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402.Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇakathāyaṃ pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāyāti (dī. ni. 1.244) pubbenivāsānussatimhi yaṃ ñāṇaṃ, tadatthāya. 13.As to the explanation of knowledge of recollection of past lives, [the text is as follows:] He directs, he inclines, his mind to the knowledge of recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is to say, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many eons of world contraction, many eons of world expansion: many eons of world contraction and expansion: “There I was so named, of such a race, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life span; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a race, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life span; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.” Thus with its aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives” (D I 81). [Herein,] to the knowledge of recollection of past lives [means] for knowledge concerning recollection of past lives.
Pubbenivāsoti pubbe atītajātīsu nivutthakkhandhā. Past lives is aggregates lived in the past in former births.
Nivutthāti ajjhāvutthā anubhūtā attano santāne uppajjitvā niruddhā. “Lived” [in that case means] lived out, undergone, arisen and ceased in one’s own [subjective] continuity.
Nivutthadhammā vā. Or alternatively, [past lives] is mental objects lived [in the past in one’s former births];
Nivutthāti gocaranivāsena nivutthā attano viññāṇena viññātā paricchinnā, paraviññāṇaviññātāpi vā chinnavaṭumakānussaraṇādīsu, te buddhānaṃyeva labbhanti. and “lived” in that case means lived by living in one’s [objective] resort, which has been cognized and delimited by one’s own consciousness, or cognized by another’s consciousness, too. In the case of recollection of those [past Enlightened Ones] who have broken the cycle, and so on,7 these last are only accessible to Enlightened Ones. Comm. NT: 7. For the term chinna-vaṭumaka (“one who has broken the cycle of rebirths”) as an epithet of former Buddhas, see M III 118.
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Pubbenivāsānussatīti yāya satiyā pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, sā pubbenivāsānussati. Recollection of past lives: the mindfulness (memory) by means of which he recollects the past lives is the recollection of past lives.
Ñāṇanti tāya satiyā sampayuttañāṇaṃ. Knowledge is the knowledge associated with that mindfulness.
Evamimassa pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇassa atthāya pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya etassa ñāṇassa adhigamāya pattiyāti vuttaṃ hoti. [411] To the knowledge of recollection of past lives: for the purpose of the knowledge of the recollection of past lives in this way; for the attaining, for the reaching, of that knowledge, is what is meant.
Anekavihitanti anekavidhaṃ, anekehi vā pakārehi pavattitaṃ, saṃvaṇṇitanti attho. 14. Manifold: of many kinds: or that has occurred in many ways. Given in detail, is the meaning.8 Comm. NT: 8. Saṃvaṇṇita—“given in detail”; Vism-mhṭ glosses by vitthāritan ti attho. Not in this meaning in PED. See prologue verses to the four Nikāy...
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Pubbenivāsanti samanantarātītabhavaṃ ādiṃ katvā tattha tattha nivutthasantānaṃ. Past lives is the continuity lived here and there, taking the immediately previous existence as the beginning [and working backwards].
Anussaratīti khandhapaṭipāṭivasena cutipaṭisandhivasena vā anugantvā anugantvā sarati. He recollects: he recalls it, following it out by the succession of aggregates, or by death and rebirth-linking.
Imañhi pubbenivāsaṃ cha janā anussaranti – titthiyā, pakatisāvakā, mahāsāvakā, aggasāvakā, paccekabuddhā, buddhāti. 15.There are six kinds of people who recollect these past lives. They are: other sectarians, ordinary disciples, great disciples, chief disciples, Paccekabuddhas, and Buddhas.
Tattha titthiyā cattālīsaṃyeva kappe anussaranti, na tato paraṃ. 16. Herein, other sectarians recollect only as far back as forty eons, but not beyond that.
Kasmā, dubbalapaññattā. Why?
Tesañhi nāmarūpaparicchedavirahitattā dubbalā paññā hoti. Because their understanding is weak for lack of delimitation of mind and matter (see Ch. XVIII).
Pakatisāvakā kappasatampi kappasahassampi anussarantiyeva, balavapaññattā. Ordinary disciples recollect as far back as a hundred eons and as far back as a thousand eons because their understanding is strong.
Asītimahāsāvakā satasahassakappe anussaranti. The eighty great disciples recollect as far back as a hundred thousand eons.
Dve aggasāvakā ekaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ satasahassañca. The two chief disciples recollect as far back as an incalculable age and a hundred thousand eons.
Paccekabuddhā dve asaṅkhyeyyāni satasahassañca. Paccekabuddhas recollect as far back as two incalculable ages and a hundred thousand eons.
Ettako hi etesaṃ abhinīhāro. For such is the extent to which they can convey [their minds back respectively].
Buddhānaṃ pana paricchedo nāma natthi. But there is no limit in the case of Buddhas.
Titthiyā ca khandhapaṭipāṭimeva saranti, paṭipāṭiṃ muñcitvā cutipaṭisandhivasena sarituṃ na sakkonti. 17. Again, other sectarians only recollect the succession of aggregates; they are unable to recollect according [only] to death and rebirth-linking, letting go of the succession of aggregates.
Tesañhi andhānaṃ viya icchitapadesokkamanaṃ natthi. They are like the blind in that they are unable to descend upon any place they choose;
Yathā pana andhā yaṭṭhiṃ amuñcitvāva gacchanti, evaṃ te khandhānaṃ paṭipāṭiṃ amuñcitvāva saranti. they go as the blind do without letting go of their sticks. So they recollect without letting go of the succession of aggregates.
Pakatisāvakā khandhapaṭipāṭiyāpi anussaranti cutipaṭisandhivasenapi saṅkamanti. Ordinary disciples both recollect by means of the succession of aggregates and trace by means of death and rebirth-linking.
Tathā asītimahāsāvakā. Likewise, the eighty great disciples.
Dvinnaṃ pana aggasāvakānaṃ khandhapaṭipāṭikiccaṃ natthi. But the chief disciples have nothing to do with the succession of aggregates.
Ekassa attabhāvassa cutiṃ disvā paṭisandhiṃ passanti, puna aparassa cutiṃ disvā paṭisandhinti evaṃ cutipaṭisandhivaseneva saṅkamantā gacchanti. When they see the death of one person, they see the rebirth-linking, and again when they see the death of another, they see the rebirth-linking. So they go by tracing through death and rebirth-thinking.
Tathā paccekabuddhā. Likewise, Paccekabuddhas.
Buddhānaṃ pana neva khandhapaṭipāṭikiccaṃ, na cutipaṭisandhivasena saṅkamanakiccaṃ atthi. 18.Buddhas, however, have nothing to do either with succession of aggregates or with tracing through death and rebirth-linking;
Tesañhi anekāsu kappakoṭīsu heṭṭhā vā upari vā yaṃ yaṃ ṭhānaṃ icchanti, taṃ taṃ pākaṭameva hoti. for whatever instance they choose in many millions of eons, or more or less, is evident to them.
Tasmā anekāpi kappakoṭiyo peyyālapāḷiṃ viya saṃkhipitvā yaṃ yaṃ icchanti, tatra tatreva okkamantā sīhokkantavasena gacchanti. So they go, and so they descend with the lion’s descent9 wherever they want, even skipping over many millions of eons as though they were an elision in a text. Comm. NT: 9. A commentarial account of the behaviour of lions will be found in the Manorathapurāṇī, commentary to AN 4:33. Vism-mhṭ says: Sīh-okkamana...
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Evaṃ gacchantānañca nesaṃ ñāṇaṃ yathā nāma katavālavedhaparicayassa sarabhaṅgasadisassa dhanuggahassa khitto saro antarā rukkhalatādīsu asajjamāno lakkheyeva patati, na sajjati, na virajjhati, evaṃ antarantarāsu jātīsu na sajjati, na virajjhati, asajjamānaṃ avirajjhamānaṃ icchiticchitaṭṭhānaṃyeva gaṇhāti. And just as an arrow shot by such a master of archery expert in hair-splitting as Sarabhaṅga (see J-a V 129) always hits the target without getting held up among trees, creepers, etc., on its way, and so neither gets held up nor misses, so too, since Buddhas go in this way their knowledge does not get held up in intermediate births [412] or miss; without getting held up or missing, it seizes any instance required.
Imesu ca pana pubbenivāsaṃ anussaraṇasattesu titthiyānaṃ pubbenivāsadassanaṃ khajjupanakapabhāsadisaṃ hutvā upaṭṭhāti. 19. Among these beings with recollection of past lives, the sectarians’ vision of past lives seems like the light of a glow-worm,
Pakatisāvakānaṃ dīpappabhāsadisaṃ. that of ordinary disciples like the light of a candle,
Mahāsāvakānaṃ ukkāpabhāsadisaṃ. that of the great disciples like the light of a torch,
Aggasāvakānaṃ osadhitārakappabhāsadisaṃ. that of the chief disciples like the light of the morning star,
Paccekabuddhānaṃ candappabhāsadisaṃ. that of Paccekabuddhas like the light of the moon,
Buddhānaṃ rasmisahassapaṭimaṇḍitasaradasūriyamaṇḍalasadisaṃ hutvā upaṭṭhāti. and that of Buddhas like the glorious autumn sun’s disk with its thousand rays.
Titthiyānañca pubbenivāsānussaraṇaṃ andhānaṃ yaṭṭhikoṭigamanaṃ viya hoti. 20.Other sectarians see past lives as blind men go [tapping] with the point of a stick.
Pakatisāvakānaṃ daṇḍakasetugamanaṃ viya. Ordinary disciples do so as men who go on a log bridge.
Mahāsāvakānaṃ jaṅghasetugamanaṃ viya. The great disciples do so as men who go on a foot bridge.
Aggasāvakānaṃ sakaṭasetugamanaṃ viya. The chief disciples do so as men who go on a cart bridge.
Paccekabuddhānaṃ mahājaṅghamaggagamanaṃ viya. Paccekabuddhas do so as men who go on a main foot- path.
Buddhānaṃ mahāsakaṭamaggagamanaṃ viya. And Buddhas do so as men who go on a high road for carts.
Imasmiṃ pana adhikāre sāvakānaṃ pubbenivāsānussaraṇaṃ adhippetaṃ. 21.In this connection it is the disciples’ recollection of past lives that is intended.
Tena vuttaṃ "anussaratīti khandhapaṭipāṭivasena cutipaṭisandhivasena vā anugantvā anugantvā saratī"ti. Hence it was said above: “‘He recollects’: he recollects it following it out by the succession of aggregates, or by death and rebirth-linking” (§14).
403.Tasmā evamanussaritukāmena ādikammikena bhikkhunā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkantena rahogatena paṭisallinena paṭipāṭiyā cattāri jhānāni samāpajjitvā abhiññāpādakacatutthajjhānato vuṭṭhāya sabbapacchimā nisajjā āvajjitabbā. 22.So a bhikkhu who is a beginner and wants to recollect in this way should go into solitary retreat on return from his alms round after his meal. Then he should attain the four jhānas in succession and emerge from the fourth jhāna as basis for direct-knowledge. He should then advert to his most recent act of sitting down [for this purpose], next,
Tato āsanapaññāpanaṃ, senāsanappavesanaṃ, pattacīvarapaṭisāmanaṃ, bhojanakālo, gāmato āgamanakālo, gāme piṇḍāya caritakālo, gāmaṃ piṇḍāya paviṭṭhakālo, vihārato nikkhamanakālo, cetiyaṅgaṇabodhiyaṅgaṇavandanakālo, pattadhovanakālo, pattapaṭiggahaṇakālo, pattapaṭiggahaṇato yāva mukhadhovanā katakiccaṃ, paccūsakāle katakiccaṃ, majjhimayāme katakiccaṃ, paṭhamayāme katakiccanti evaṃ paṭilomakkamena sakalaṃ rattindivaṃ katakiccaṃ āvajjitabbaṃ. to the preparation of the seat, to the entry into the lodging, to the putting away of the bowl and [outer] robe, to the time of eating, to the time of returning from the village, to the time of wandering for alms in the village, to the time of entering the village, to the time of setting out from the monastery, to the time of paying homage at the shrine terrace and the Enlightenment-tree terrace, to the time of washing the bowl, to the time of picking up the bowl, to the things done from the time of picking up the bowl back to the mouth washing, to the things done in the early morning, to the things done in the middle watch, in the first watch. In this way he should advert to all the things done during the whole night and day in reverse order.
Ettakaṃ pana pakaticittassapi pākaṭaṃ hoti. 23.While this much, however, is evident even to his normal consciousness,
Parikammasamādhicittassa pana atipākaṭameva. it is especially evident to his preliminary-work consciousness.
Sace panettha kiñci na pākaṭaṃ hoti, puna pādakajjhānaṃ samāpajjitvā vuṭṭhāya āvajjitabbaṃ. But if anything there is not evident, he should again attain the basic jhāna, emerge and advert.
Ettakena dīpe jalite viya pākaṭaṃ hoti. By so doing it becomes as evident as when a lamp is lit.
Evaṃ paṭilomakkameneva dutiyadivasepi tatiyacatutthapañcamadivasepi dasāhepi aḍḍhamāsepi māsepi yāva saṃvaccharāpi katakiccaṃ āvajjitabbaṃ. And so, in reverse order too, he should advert to the things done on the second day back, and on the third, fourth and fifth day, and in the ten days, and in the fortnight, and as far back as a year.
Eteneva upāyena dasavassāni vīsativassānīti yāva imasmiṃ bhave attano paṭisandhi, tāva āvajjantena purimabhave cutikkhaṇe pavattitanāmarūpaṃ āvajjitabbaṃ. 24.When by these means he adverts to ten years, twenty years, and so on as far back as his own rebirth-linking in this existence, [413] he should advert to the mentality-materiality occurring at the moment of death in the preceding existence;
Pahoti hi paṇḍito bhikkhu paṭhamavāreneva paṭisandhiṃ ugghāṭetvā cutikkhaṇe nāmarūpamārammaṇaṃ kātuṃ. for a wise bhikkhu is able at the first attempt to remove10 the rebirth-linking and make the mentality-materiality at the death moment his object. Comm. NT: 10. Ugghaṭetvā: see X.6; the word is obviously used here in the same sense.
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Yasmā pana purimabhave nāmarūpaṃ asesaṃ niruddhaṃ aññaṃ uppannaṃ, tasmā taṃ ṭhānaṃ āhundarikaṃ andhatamamiva hoti duddasaṃ duppaññena. 25.But the mentality-materiality in the previous existence has ceased without remainder and another has arisen, and consequently that instance is, as it were, shut away in darkness, and it is hard for one of little understanding to see it.
Tenāpi "na sakkomahaṃ paṭisandhiṃ ugghāṭetvā cutikkhaṇe pavattitanāmarūpamārammaṇaṃ kātu"nti dhuranikkhepo na kātabbo. Still he should not give up the task, thinking, “I am unable to remove the rebirth- linking and make the mentality-materiality that occurred at the death moment my object.”
Tadeva pana pādakajjhānaṃ punappunaṃ samāpajjitabbaṃ. On the contrary, he should again and again attain that same basic jhāna,
Tato ca vuṭṭhāya vuṭṭhāya taṃ ṭhānaṃ āvajjitabbaṃ. and each time he emerges he should advert to that instance.
Evaṃ karonto hi seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso kūṭāgārakaṇṇikatthāya mahārukkhaṃ chindanto sākhāpalāsacchedanamatteneva pharasudhārāya vipannāya mahārukkhaṃ chindituṃ asakkontopi dhuranikkhepaṃ akatvāva kammārasālaṃ gantvā tikhiṇaṃ pharasuṃ kārāpetvā puna āgantvā chindeyya, puna vipannāya ca punapi tatheva kāretvā chindeyya. 26.Just as when a strong man is felling a big tree for the purpose of making the peak of a gable, but is unable to fell the big tree with an axe blade blunted by lopping the branches and foliage, still he does not give up the task; on the contrary, he goes to a smithy and has his axe sharpened, after which he returns and continues chopping the tree; and when the axe again gets blunt, he does as before and continues chopping it;
So evaṃ chindanto chinnassa chinnassa puna chetabbābhāvato acchinnassa ca chedanato nacirasseva mahārukkhaṃ pāteyya, evamevaṃ pādakajjhānā vuṭṭhāya pubbe āvajjitaṃ anāvajjitvā paṭisandhimeva āvajjanto nacirasseva paṭisandhiṃ ugghāṭetvā cutikkhaṇe pavattitanāmarūpaṃ ārammaṇaṃ kareyyāti. and as he goes on chopping it in this way, the tree falls at length, because each time there is no need to chop again what has already been chopped and what has not yet been chopped gets chopped; so too, when he emerges from the basic jhāna, instead of adverting to what he has already adverted to, he should advert only to the rebirth-linking, and at length he removes the rebirth-linking and makes the mentality-materiality that occurred at the death moment his object.
Kaṭṭhaphālakakesohārakādīhipi ayamattho dīpetabbo. And this meaning should also be illustrated by means of the wood cutter and the hair-cutter as well.
Tattha pacchimanisajjato pabhuti yāva paṭisandhito ārammaṇaṃ katvā pavattaṃ ñāṇaṃ pubbenivāsañāṇaṃ nāma na hoti. 27. Herein, the knowledge that occurs making its object the period from the last sitting down for this purpose back to the rebirth-linking is not called knowledge of recollection of past lives;
Taṃ pana parikammasamādhiñāṇaṃ nāma hoti. but it is called preliminary-work- concentration knowledge;
Atītaṃsañāṇantipi eke vadanti. and some call it “knowledge of the past” (atītaṃsa- ñāṇa),
Taṃ rūpāvacaraṃ sandhāya na yujjati. but that is inappropriate to the fine-material sphere.
Yadā panassa bhikkhuno paṭisandhiṃ atikkamma cutikkhaṇe pavattitanāmarūpaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanaṃ uppajjati, tasmiñca niruddhe tadevārammaṇaṃ katvā cattāri pañca vā javanāni javanti. However, when this bhikkhu has got back beyond the rebirth-linking, there arises in him mind-door adverting making its object the mentality-materiality that occurred at the death moment. And when that has ceased, then either four or five impulsions impel making that their object too.
Sesaṃ pubbe vuttanayeneva purimāni parikammādināmakāni kāmāvacarāni honti. The first of these, called “preliminary-work,” etc., in the way already described (§5), are of the sense sphere.
Pacchimaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ catutthajjhānikaṃ appanācittaṃ. The last is a fine-material absorption consciousness of the fourth jhāna.
Tadāssa yaṃ tena cittena saha ñāṇaṃ uppajjati, idaṃ pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇaṃ nāma. The knowledge that arises in him then together with that consciousness is what is called, “knowledge of recollection of past lives.”
Tena ñāṇena sampayuttāya satiyā anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati. It is with the mindfulness (memory) associated with that knowledge that he “recollects his manifold past lives,
Seyyathidaṃ, ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo - pe - iti sākāraṃ sauddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussaratīti (dī. ni. 1.244). that is to say, one birth, two births, …”[414] thus with details and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives (D I 81).
404.Tattha ekampi jātinti ekampi paṭisandhimūlaṃ cutipariyosānaṃ ekabhavapariyāpannaṃ khandhasantānaṃ. 28. Herein, one birth is the continuity of aggregates included in a single becoming starting with rebirth-linking and ending with death.
Esa nayo dvepi jātiyotiādīsupi. So too with two births, and the rest.
Anekepi saṃvaṭṭakappetiādīsu pana parihāyamāno kappo saṃvaṭṭakappo, vaḍḍhamāno vivaṭṭakappoti veditabbo. But in the case of many eons of world contraction, etc., it should be understood that the aeon of world contraction is an aeon of diminution and the aeon of world expansion is an aeon of increase.
Tattha saṃvaṭṭena saṃvaṭṭaṭṭhāyīgahito hoti, taṃmūlakattā. 29. Herein, what supersedes the contraction is included in the contraction since it is rooted in it;
Vivaṭṭena ca vivaṭṭaṭṭhāyī, evañhi sati yāni tāni "cattārimāni, bhikkhave, kappassa asaṅkhyeyyāni. and so too what supersedes the expansion is included in the expansion. This being so, it includes what is stated thus: “Bhikkhus, there are four incalculables of the aeon.
Katamāni cattāri? What four?
Saṃvaṭṭo, saṃvaṭṭaṭṭhāyī, vivaṭṭo, vivaṭṭaṭṭhāyīti (a. ni. 4.156 thokaṃ visadisaṃ) vuttāni, tāni pariggahitāni honti. The contraction, what supersedes the contraction, the expansion, and what supersedes the expansion” (A II 142 abbreviated).
Tattha tayo saṃvaṭṭā – āposaṃvaṭṭo, tejosaṃvaṭṭo, vāyosaṃvaṭṭoti. 30. Herein, there are three kinds of contraction: contraction due to water, contraction due to fire, and contraction due to air (see MN 28).
Tisso saṃvaṭṭasīmā – ābhassarā, subhakiṇhā, vehapphalāti. Also there are three limits to the contraction; the Ābhassara (Streaming-radiance) Brahmā- world, that of the Subhakiṇha (Refulgent-glory), and that of the Vehapphala (Great-fruit).
Yadā kappo tejena saṃvaṭṭati, ābhassarato heṭṭhā agginā ḍayhati. When the aeon contracts owing to fire, all below the Ābhassara [Brahmā-world] is burnt up by fire.
Yadā āpena saṃvaṭṭati, subhakiṇhato heṭṭhā udakena vilīyati. When it contracts owing to water, it is all dissolved by water up to the Subhakiṇha [Brahmā-world].
Yadā vāyunā saṃvaṭṭati, vehapphalato heṭṭhā vātena viddhaṃsati. When it contracts owing to air, it is all demolished by wind up to the Vehapphala [Brahmā-world].
Vitthārato pana sadāpi ekaṃ buddhakhettaṃ vinassati. 31.In breadth it is always one of the Buddha-fields that is destroyed.
Buddhakhettaṃ nāma tividhaṃ hoti – jātikhettaṃ, āṇākhettaṃ, visayakhettañca. For the Buddha-fields are of three kinds, that is, the field of birth, the field of authority, and the field of scope.
Tattha jātikhettaṃ dasasahassacakkavāḷapariyantaṃ hoti. Herein, the field of birth is limited by the ten thousand world-spheres
Yaṃ tathāgatassa paṭisandhigahaṇādīsu kampati. that quaked on the Perfect One’s taking rebirth-linking, and so on.
Āṇākhettaṃ koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷapariyantaṃ, yattha ratanasuttaṃ (khu. pā. 6.1 ādayo) khandhaparittaṃ (cūḷava. 251; a. ni. 4.67) dhajaggaparittaṃ (saṃ. ni. 1.249) āṭānāṭiyaparittaṃ (dī. ni. 3.275 ādayo) moraparittanti (jā. 1.2.17-18) imesaṃ parittānaṃ ānubhāvo vattati. The field of authority is limited by the hundred thousand million world-spheres where the following safeguards (paritta) are efficacious, that is, the Ratana Sutta (Sn p.39), the Khandha Paritta (Vin II 109; A II 72), the Dhajagga Paritta (S I 218), the Āṭānāṭiya Paritta (D III 194), and the Mora Paritta (J-a II 33).
Visayakhettaṃ anantamaparimāṇaṃ. The field of scope is boundless, immeasurable:
Yaṃ "yāvatā vā pana ākaṅkheyyā"ti (a. ni. 3.81) vuttaṃ, yattha yaṃ yaṃ tathāgato ākaṅkhati, taṃ taṃ jānāti. “As far as he wishes” (A I 228), it is said. The Perfect One knows anything anywhere that he wishes.
Evametesu tīsu buddhakhettesu ekaṃ āṇākhettaṃ vinassati. So one of these three Buddha- fields, that is to say, the field of authority is destroyed.
Tasmiṃ pana vinassante jātikhettampi vinaṭṭhameva hoti. But when that is being destroyed, the field of birth also gets destroyed.
Vinassantañca ekatova vinassati, saṇṭhahantampi ekato saṇṭhahati. And that happens simultaneously; and when it is reconstituted, that happens simultaneously (cf. M-a IV 114).
Tassevaṃ vināso ca saṇṭhahanañca veditabbaṃ. 32.Now, it should be understood how its destruction and reconstitution come about thus.
405.Yasmiṃ hi samaye kappo agginā nassati, āditova kappavināsakamahāmegho vuṭṭhahitvā koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷe ekaṃ mahāvassaṃ vassati. On the occasion when the aeon is destroyed by fire [415] first of all a great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction appears, and there is a great downpour all over the hundred thousand million world-spheres.
Manussā tuṭṭhahaṭṭhā sabbabījāni nīharitvā vapanti. People are delighted, and they bring out all their seeds and sow them.
Sassesu pana gokhāyitakamattesu jātesu gadrabharavaṃ ravanto ekabindumpi na vassati, tadā pacchinnaṃ pacchinnameva vassaṃ hoti. But when the sprouts have grown enough for an ox to graze, then not a drop of rain falls any more even when the asses bray. Rain is withheld from then on.
Idaṃ sandhāya hi bhagavatā "hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ bahūni vassāni bahūni vassasatāni bahūni vassasahassāni bahūni vassasatasahassāni devo na vassatī"ti (a. ni. 7.66) vuttaṃ. This is what the Blessed One referred to when he said: “Bhikkhus, an occasion comes when for many years, for many hundreds of years, for many thousands of years, for many hundreds of thousands of years, there is no rain” (A IV 100).
Vassūpajīvino sattā kālaṅkatvā brahmaloke nibbattanti, pupphaphalūpajīviniyo ca devatā. Beings that live by rain die and are reborn in the Brahmā-world, and so are the deities that live on flowers and fruits.
Evaṃ dīghe addhāne vītivatte tattha tattha udakaṃ parikkhayaṃ gacchati, athānupubbena macchakacchapāpi kālaṅkatvā brahmaloke nibbattanti, nerayikasattāpi. 33.When a long period has passed in this way, the water gives out here and there. Then in due course the fishes and turtles die and are reborn in the Brahmā- world, and so are the beings in hell.
Tattha nerayikā sattamasūriyapātubhāve vinassantīti eke. Some say that the denizens of hell perish there with the appearance of the seventh sun (§41).
Jhānaṃ vinā natthi brahmaloke nibbatti, etesañca keci dubbhikkhapīḷitā keci abhabbā jhānādhigamāya, te kathaṃ tattha nibbattantīti. Now, there is no rebirth in the Brahmā-world without jhāna; and some of them, being obsessed with the scarcity of food, are unable to attain jhāna, so how are they reborn there?
Devaloke paṭiladdhajjhānavasena. By means of jhāna obtained in the [sense-sphere] divine world.
Tadā hi "vassasatasahassassaccayena kappuṭṭhānaṃ bhavissatī"ti lokabyūhā nāma kāmāvacaradevā muttasirā vikiṇṇakesā rudamukhā assūni hatthehi puñchamānā rattavatthanivatthā ativiya virūpavesadhārino hutvā manussapathe vicarantā evaṃ ārocenti "mārisā ito vassasatasahassassaccayena kappavuṭṭhānaṃ bhavissati, ayaṃ loko vinassissati, mahāsamuddopi ussussissati, ayañca mahāpathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā uddayhissanti vinassissanti. 34.For then the sense-sphere deities called world-marshal (loka-byūha) deities come to know that at the end of a hundred thousand years there will be the emergence of an aeon, and they travel up and down the haunts of men, their heads bared, their hair dishevelled, with piteous faces, mopping their tears with their hands, clothed in dyed cloth, and wearing their dress in great disorder. They make this announcement: “Good sirs, good sirs, at the end of a hundred thousand years from now there will be the emergence of an aeon. This world will be destroyed. Even the ocean will dry up. This great earth, and the Sineru King of Mountains, will be consumed and destroyed.
Yāva brahmalokā lokavināso bhavissati. The destruction of the earth will extend as far as the Brahmā-world.
Mettaṃ mārisā bhāvetha, karuṇaṃ, muditaṃ, upekkhaṃ mārisā bhāvetha, mātaraṃ upaṭṭhahatha, pitaraṃ upaṭṭhahatha, kule jeṭṭhāpacāyino hothā"ti. Develop loving-kindness, good sirs, develop compassion, gladness, equanimity, good sirs. Care for your mothers, care for your fathers, honour the elders of your clans.”
Tesaṃ vacanaṃ sutvā yebhuyyena manussā ca bhummadevatā ca saṃvegajātā aññamaññaṃ muducittā hutvā mettādīni puññāni karitvā devaloke nibbattanti. 35. When human beings and earth deities hear their words, they mostly are filled with a sense of urgency. They become kind to each other and make merit with loving-kindness, etc., and so they are reborn in the divine world.
Tattha dibbasudhābhojanaṃ bhuñjitvā vāyokasiṇe parikammaṃ katvā jhānaṃ paṭilabhanti. There they eat divine food, and they do the preliminary work on the air kasiṇa and acquire jhāna.
Tadaññe pana aparāpariyavedanīyena kammena devaloke nibbattanti. Others, however, are reborn in a [sense-sphere] divine world through kamma to be experienced in a future life.
Aparāpariyavedanīyakammarahito hi saṃsāre saṃsaramāno satto nāma natthi. For there is no being traversing the round of rebirths who is destitute of kamma to be experienced in a future life.
Tepi tattha tatheva jhānaṃ paṭilabhanti. They too acquire jhāna there in the same way.
Evaṃ devaloke paṭiladdhajjhānavasena sabbepi brahmaloke nibbattantīti. [416] All are eventually reborn in the Brahmā-world by acquiring jhāna in a [sense-sphere] divine world in this way.
Vassūpacchedato pana uddhaṃ dīghassa addhuno accayena dutiyo sūriyo pātubhavati. 36.However, at the end of a long period after the withholding of the rain, a second sun appears.
Vuttampi cetaṃ bhagavatā "hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo"ti sattasūriyaṃ (a. ni. 7.66) vitthāretabbaṃ. And this is described by the Blessed One in the way beginning, “Bhikkhus, there is the occasion when …” (A IV 100), and the Sattasuriya Sutta should be given in full.
Pātubhūte ca pana tasmiṃ neva rattiparicchedo, na divāparicchedo paññāyati. Now, when that has appeared, there is no more telling night from day;
Eko sūriyo uṭṭheti, eko atthaṃ gacchati. as one sun sets, the other rises.
Avicchinnasūriyasantāpova loko hoti. The world is uninterruptedly scorched by the suns.
Yathā ca pakatisūriye sūriyadevaputto hoti, evaṃ kappavināsakasūriye natthi. But there is no sun deity in the aeon- destruction sun as there is in the ordinary sun.11 Comm. NT: 11.
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Tattha pakatisūriye vattamāne ākāse valāhakāpi dhūmasikhāpi caranti. Now, when the ordinary sun is present, thunder clouds and mare’s-tail vapours cross the skies.
Kappavināsakasūriye vattamāne vigatadhūmavalāhakaṃ ādāsamaṇḍalaṃ viya nimmalaṃ nabhaṃ hoti. But when the aeon-destruction sun is present, the sky is as blank as the disk of a looking- glass and destitute of clouds and vapour.
Ṭhapetvā pañca mahānadiyo sesakunnadīādīsu udakaṃ sussati. Beginning with the rivulet, the water in all the rivers except the five great rivers12 dries up. Comm. NT: 12.
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Tatopi dīghassa addhuno accayena tatiyo sūriyo pātubhavati. 37.After that, at the end of a long period, a third sun appears.
Yassa pātubhāvā mahānadiyopi sussanti. And when that has appeared, the great rivers dry up too.
Tatopi dīghassa addhuno accayena catuttho sūriyo pātubhavati. 38.After that, at the end of a long period, a fourth sun appears.
Yassa pātubhāvā himavati mahānadīnaṃ pabhavā "sīhapapāto haṃsapātano kaṇṇamuṇḍako rathakāradaho anotattadaho chaddantadaho kuṇāladaho"ti ime satta mahāsarā sussanti. And when that has appeared, the seven great lakes in Himalaya, the sources of the great rivers, dry up, that is to say: Sīhapapāta, Haṃsapātana,13 Kaṇṇamuṇḍaka, Rathakāra, Anotatta, Chaddanta, and Kuṇāla. Comm. NT: 13.
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Tatopi dīghassa addhuno accayena pañcamo sūriyo pātubhavati. 39.After that, at the end of a long period, a fifth sun appears,
Yassa pātubhāvā anupubbena mahāsamudde aṅgulipabbatemanamattampi udakaṃ na saṇṭhāti. and when that has appeared, there eventually comes to be not enough water left in the great ocean to wet one finger joint.
Tatopi dīghassa addhuno accayena chaṭṭho sūriyo pātubhavati. 40.After that, at the end of a long period, a sixth sun appears,
Yassa pātubhāvā sakalacakkavāḷaṃ ekadhūmaṃ hoti. and when that has appeared, the whole world-sphere becomes nothing but vapour,
Pariyādiṇṇasinehaṃ dhūmena. all its moisture being evaporated.
Yathā cidaṃ, evaṃ koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷānipi. And the hundred thousand million world-spheres are the same as this one.
Tatopi dīghassa addhuno accayena sattamo sūriyo pātubhavati. 41.After that, at the end of a long period, a seventh sun appears.
Yassa pātubhāvā sakalacakkavāḷaṃ ekajālaṃ hoti saddhiṃ koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷehi. And when that has appeared, the whole world-sphere together with the hundred thousand million other world-spheres catches fire.
Yojanasatikādibhedāni sinerukūṭānipi palujjitvā ākāseyeva antaradhāyanti. Even the summits of Sineru, a hundred leagues and more high, crumble and vanish into space.
Sā aggijālā uṭṭhahitvā cātumahārājike gaṇhāti. The conflagration mounts up and invades the realm of the Four Kings.
Tattha kanakavimānaratanavimānamaṇivimānāni jhāpetvā tāvatiṃsabhavanaṃ gaṇhāti. When it has burnt up all the golden palaces, the jewelled palaces and the crystal palaces there, it invades the Realm of the Thirty-three.
Eteneva upāyena yāva paṭhamajjhānabhūmiṃ gaṇhāti. And so it goes right on up to the plane of the first jhāna.
Tattha tayopi brahmaloke jhāpetvā ābhassare āhacca tiṭṭhati. When it has burnt three [lower] Brahmā-worlds, it stops there at the Ābhassara- world.
Sā yāva aṇumattampi saṅkhāragataṃ atthi, tāva na nibbāyati. [417] As long as any formed thing (formation) the size of an atom still exists it does not go out;
Sabbasaṅkhāraparikkhayā pana sappitelajhāpanaggisikhā viya chārikampi anavasesetvā nibbāyati. but it goes out when all formed things have been consumed. And like the flame that burns ghee and oil, it leaves no ash.
Heṭṭhāākāsena saha upariākāso eko hoti mahandhakāro. 42. The upper space is now all one with the lower space in a vast gloomy darkness.
406.Atha dīghassa addhuno accayena mahāmegho uṭṭhahitvā paṭhamaṃ sukhumaṃ sukhumaṃ vassati. Then at the end of a long period a great cloud arises, and at first it rains gently,
Anupubbena kumudanāḷayaṭṭhimusalatālakkhandhādippamāṇāhi dhārāhi vassanto koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷesu sabbaṃ daḍḍhaṭṭhānaṃ pūretvā antaradhāyati. and then it rains with ever heavier deluges, like lotus stems, like rods, like pestles, like palm trunks, more and more. And so it pours down upon all burnt areas in the hundred thousand million world-spheres till they disappear.
Taṃ udakaṃ heṭṭhā ca tiriyañca vāto samuṭṭhahitvā ghanaṃ karoti parivaṭumaṃ paduminipatte udakabindusadisaṃ. Then the winds (forces) beneath and all around that water rise up and compact it and round it, like water drops on a lotus leaf.
Kathaṃ tāva mahantaṃ udakarāsiṃ ghanaṃ karotīti ce? How do they compact the great mass of water?
Vivarasampadānato. By making gaps;
Tañhissa tamhi tamhi vivaraṃ deti. for the wind makes gaps in it here and there.
Taṃ evaṃ vātena sampiṇḍiyamānaṃ ghanaṃ kariyamānaṃ parikkhayamānaṃ anupubbena heṭṭhā otarati. 43. Being thus compressed by the air, compacted and reduced, it gradually subsides.
Otiṇṇe otiṇṇe udake brahmalokaṭṭhāne brahmalokā, upari catukāmāvacaradevalokaṭṭhāne ca devalokā pātubhavanti. As it sinks, the [lower] Brahmā-world reappears in its place, and worlds divine reappear in the places of the four upper divine worlds of the sensual sphere.14 Comm. NT: 14.
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Purimapathaviṭṭhānaṃ otiṇṇe pana balavavātā uppajjanti. But when it has sunk to the former earth’s level, strong winds (forces) arise and
Te taṃ pihitadvāre dhamakaraṇe ṭhitaudakamiva nirassāsaṃ katvā rundhanti. they stop it and hold it stationary, like the water in a water pot when the outlet is plugged.
Madhurodakaṃ parikkhayaṃ gacchamānaṃ upari rasapathaviṃ samuṭṭhāpeti. As the fresh water gets used up, the essential humus makes its appearance on it.
Sā vaṇṇasampannā ceva hoti gandharasasampannā ca nirudakapāyāsassa upari paṭalaṃ viya. That possesses colour, smell and taste, like the surface film on milk rice when it dries up.
Tadā ca ābhassarabrahmaloke paṭhamatarābhinibbattā sattā āyukkhayā vā puññakkhayā vā tato cavitvā idhūpapajjanti. 44.Then the beings that were reborn first in the Brahmā-world of Streaming- radiance (Ābhassara) fall from there with the exhaustion of their life span, or when their merit is exhausted, and they reappear here.
Te honti sayaṃpabhā antalikkhacarā. They are self-luminous and wander in the sky.
Te aggaññasutte (dī. ni. 3.119) vuttanayena taṃ rasapathaviṃ sāyitvā taṇhābhibhūtā āluppakārakaṃ paribhuñjituṃ upakkamanti. On eating the essential humus, as is told in the Aggañña Sutta (D III 85), they are overcome by craving, and they busy themselves in making lumps of it to eat.
Atha nesaṃ sayaṃpabhā antaradhāyati, andhakāro hoti. Then their self-luminosity vanishes, and it is dark.
Te andhakāraṃ disvā bhāyanti. They are frightened when they see the darkness.
Tato nesaṃ bhayaṃ nāsetvā sūrabhāvaṃ janayantaṃ paripuṇṇapaṇṇāsayojanaṃ sūriyamaṇḍalaṃ pātubhavati, te taṃ disvā "ālokaṃ paṭilabhimhā"ti haṭṭhatuṭṭhā hutvā "amhākaṃ bhītānaṃ bhayaṃ nāsetvā sūrabhāvaṃ janayanto uṭṭhito, tasmā "sūriyo hotū"ti sūriyotvevassa nāmaṃ karonti. 45.Then in order to remove their fears and give them courage, the sun’s disk appears full fifty leagues across. They are delighted to see it, thinking, “We have light,” and they say, “It has appeared in order to allay our fears and give us courage (sūrabhāva), so let it be called ‘sun’ (suriya).” So they give it the name “sun” (suriya).
Atha sūriye divasaṃ ālokaṃ katvā atthaṅgate yampi ālokaṃ labhimhā, sopi no naṭṭhoti puna bhītā honti. Now, when the sun has given light for a day, it sets. Then they are frightened again, thinking, “We have lost the light we had,”
Tesaṃ evaṃ hoti "sādhu vatassa sace aññaṃ ālokaṃ labheyyāmā"ti. and they think, “How good if we had another light! ” [418]
Tesaṃ cittaṃ ñatvā viya ekūnapaṇṇāsayojanaṃ candamaṇḍalaṃ pātubhavati. 46.As if knowing their thought, the moon’s disk appears, forty-nine leagues across.
Te taṃ disvā bhiyyoso mattāya haṭṭhatuṭṭhā hutvā "amhākaṃ chandaṃ ñatvā viya uṭṭhito, tasmā cando hotū"ti candotvevassa nāmaṃ karonti. On seeing it they are still more delighted, and they say, “It has appeared, seeming as if it knew our desire (chanda), so let it be called ‘moon’ (canda).” So they give it the name “moon” (canda).
Evaṃ candimasūriyesu pātubhūtesu nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni pātubhavanti. 47.After the appearance of the moon and sun in this way, the stars appear in their constellations.
Tato pabhuti rattindivā paññāyanti, anukkamena ca māsaddhamāsautusaṃvaccharā. After that, night and day are made known, and in due course, the month and half month, the season, and the year.
Candimasūriyānaṃ pana pātubhūtadivaseyeva sinerucakkavāḷahimavantapabbatā pātubhavanti. 48. On the day the moon and sun appear, the mountains of Sineru, of the World-sphere and of Himalaya appear too.
Te ca kho apubbaṃ acarimaṃ phagguṇapuṇṇamadivaseyeva pātubhavanti. And they appear on the full-moon day of the month of Phagguna (March), neither before nor after.
Kathaṃ? How?
Yathā nāma kaṅgubhatte paccamāne ekappahāreneva pupphuḷakāni uṭṭhahanti. Just as, when millet is cooking and bubbles arise,
Eke padesā thūpathūpā honti, eke ninnaninnā, eke samasamā. then simultaneously, some parts are domes, some hollow, and some flat,
Evamevaṃ thūpathūpaṭṭhāne pabbatā honti, ninnaninnaṭṭhāne samuddā, samasamaṭṭhāne dīpāti. so too, there are mountains in the domed places, seas in the hollow places, and continents (islands) in the flat places.
Atha tesaṃ sattānaṃ rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantānaṃ kamena ekacce vaṇṇavanto, ekacce dubbaṇṇā honti. 49. Then, as these beings make use of the essential humus, gradually some become handsome and some ugly.
Tattha vaṇṇavanto dubbaṇṇe atimaññanti. The handsome ones despise the ugly ones.
Tesaṃ atimānapaccayā sāpi rasapathavī antaradhāyati. Owing to their contempt the essential humus vanishes
Bhūmipappaṭako pātubhavati. and an outgrowth from the soil appears.
Atha nesaṃ teneva nayena sopi antaradhāyati. Then that vanishes in the same way
Padālatā pātubhavati. and the badālatā creeper appears.
Teneva nayena sāpi antaradhāyati. That too vanishes in the same way
Akaṭṭhapāko sāli pātubhavati akaṇo athuso suddho sugandho taṇḍulapphalo. and the rice without red powder or husk that ripens without tilling appears, a clean sweet-smelling rice fruit.
Tato nesaṃ bhājanāni uppajjanti. 50.Then vessels appear.
Te sāliṃ bhājane ṭhapetvā pāsāṇapiṭṭhiyā ṭhapenti, sayameva jālasikhā uṭṭhahitvā taṃ pacati. These beings put the rice into the vessels, which they put on the tops of stones. A flame appears spontaneously and cooks it.
So hoti odano sumanajātipupphasadiso, na tassa sūpena vā byañjanena vā karaṇīyaṃ atthi. The cooked rice resembles jasmine flowers. It has no need of sauces and curries,
Yaṃ yaṃ rasaṃ bhuñjitukāmā honti, taṃ taṃ rasova hoti. since it has whatever flavour they want to taste.
Tesaṃ taṃ oḷārikaṃ āhāraṃ āharayataṃ tato pabhuti muttakarīsaṃ sañjāyati. 51.As soon as they eat this gross food, urine and excrement appear in them.
Atha nesaṃ tassa nikkhamanatthāya vaṇamukhāni pabhijjanti, purisassa purisabhāvo, itthiyāpi itthibhāvo pātubhavati. Then wound orifices break open in them to let these things out. The male sex appears in the male, and the female sex in the female.
Tatra sudaṃ itthī purisaṃ, puriso ca itthiṃ ativelaṃ upanijjhāyati. Then the females brood over the males, and the males over the females for a long time.
Tesaṃ ativelaṃ upanijjhāyanapaccayā kāmapariḷāho uppajjati. Owing to this long period of brooding, the fever of sense desires arises.
Tato methunadhammaṃ paṭisevanti. After that they practice sexual intercourse.
Te asaddhammapaṭisevanapaccayā viññūhi garahiyamānā viheṭhiyamānā tassa asaddhammassa paṭicchādanahetu agārāni karonti. 52.[419] For their [overt] practice of evil they are censured and punished by the wise, and so they build houses for the purpose of concealing the evil.
Te agāraṃ ajjhāvasamānā anukkamena aññatarassa alasajātikassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjantā sannidhiṃ karonti. When they live in houses, they eventually fall in with the views of the more lazy, and they make stores of food.
Tato pabhuti kaṇopi thusopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhati, lāyitaṭṭhānampi na paṭivirūhati. As soon as they do that, the rice becomes enclosed in red powder and husks and no longer grows again of itself in the place where it was reaped.
Te sannipatitvā anutthunanti "pāpakā vata bho dhammā sattesu pātubhūtā, mayaṃ hi pubbe manomayā ahumhā"ti aggaññasutte (dī. ni. 3.128) vuttanayena vitthāretabbaṃ. They meet together and bemoan the fact, “Evil has surely made its appearance among beings; for formerly we were mind-made …” (D III 90), and all this should be given in full in the way described in the Aggañña Sutta.
Tato mariyādaṃ ṭhapenti. 53.After that, they set up boundaries.
Atha aññataro satto aññassa bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyati. Then some being takes a portion given to another.
Taṃ dvikkhattuṃ paribhāsetvā tatiyavāre pāṇileṭṭudaṇḍehi paharanti. After he has been twice rebuked, at the third time they come to blows with fists, clods, sticks, and so on.
Te evaṃ adinnādānagarahamusāvādadaṇḍādānesu uppannesu sannipatitvā cintayanti "yaṃnūna mayaṃ ekaṃ sattaṃ sammanneyyāma, yo no sammā khīyitabbaṃ khīyeyya, garahitabbaṃ garaheyya, pabbājetabbaṃ pabbājeyya, mayaṃ panassa sālīnaṃ bhāgaṃ anuppadassāmā"ti. When stealing, censuring, lying, resorting to sticks, etc., have appeared in this way, they meet together, thinking, “Suppose we elect a being who would reprove those who should be reproved, censure those who should be censured, and banish those who should be banished, and suppose we keep him supplied with a portion of the rice? ” (D III 92).
Evaṃ katasanniṭṭhānesu pana sattesu imasmiṃ tāva kappe ayameva bhagavā bodhisattabhūto tena samayena tesu sattesu abhirūpataro ca dassanīyataro ca mahesakkhataro ca buddhisampanno paṭibalo niggahapaggahaṃ kātuṃ. 54. When beings had come to an agreement in this way in this aeon, firstly this Blessed One himself, who was then the Bodhisatta (Being due to be Enlightened), was the handsomest, the most comely, the most honourable, and was clever and capable of exercising the effort of restraint.
Te taṃ upasaṅkamitvā yācitvā sammanniṃsu. They approached him, asked him, and elected him.
So tena mahājanena sammatoti mahāsammato, khettānaṃ adhipatīti khattiyo, dhammena samena pare rañjetīti rājāti tīhi nāmehi paññāyittha. Since he was recognized (sammata) by the majority (mahā-jana) he was called Mahā Sammata. Since he was lord of the fields (khetta) he was called khattiya (warrior noble). Since he promoted others’ good (rañjeti) righteously and equitably he was a king (rājā). This is how he came to be known by these names.
Yañhi loke acchariyaṭṭhānaṃ, bodhisattova tattha ādipurisoti evaṃ bodhisattaṃ ādiṃ katvā khattiyamaṇḍale saṇṭhite anupubbena brāhmaṇādayopi vaṇṇā saṇṭhahiṃsu. For the Bodhisatta himself is the first man concerned in any wonderful innovation in the world. So after the khattiya circle had been established by making the Bodhisatta the first in this way, the brahmans and the other castes were founded in due succession.
Tattha kappavināsakamahāmeghato yāva jālupacchedo, idamekaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ saṃvaṭṭoti vuccati. 55. Herein, the period from the time of the great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction up till the ceasing of the flames constitutes one incalculable, and that is called the “contraction.”
Kappavināsakajālupacchedato yāva koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷaparipūrako sampattimahāmegho, idaṃ dutiyaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ saṃvaṭṭaṭṭhāyīti vuccati. That from the ceasing of the flames of the aeon destruction up till the great cloud of rehabilitation, which rains down upon the hundred thousand million world-spheres, constitutes the second incalculable, and that is called, “what supersedes the contraction.”
Sampattimahāmeghato yāva candimasūriyapātubhāvo, idaṃ tatiyaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ vivaṭṭoti vuccati. That from the time of the great cloud of rehabilitation up till the appearance of the moon and sun constitutes the third incalculable, and that is called the “expansion.”
Candimasūriyapātubhāvato yāva puna kappavināsakamahāmegho, idaṃ catutthaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ vivaṭṭaṭṭhāyīti vuccati. That from the appearance of the moon and sun up till [420] the reappearance of the great cloud of the aeon destruction is the fourth incalculable, and that is called, “what supersedes the expansion.”
Imāni cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni eko mahākappo hoti. These four incalculables make up one great aeon.
Evaṃ tāva agginā vināso ca saṇṭhahanañca veditabbaṃ. This, firstly, is how the destruction by fire and reconstitution should be understood.
407.Yasmiṃ pana samaye kappo udakena nassati, āditova kappavināsakamahāmegho uṭṭhahitvāti pubbe vuttanayeneva vitthāretabbaṃ. 56.The occasion when the aeon is destroyed by water should be treated in the way already described beginning, “First of all a great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction appears …” (§32).
Ayaṃ pana viseso, yathā tattha dutiyasūriyo, evamidha kappavināsako khārudakamahāmegho vuṭṭhāti. 57. There is this difference, however. While in the former case a second sun appeared, in this case a great cloud of caustic waters15 appears. Comm. NT: 15. Khārudaka—“caustic waters”: the name given to the waters on which the world- spheres rest (see M-a IV 178).
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So ādito sukhumaṃ sukhumaṃ vassanto anukkamena mahādhārāhi koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷānaṃ pūrento vassati. At first it rains very gently, but it goes on to rain with gradually greater deluges, pouring down upon the hundred thousand million world-spheres.
Khārudakena phuṭṭhaphuṭṭhā pathavīpabbatādayo vilīyanti, udakaṃ samantato vātehi dhāriyati. As soon as they are touched by the caustic waters, the earth, the mountains, etc., melt away, and the waters are supported all round by winds.
Pathavito yāva dutiyajjhānabhūmiṃ udakaṃ gaṇhāti. The waters take possession from the earth up to the plane of the second jhāna.
Tattha tayopi brahmaloke vilīyāpetvā subhakiṇhe āhacca tiṭṭhati. When they have dissolved away the three Brahmā- worlds there, they stop at the Subhakiṇha-world.
Taṃ yāva aṇumattampi saṅkhāragataṃ atthi, tāva na vūpasammati. As long as any formed thing the size of an atom exists they do not subside;
Udakānugataṃ pana sabbasaṅkhāragataṃ abhibhavitvā sahasā vūpasammati antaradhānaṃ gacchati. but they suddenly subside and vanish away when all formed things have been overwhelmed by them.
Heṭṭhāākāsena saha upariākāso eko hoti mahandhakāroti sabbaṃ vuttasadisaṃ. All beginning with: “The upper space is all one with the lower space in a vast gloomy darkness …” (§42) is as already described,
Kevalaṃ panidha ābhassarabrahmalokaṃ ādiṃ katvā loko pātubhavati. except that here the world begins its reappearance with the Ābhassara Brahmā-world.
Subhakiṇhato ca cavitvā ābhassaraṭṭhānādīsu sattā nibbattanti. And beings falling from the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world are reborn in the places beginning with the Ābhassara Brahmā-world.
Tattha kappavināsakamahāmeghato yāva kappavināsakudakūpacchedo, idamekaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ. 58. Herein, the period from the time of the great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction up till the ceasing of the aeon-destroying waters constitutes one incalculable.
Udakūpacchedato yāva sampattimahāmegho, idaṃ dutiyaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ. That from the ceasing of the waters up till the great cloud of rehabilitation constitutes the second incalculable.
Sampattimahāmeghato - pe - imāni cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni eko mahākappo hoti. That from the great cloud of rehabilitation … These four incalculables make up one great aeon.
Evaṃ udakena vināso ca saṇṭhahanañca veditabbaṃ. This is how the destruction by water and reconstitution should be understood.
408.Yasmiṃ samaye kappo vātena vinassati, āditova kappavināsakamahāmegho uṭṭhahitvāti pubbe vuttanayeneva vitthāretabbaṃ. 59. The occasion when the aeon is destroyed by air should be treated in the way already described beginning with the “first of all a great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction appears …” (§32).
Ayaṃ pana viseso, yathā tattha dutiyasūriyo, evamidha kappavināsanatthaṃ vāto samuṭṭhāti. 60.There is this difference, however. While in the first case there was a second sun, here a wind arises in order to destroy the aeon.
So paṭhamaṃ thūlarajaṃ uṭṭhāpeti. First of all it lifts up the coarse flue,
Tato saṇharajaṃ sukhumavālikaṃ thūlavālikaṃ sakkharapāsāṇādayoti yāva kūṭāgāramatte pāsāṇe visamaṭṭhāne ṭhitamahārukkhe ca uṭṭhāpeti. then the fine flue, then the fine sand, coarse sand, gravel, stones, etc., [421] until it lifts up stones as big as a catafalque,16 and great trees standing in uneven places. Comm. NT: 16. Kūṭāgāra: see Ch. XII, n.14; here this seems the most likely of the various meanings of the word.
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Te pathavito nabhamuggatā na ca puna patanti. They are swept from the earth up into the sky, and instead of falling down again
Tattheva cuṇṇavicuṇṇā hutvā abhāvaṃ gacchanti. they are broken to bits there and cease to exist.
Athānukkamena heṭṭhā mahāpathaviyā vāto samuṭṭhahitvā pathaviṃ parivattetvā uddhaṃmūlaṃ katvā ākāse khipati. 61.Then eventually wind arises from underneath the great earth and overturns the earth, flinging it into space.
Yojanasatappamāṇāpi pathavippadesā dviyojanatiyojanacatuyojanapañcayojanasatappamāṇāpi bhijjitvā vātavegena khittā ākāseyeva cuṇṇavicuṇṇā hutvā abhāvaṃ gacchanti. The earth splits into fragments measuring a hundred leagues, measuring two, three, four, five hundred leagues, and they are hurled into space too, and there they are broken to bits and cease to exist.
Cakkavāḷapabbatampi sinerupabbatampi vāto ukkhipitvā ākāse khipati. The world-sphere mountains and Mount Sineru are wrenched up and cast into space,
Te aññamaññaṃ abhihantvā cuṇṇavicuṇṇā hutvā vinassanti. where they crash against each other till they are broken to bits and disappear.
Eteneva upāyena bhummaṭṭhakavimānāni ca ākāsaṭṭhakavimānāni ca vināsento chakāmāvacaradevaloke vināsetvā koṭisatasahassacakkavāḷāni vināseti. In this way it destroys the divine palaces built on the earth [of Mount Sineru] and those built in space, it destroys the six sensual-sphere divine worlds, and it destroys the hundred thousand million world-spheres.
Tattha cakkavāḷā cakkavāḷehi himavantā himavantehi sinerū sinerūhi aññamaññaṃ samāgantvā cuṇṇavicuṇṇā hutvā vinassanti. Then world-sphere collides with world-sphere, Himalaya Mountain with Himalaya Mountain, Sineru with Sineru, till they are broken to bits and disappear.
Pathavito yāva tatiyajjhānabhūmiṃ vāto gaṇhāti. 62. The wind takes possession from the earth up to the plane of the third jhāna.
Tattha tayopi brahmaloke vināsetvā vehapphalaṃ āhacca tiṭṭhati. There, after destroying three Brahmā-worlds, it stops at the Vehapphala- world.
Evaṃ sabbasaṅkhāragataṃ vināsetvā sayampi vinassati. When it has destroyed all formed things in this way, it spends itself too.
Heṭṭhāākāsena saha upariākāso eko hoti mahandhakāroti sabbaṃ vuttasadisaṃ. Then all happens as already described in the way beginning, “The upper space is all one with the lower space in a vast gloomy darkness …” (§42).
Idha pana subhakiṇhabrahmalokaṃ ādiṃ katvā loko pātubhavati. But here the world begins its reappearance with the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world.
Vehapphalato ca cavitvā subhakiṇhaṭṭhānādīsu sattā nibbattanti. And beings falling from the Vehapphala Brahmā-world are reborn in the places beginning with the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world.
Tattha kappavināsakamahāmeghato yāva kappavināsakavātūpacchedo, idamekaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ. 63. Herein, the period from the time of the great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction up till the ceasing of the aeon-destroying wind is one incalculable.
Vātūpacchedato yāva sampattimahāmegho, idaṃ dutiyaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ - pe - imāni cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni eko mahākappo hoti. That from the ceasing of the wind up till the great cloud of rehabilitation is the second incalculable … These four incalculables make up one great aeon.
Evaṃ vātena vināso ca saṇṭhahanañca veditabbaṃ. This is how the destruction by wind and reconstitution should be understood.
409.Kiṃkāraṇā evaṃ loko vinassati? 64.What is the reason for the world’s destruction in this way?
Akusalamūlakāraṇā. The [three] roots of the unprofitable are the reason.
Akusalamūlesu hi ussannesu evaṃ loko vinassati. When any one of the roots of the unprofitable becomes conspicuous, the world is destroyed accordingly.
So ca kho rāge ussannatare agginā vinassati. When greed is more conspicuous, it is destroyed by fire.
Dose ussannatare udakena vinassati. When hate is more conspicuous, it is destroyed by water—
Keci pana dose ussannatare agginā. though some say that it is destroyed by fire when hate is more conspicuous
Rāge ussannatare udakenāti vadanti. and by water when greed is more conspicuous.
Mohe ussannatare vātena vinassati. And when delusion is more conspicuous, it is destroyed by wind.
Evaṃ vinassantopi ca nirantarameva sattavāre agginā vinassati. 65.Destroyed as it is in this way, it is destroyed for seven turns in succession by fire
Aṭṭhame vāre udakena. and the eighth turn by water;
Puna sattavāre agginā. then again seven turns by fire
Aṭṭhame vāre udakenāti evaṃ aṭṭhame aṭṭhame vāre vinassanto sattakkhattuṃ udakena vinassitvā puna sattavāre agginā nassati. and the eighth turn by water; then, when it has been seven times destroyed by water at each eighth [422] turn, it is again destroyed for seven turns by fire.
Ettāvatā tesaṭṭhi kappā atītā honti. Sixty-three eons pass in this way.
Etthantare udakena nassanavāraṃ sampattampi paṭibāhitvā laddhokāso vāto paripuṇṇacatusaṭṭhikappāyuke subhakiṇhe viddhaṃsento lokaṃ vināseti. And now the air takes the opportunity to usurp the water’s turn for destruction, and in destroying the world it demolishes the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world where the life span is the full sixty-four eons.
410.Pubbenivāsaṃ anussarantopi ca kappānussaraṇako bhikkhu etesu kappesu anekepi saṃvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṃvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe anussarati. 66.Now, when a bhikkhu capable of recollecting eons is recollecting his former lives, then of such eons as these he recollects many eons of world contraction, many eons of world expansion, many eons of world contraction and expansion.
Kathaṃ? How?
"Amutrāsi"ntiādinā (dī. ni. 1.244) nayena. In the way beginning, There I was …
Tattha amutrāsinti amumhi saṃvaṭṭakappe ahaṃ amumhi bhave vā yoniyā vā gatiyā vā viññāṇaṭṭhitiyā vā sattāvāse vā sattanikāye vā āsiṃ. Herein, There I was: in that eon of contraction I was in that kind of becoming or generation or destiny or station of consciousness or abode of beings or order of beings.
Evaṃnāmoti tisso vā phusso vā. 67. So named: [such forenames as] Tissa, say, or Phussa.
Evaṃgottoti kaccāno vā kassapo vā. Of such a race: [such family names as] Kaccāna, say, or Kassapa.
Idamassa atītabhave attano nāmagottānussaraṇavasena vuttaṃ. This is said of the recollection of his own name and race (surname) in his past existence.
Sace pana tasmiṃ kāle attano vaṇṇasampattiṃ vā lūkhapaṇītajīvikabhāvaṃ vā sukhadukkhabahulataṃ vā appāyukadīghāyukabhāvaṃ vā anussaritukāmo hoti, tampi anussaratiyeva. But if he wants to recollect his own appearance at that time, or whether his life was a rough or refined one, or whether pleasure or pain was prevalent, or whether his life span was short or long, he recollects that too.
Tenāha "evaṃvaṇṇo - pe - evamāyupariyanto"ti. Hence he said with such an appearance … such the end of my life span.
Tattha evaṃvaṇṇoti odāto vā sāmo vā. 68. Here, with such an appearance means fair or dark.
Evamāhāroti sālimaṃsodanāhāro vā pavattaphalabhojano vā. Such was my food: with white rice and meat dishes as food or with windfall fruits as food.
Evaṃ sukhadukkhapaṭisaṃvedīti anekappakārena kāyikacetasikānaṃ sāmisanirāmisādippabhedānaṃ vā sukhadukkhānaṃ paṭisaṃvedī. Such my experience of pleasure and pain: with varied experience of bodily and mental pleasure and pain classed as worldly and unworldly, and so on.
Evamāyupariyantoti evaṃ vassasataparimāṇāyupariyanto vā caturāsītikappasatasahassāyupariyanto vā. Such the end of my life span: with such a life span of a century or life span of eighty-four thousand eons.
So tato cuto amutra udapādinti sohaṃ tato bhavato yonito gatito viññāṇaṭṭhitito sattāvāsato sattanikāyato vā cuto puna amukasmiṃ nāma bhave yoniyā gatiyā viññāṇaṭṭhitiyā sattāvāse sattanikāye vā udapādiṃ. 69. And passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere: having passed away from that becoming, generation, destiny, station of consciousness, abode of beings or order of beings, I again appeared in that other becoming, generation, destiny, station of consciousness, abode of beings or order of beings.
Tatrāpāsinti atha tatrāpi bhave yoniyā gatiyā viññāṇaṭṭhitiyā sattāvāse sattanikāye vā puna ahosiṃ. And there too I was: then again I was there in that becoming, generation, destiny, station of consciousness, abode of beings or order of beings.
Evaṃnāmotiādi vuttanayameva. So named, etc., are as already stated.
Apica yasmā amutrāsinti idaṃ anupubbena ārohantassa yāvadicchakaṃ anussaraṇaṃ. 70.Furthermore, the words there I was refer to the recollection of one who has cast back retrospectively as far as he wishes,
So tato cutoti paṭinivattantassa paccavekkhaṇaṃ, tasmā "idhūpapanno"ti imissā idhūpapattiyā anantaramevassa upapattiṭṭhānaṃ sandhāya "amutra udapādi"nti idaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ. and the words and passing away from there refer to his reviewing after turning forward again; consequently, the words I appeared elsewhere can be understood to be said with reference to the place of his reappearance next before his appearance here, which is referred to by the words I appeared here.
Tatrāpāsinti evamādi panassa tatra imissā upapattiyā anantare upapattiṭṭhāne nāmagottādīnaṃ anussaraṇadassanatthaṃ vuttaṃ. But the words there too I was, etc., [423] are said in order to show the recollection of his name, race, etc., there in the place of his reappearance next before this appearance.
So tato cuto idhūpapannoti svāhaṃ tato anantarūpapattiṭṭhānato cuto idha asukasmiṃ nāma khattiyakule vā brāhmaṇakule vā nibbattoti. And passing away from there, I reappeared here: having passed away from that next place of reappearance, I was reborn here in this khattiya clan or brahman clan.
Itīti evaṃ. 71. Thus: so.
Sākāraṃ sauddesanti nāmagottavasena sauddesaṃ, vaṇṇādivasena sākāraṃ. With its aspects and particulars: with its particulars consisting in name and race; with its aspects consisting in appearance, and so on.
Nāmagottena hi satto tisso kassapoti uddisīyati. For it is by means of name and race that a being is particularized as, say Tissa Kassapa;
Vaṇṇādīhi sāmo odātoti nānattato paññāyati. but his distinctive personality is made known by means of appearance, etc., as dark or fair.
Tasmā nāmagottaṃ uddeso, itare ākārā. So the name and race are the particulars, while the others are the aspects.
Anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsamanussaratīti idaṃ uttānatthamevāti. He recollects his manifold past lives: the meaning of this is clear.
Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇakathā niṭṭhitā. The explanation of the knowledge of recollection of past lives is ended.
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