanding faculty are simply non-delusion as to meaning.
Sesāni tattha sarūpeneva āgatāni. The rest are each given there as such.
526.Kamatoti ayampi desanākkamova. 8. 3. As to order: this too is only order of teaching (see XIV.211).
Tattha ajjhattadhamme pariññāya ariyabhūmipaṭilābho hotīti attabhāvapariyāpannāni cakkhundriyādīni paṭhamaṃ desitāni. Herein, the noble plane [which is the stage of stream-entry, etc.] is attained through the full- understanding of internal states, and so the eye faculty and the rest included in the selfhood are taught first.
So pana attabhāvo yaṃ dhammaṃ upādāya itthīti vā purisoti vā saṅkhaṃ gacchati, ayaṃ soti nidassanatthaṃ tato itthindriyaṃ purisindriyañca. Then the femininity faculty and masculinity faculty, to show on what account that selfhood is called “woman” or “man.”
So duvidhopi jīvitindriyapaṭibaddhavuttīti ñāpanatthaṃ tato jīvitindriyaṃ. Next, the life faculty, to make it known that although that selfhood is twofold, still its existence is bound up with the life faculty.
Yāva tassa pavatti, tāva etesaṃ vedayitānaṃ anivatti. that there is no remission of these feelings as long as that [selfhood] continues
Yañca kiñci vedayitaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ dukkhanti ñāpanatthaṃ tato sukhindriyādīni. Next the [bodily-] pleasure faculty, etc., to make it known (above) , and that all feeling is [ultimately] suffering.
Taṃnirodhatthaṃ pana ete dhammā bhāvetabbāti paṭipattidassanatthaṃ tato saddhādīni. Next, the faith faculty, etc., to show the way, since these things are to be developed in order to make that [suffering] cease.
Imāya paṭipattiyā esa dhammo paṭhamaṃ attani pātubhavatīti paṭipattiyā amoghabhāvadassanatthaṃ tato anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ. Next, the “I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown” faculty to show that the way is not sterile, since it is through this way that this state is first manifested in oneself.
Tasseva phalattā tato anantaraṃ bhāvetabbato ca tato aññindriyaṃ. Next, the final-knowledge faculty, because it is the fruit of the last-mentioned faculty and so must be developed after it.
Tato paraṃ bhāvanāya imassa adhigamo, adhigate ca pana imasmiṃ natthi kiñci uttari karaṇīyanti ñāpanatthaṃ ante paramassāsabhūtaṃ aññātāvindriyaṃ desitanti ayamettha kamo. Next, the final-knower faculty, the supreme reward, is taught last to make it known that it is attained by development, and that when it is attained there is nothing more to be done. This is the order here.
Bhedābhedāti jīvitindriyasseva cettha bhedo. 9.4. As to divided and undivided: here there is only division of the life faculty;
Tañhi rūpajīvitindriyaṃ arūpajīvitindriyanti duvidhaṃ hoti. for that is twofold as the material-life faculty and the immaterial-life faculty.
Sesānaṃ abhedoti evamettha bhedābhedato vinicchayaṃ vijāniyā. There is no division of the others. This is how the exposition should be known here as to divided and undivided.
527.Kiccāti kiṃ indriyānaṃ kiccanti ce. 10. 5. As to function: what is the faculties’ function?
Cakkhundriyassa tāva "cakkhāyatanaṃ cakkhuviññāṇadhātuyā taṃsampayuttakānañca dhammānaṃ indriyapaccayena paccayo"ti vacanato yaṃ taṃ indriyapaccayabhāvena sādhetabbaṃ attano tikkhamandādibhāvena cakkhuviññāṇādidhammānaṃ tikkhamandādisaṅkhātaṃ attākārānuvattāpanaṃ, idaṃ kiccaṃ. Firstly, because of the words “The eye base is a condition, as faculty condition, for the eye-consciousness element and for the states associated therewith” (Paṭṭh 1.5) the eye faculty’s function is to cause by its own keenness, slowness, etc., the occurrence of eye- consciousness and associated states, etc., in a mode parallel to its own,3 which is called their keenness, slowness, etc., this function being accomplishable through the state of faculty condition. Comm. NT: 3. Anuvattāpana—“causing occurrence parallel to”: not in PED; not in CPD.
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Evaṃ sotaghānajivhākāyānaṃ. So too in the case of the ear, nose, tongue, and body.
Manindriyassa pana sahajātadhammānaṃ attano vasavattāpanaṃ. But the function of the mind faculty is to make conascent states subject to its own mastery.
Jīvitindriyassa sahajātadhammānupālanaṃ. That of the life faculty is to maintain conascent states.
Itthindriyapurisindriyānaṃ itthipurisaliṅganimittakuttākappākārānuvidhānaṃ. That of the femininity faculty and the masculinity faculty is to allot the modes of the mark, sign, work and ways of women and men.
Sukhadukkhasomanassadomanassindriyānaṃ sahajātadhamme abhibhavitvā yathāsakaṃ oḷārikākārānupāpanaṃ. That of the faculties of pleasure, pain, joy, and grief is to govern conascent states and impart their own particular mode of grossness to those states.
Upekkhindriyassa santapaṇītamajjhattākārānupāpanaṃ. That of the equanimity faculty is to impart to them the mode of quiet, superiority and neutrality.
Saddhādīnaṃ paṭipakkhābhibhavanaṃ sampayuttadhammānañca pasannākārādibhāvasampāpanaṃ. That of the faculties of faith, etc., is to overcome opposition and to impart to associated states the mode of confidence and so on.
Anaññātaññassāmītindriyassa saṃyojanattayappahānañceva sampayuttānañca tappahānābhimukhabhāvakaraṇaṃ. That of the “I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown” faculty is both to abandon three fetters and to confront associated states with the abandonment of them.
Aññindriyassa kāmarāgabyāpādāditanukaraṇappahānañceva sahajātānañca attano vasānuvattāpanaṃ. That of the final-knowledge faculty is both to attenuate and abandon respectively lust, ill will, etc., and to subject conascent states to its own mastery.
Aññātāvindriyassa sabbakiccesu ussukkappahānañceva amatābhimukhabhāvapaccayatā ca sampayuttānanti evamettha kiccato vinicchayaṃ vijāniyā. That of the final-knower faculty is both to abandon endeavour in all functions and to condition associated states by confronting them with the Deathless. This is how the exposition should be known here as to function.
528.Bhūmitoti cakkhusotaghānajivhākāyaitthipurisasukhadukkhadomanassindriyāni cettha kāmāvacarāneva. 11. 6. As to plane: the faculties of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, femininity, masculinity, pleasure, pain, and grief are of the sense sphere only.
Manindriyajīvitindriyaupekkhindriyāni saddhāvīriyasatisamādhipaññindriyāni ca catubhūmipariyāpannāni. The mind faculty, life faculty, and equanimity faculty, and the faculties of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and understanding are included in the four planes.
Somanassindriyaṃ kāmāvacararūpāvacaralokuttaravasena bhūmittayapariyāpannaṃ. The joy faculty is included in three planes, namely, sense sphere, fine-material sphere, and supramundane.
Avasāne tīṇi lokuttarānevāti evamettha bhūmitopi vinicchayaṃ vijāneyya. The last three are supramundane only. This is how the exposition should be known here as to plane.
Evaṃ hi vijānanto –
Saṃvegabahulo bhikkhu, ṭhito indriyasaṃvare; The monk who knows the urgent need To keep the faculties restrained
Indriyāni pariññāya, dukkhassantaṃ karissatīti. By fully understanding them Will make an end of suffering.
Idaṃ indriyānaṃ vitthārakathāmukhaṃ. 12.This is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with the faculties.
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