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87.Evamadhigate pana tasmiṃpi vuttanayeneva pañcahākārehi ciṇṇavasinā hutvā paguṇatatiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya "ayaṃ samāpatti āsannapītipaccatthikā, 'yadeva tattha sukhamiti cetaso ābhogo, etenetaṃ oḷārikaṃ akkhāyatī'ti (dī. ni. 1.96) evaṃ vuttassa sukhassa oḷārikattā aṅgadubbalā"ti ca tattha dosaṃ disvā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ santato manasikatvā tatiyajjhāne nikantiṃ pariyādāya catutthādhigamāya yogo kātabbo. 180. Once this has been obtained in this way, and once he has mastery in the five ways already described, then on emerging from the now familiar third jhāna, he can regard the flaws in it thus: “This attainment is threatened by the nearness of happiness; ‘Whatever there is in it of mental concern about bliss proclaims its grossness’ (D I 37; see Ch. IX, n. 20), and its factors are weakened by the grossness of the bliss so expressed. ” He can bring the fourth jhāna to mind as quieter and so end his attachment to the third jhāna and set about doing what is needed for attaining the fourth.
Athassa yadā tatiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya satassa sampajānassa jhānaṅgāni paccavekkhato cetasikasomanassasaṅkhātaṃ sukhaṃ oḷārikato upaṭṭhāti, upekkhāvedanā ceva cittekaggatā ca santato upaṭṭhāti, tadāssa oḷārikaṅgappahānāya santaaṅgapaṭilābhāya ca tadeva nimittaṃ "pathavī pathavī"ti punappunaṃ manasikaroto "idāni catutthaṃ jhānaṃ uppajjissatī"ti bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā tadeva pathavīkasiṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanaṃ uppajjati. 181. When he has emerged from the third jhāna, the bliss, in other words, the mental joy, appears gross to him as he reviews the jhāna factors with mindfulness and full awareness, while the equanimity as feeling and the unification of mind appear peaceful. Then, as he brings that same sign to mind as “earth, earth” again and again with the purpose of abandoning the gross factor and obtaining the peaceful factors, [knowing] “now the fourth jhāna will arise,” there arises in him mind-door adverting with that same earth kasiṇa as its object, interrupting the life-continuum.
Tato tasmiṃyevārammaṇe cattāri pañca vā javanāni uppajjanti, yesaṃ avasāne ekaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ catutthajjhānikaṃ, sesāni vuttappakārāneva kāmāvacarāni. After that either four or five impulsions impel on that same object, [165] the last one of which is an impulsion of the fine-material sphere belonging to the fourth jhāna. The rest are of the kinds already stated (§74).
Ayaṃ pana viseso, yasmā sukhavedanā adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya āsevanapaccayena paccayo na hoti, catutthajjhāne ca adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya uppajjitabbaṃ, tasmā tāni upekkhāvedanāsampayuttāni honti. 182. But there is this difference: blissful (pleasant) feeling is not a condition, as repetition condition, for neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, and [the preliminary work] must be aroused in the case of the fourth jhāna with neither- painful-nor-pleasant feeling; consequently these [consciousnesses of the preliminary work] are associated with neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling,
Upekkhāsampayuttattāyeva cettha pītipi parihāyatīti. and here happiness vanishes simply owing to their association with equanimity.
Ettāvatā cesa sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati (dī. ni. 1.232; dha. sa. 165). [THE FOURTH JHĀNA] 183. And at this point, “With the abandoning of pleasure and pain and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief he enters upon and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and has purity of mindfulness due to equanimity” (Vibh 245),
Evamanena ekaṅgavippahīnaṃ duvaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇaṃ. and so he has attained the fourth jhāna, which abandons one factor, possesses two factors, is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics, and is of the earth kasiṇa.
88.Tattha sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānāti kāyikasukhassa ca kāyikadukkhassa ca pahānā. 184. Herein, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain: with the abandoning of bodily pleasure and bodily pain.
Pubbevāti tañca kho pubbeva, na catutthajjhānakkhaṇe. With the previous: which took place before, not in the moment of the fourth jhāna.
Somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāti cetasikasukhassa ca cetasikadukkhassa cāti imesampi dvinnaṃ pubbeva atthaṅgamā, pahānā icceva vuttaṃ hoti. Disappearance of joy and grief: with the previous disappearance of the two, that is, mental bliss (pleasure) and mental pain; with the abandoning, is what is meant.
Kadā pana nesaṃ pahānaṃ hotīti. 185. But when does the abandoning of these take place?
Catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ upacārakkhaṇe. At the moment of access of the four jhānas.
Somanassañhi catutthajjhānassa upacārakkhaṇeyeva pahīyati. For [mental] joy is only abandoned at the moment of the fourth-jhāna access,
Dukkhadomanassasukhāni paṭhamadutiyatatiyajjhānānaṃ upacārakkhaṇesu. while [bodily] pain, [mental] grief, and [bodily] bliss (pleasure) are abandoned respectively at the moments of access of the first, second, and third jhānas.
Evametesaṃ pahānakkamena avuttānampi indriyavibhaṅge pana indriyānaṃ uddesakkameneva idhāpi vuttānaṃ sukhadukkhasomanassadomanassānaṃ pahānaṃ veditabbaṃ. So although the order in which they are abandoned is not actually mentioned, nevertheless the abandoning of the pleasure, pain, joy, and grief, is stated here according to the order in which the faculties are summarized in the Indriya Vibhaṅga (Vibh 122).
Yadi panetāni tassa tassa jhānassa upacārakkhaṇeyeva pahīyanti, atha kasmā "kattha cuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati, idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehipi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. 186. But if these are only abandoned at the moments of access of the several jhānas, why is their cessation said to. take place in the jhāna itself in the following passage: “And where does the arisen pain faculty cease without remainder? Here, bhikkhus, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, a bhikkhu enters upon and dwells in the first jhāna, which is … born of seclusion.
Ettha cuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. It is here that the arisen pain faculty ceases without remainder …
Kattha cuppannaṃ domanassindriyaṃ sukhindriyaṃ somanassindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati, idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā - pe - catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, ettha cuppannaṃ somanassindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.510) evaṃ jhānesveva nirodho vuttoti? Where does the arisen grief faculty [cease without remainder? … in the second jhāna] … Where does the arisen pleasure faculty [cease without remainder? … in the third jhāna] … Where does the arisen joy faculty cease without remainder? Here, bhikkhus, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain [and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief] a bhikkhu enters upon and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which … has mindfulness purified by equanimity. It is here that the arisen joy faculty ceases without remainder” (S V 213–15). It is said in that way there referring to reinforced cessation.
Atisayanirodhattā.
Atisayanirodho hi nesaṃ paṭhamajjhānādīsu, na nirodhoyeva. For in the first jhāna, etc., it is their reinforced cessation, not just their cessation, that takes place.
Nirodhoyeva pana upacārakkhaṇe, nātisayanirodho. At the moment of access it is just their cessation, not their reinforced cessation, that takes place.
Tathā hi nānāvajjane paṭhamajjhānupacāre niruddhassāpi dukkhindriyassa ḍaṃsamakasādisamphassena vā visamāsanupatāpena vā siyā uppatti, na tveva antoappanāyaṃ. 187. For accordingly, during the first jhāna access, which has multiple adverting, there could be rearising of the [bodily] pain faculty49 due to contact with gadflies, flies, etc. or the discomfort of an uneven seat, though that pain faculty had already ceased, but not so during absorption. Comm. NT: 49.
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Upacāre vā niruddhampetaṃ na suṭṭhu niruddhaṃ hoti, paṭipakkhena avihatattā. Or else, though it has ceased during access, it has not absolutely ceased there since it is not quite beaten out by opposition.
Antoappanāyaṃ pana pītipharaṇena sabbo kāyo sukhokkanto hoti, sukhokkantakāyassa ca suṭṭhu niruddhaṃ hoti dukkhindriyaṃ, paṭipakkhena vihatattā. But during absorption the whole body is showered with bliss owing to pervasion by happiness. And the pain faculty has absolutely ceased in one whose body is showered with bliss, since it is beaten out then by opposition.
Nānāvajjaneyeva ca dutiyajjhānupacāre pahīnassa domanassindriyassa yasmā etaṃ vitakkavicārapaccayepi kāyakilamathe cittupaghāte ca sati uppajjati. 188.And during the second-jhāna access too, which has multiple advertings, there could be rearising of the [mental] grief faculty, although it had already ceased there, because it arises when there is bodily weariness and mental vexation, which have applied thought and sustained thought as their condition,
Vitakkavicārābhāve ca neva uppajjati. but it does not arise when applied and sustained thought are absent.
Yattha pana uppajjati, tattha vitakkavicārabhāve, appahīnā eva ca dutiyajjhānupacāre vitakkavicārāti tatthassa siyā uppatti, na tveva dutiyajjhāne, pahīnapaccayattā. When it arises, it does so in the presence of applied and sustained thought, and they are not abandoned in the second-jhāna access; but this is not so in the second jhāna itself because its conditions are abandoned there.
Tathā tatiyajjhānupacāre pahīnassāpi sukhindriyassa pītisamuṭṭhānapaṇītarūpaphuṭakāyassa siyā uppatti, na tveva tatiyajjhāne. 189. Likewise in the third-jhāna access there could be rearising of the abandoned [bodily] pleasure faculty in one whose body was pervaded by the superior materiality originated by the [consciousness associated with the] happiness. But not so in the third jhāna itself.
Tatiyajjhāne hi sukhassa paccayabhūtā pīti sabbaso niruddhāti. For in the third jhāna the happiness that is a condition for the [bodily] bliss (pleasure) has ceased entirely.
Tathā catutthajjhānupacāre pahīnassāpi somanassindriyassa āsannattā appanāppattāya upekkhāya abhāvena sammā anatikkantattā ca siyā uppatti, na tveva catutthajjhāne. Likewise in the fourth-jhāna access there could be re-arising of the abandoned [mental] joy faculty because of its nearness and because it has not been properly surmounted owing to the absence of equanimity brought to absorption strength. But not so in the fourth jhāna itself.
Tasmā eva ca etthuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhatīti tattha tattha aparisesaggahaṇaṃ katanti. And that is why in each case (§186) the words “without remainder” are included thus: “It is here that the arisen pain faculty ceases without remainder. ”
Etthāha "athevaṃ tassa tassa jhānassupacāre pahīnāpi etā vedanā idha kasmā samāhaṭā"ti? 190. Here it may be asked: Then if these kinds of feeling are abandoned in the access in this way, why are they brought in here?
Sukhaggahaṇatthaṃ. It is done so that they can be readily grasped.
Yā hi ayaṃ adukkhamasukhanti ettha adukkhamasukhā vedanā vuttā, sā sukhumā duviññeyyā na sakkā sukhena gahetuṃ, tasmā yathā nāma duṭṭhassa yathā vā tathā vā upasaṅkamitvā gahetuṃ asakkuṇeyyassa goṇassa sukhaggahaṇatthaṃ gopo ekasmiṃ vaje sabbā gāvo samāharati, athekekaṃ nīharanto paṭipāṭiyā āgataṃ "ayaṃ so gaṇhatha na"nti tampi gāhayati, evameva bhagavā sukhaggahaṇatthaṃ sabbā etā samāhari. For the neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling described here by the words “which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure” is subtle, hard to recognize and not readily grasped. So just as, when a cattle-herd50 wants to catch a refractory ox that cannot be caught at all by approaching it, he collects all the cattle into one pen [167] and lets them out one by one, and then [he says] “That is it; catch it,” and so it gets caught as well, so too the Blessed One has collected all these [five kinds of feeling] together so that they can be grasped readily; Comm. NT: 50. Gopa—“cowherd (or guardian)”: not in PED.
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Evañhi samāhaṭā etā dassetvā yaṃ neva sukhaṃ na dukkhaṃ na somanassaṃ na domanassaṃ, ayaṃ adukkhamasukhā vedanāti sakkā hoti esā gāhayituṃ. for when they are shown collected together in this way, then what is not [bodily] pleasure (bliss) or [bodily] pain or [mental] joy or [mental] grief can still be grasped in this way: “This is neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. ”
Apica adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā paccayadassanatthañcāpi etā vuttāti veditabbā. 191. Besides, this may be understood as said in order to show the condition for the neither-painful-nor-pleasant mind-deliverance.
Dukkhappahānādayo hi tassā paccayā. For the abandoning of [bodily] pain, etc., are conditions for that,
Yathāha – "cattāro kho, āvuso, paccayā adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā. according as it is said: “There are four conditions, friend, for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant mind- deliverance.
Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā - pe - catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Here, friend, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief a bhikkhu enters upon and dwells in the fourth jhāna … equanimity.
Ime khvāvuso, cattāro paccayā adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā"ti (ma. ni. 1.458). These are the four conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant mind-deliverance” (M I 296).
Yathā vā aññattha pahīnāpi sakkāyadiṭṭhiādayo tatiyamaggassa vaṇṇabhaṇanatthaṃ tattha pahīnāti vuttā, evaṃ vaṇṇabhaṇanatthampetassa jhānassetā idha vuttātipi veditabbā. 192. Or alternatively, just as, although mistaken view of individuality, etc., have already been abandoned in the earlier paths, they are nevertheless mentioned as abandoned in the description of the third path for the purpose of recommending it (cf. §155), so too these kinds of feeling can be understood as mentioned here for the purpose of recommending this jhāna.
Paccayaghātena vā ettha rāgadosānamatidūrabhāvaṃ dassetumpetā vuttāti veditabbā. Or alternatively, they can be understood as mentioned for the purpose of showing that greed and hate are very far away owing to the removal of their conditions;
Etāsu hi sukhaṃ somanassassa paccayo, somanassaṃ rāgassa. for of these, pleasure (bliss) is a condition for joy, and joy for greed;
Dukkhaṃ domanassassa paccayo, domanassaṃ dosassa. pain is a condition for grief and grief for hate.
Sukhādighātena cassa sappaccayā rāgadosā hatāti atidūre hontīti. So with the removal of pleasure (bliss), etc., greed and hate are very far away since they are removed along with their conditions.
Adukkhamasukhanti dukkhābhāvena adukkhaṃ. 193. Which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure: no pain owing to absence of pain;
Sukhābhāvena asukhaṃ. no pleasure owing to absence of pleasure (bliss).
Etenettha dukkhasukhapaṭipakkhabhūtaṃ tatiyavedanaṃ dīpeti, na dukkhasukhābhāvamattaṃ. By this he indicates the third kind of feeling that is in opposition both to pain and to pleasure, not the mere absence of pain and pleasure.
Tatiyavedanā nāma adukkhamasukhā, upekkhātipi vuccati. This third kind of feeling named neither-pain-nor-pleasure is also called “equanimity.”
Sā iṭṭhāniṭṭhaviparītānubhavanalakkhaṇā, majjhattarasā, avibhūtapaccupaṭṭhānā, sukhadukkhanirodhapadaṭṭhānāti veditabbā. It has the characteristic of experiencing what is contrary to both the desirable and the undesirable. Its function is neutral. Its manifestation is unevident. Its proximate cause should be understood as the cessation of pleasure (bliss).
89.Upekkhāsatipārisuddhinti upekkhāya janitasatiyā pārisuddhiṃ. 194. And has purity of mindfulness due to equanimity: has purity of mindfulness brought about by equanimity.
Imasmiñhi jhāne suparisuddhā sati, yā ca tassā satiyā pārisuddhi, sā upekkhāya katā, na aññena. For the mindfulness in this jhāna is quite purified, and its purification is effected by equanimity, not by anything else.
Tasmā etaṃ "upekkhāsatipārisuddhi"nti vuccati. That is why it is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
Vibhaṅgepi vuttaṃ "ayaṃ sati imāya upekkhāya visadā hoti parisuddhā pariyodātā. Also it is said in the Vibhaṅga: “This mindfulness is cleared, purified, clarified, by equanimity;
Tena vuccati upekkhāsatipārisuddhī"ti (vibha. 597). hence it is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity” (Vibh 261).
Yāya ca upekkhāya ettha satiyā pārisuddhi hoti, sā atthato tatramajjhattatātiveditabbā. And the equanimity due to which there comes to be this purity of mindfulness should be understood as specific neutrality in meaning.
Na kevalañcettha tāya satiyeva parisuddhā, apica kho sabbepi sampayuttadhammā, satisīsena pana desanā vuttā. And not only mindfulness is purified by it here, but also all associated states. However, the teaching is given under the heading of mindfulness.
Tattha kiñcāpi ayaṃ upekkhā heṭṭhāpi tīsu jhānesu vijjati. 195.Herein, this equanimity exists in the three lower jhānas too;
Yathā pana divā sūriyappabhābhibhavā sommabhāvena ca attano upakārakattena vā sabhāgāya rattiyā alābhā divā vijjamānāpi candalekhā aparisuddhā hoti apariyodātā, evamayampi tatramajjhattupekkhācandalekhā vitakkādipaccanīkadhammatejābhibhavā sabhāgāya ca upekkhāvedanārattiyā appaṭilābhā vijjamānāpi paṭhamādijjhānabhedesu aparisuddhā hoti. but just as, although a crescent moon exists by day but is not purified or clear since it is outshone by the sun’s radiance in the daytime or since it is deprived of the night, which is its ally owing to gentleness and owing to helpfulness to it, so too, this crescent moon of equanimity consisting in specific neutrality exists in the first jhāna, etc., but it is not purified since it is outshone by the glare of the opposing states consisting in applied thought, etc., and since it is deprived of the night of equanimity-as-feeling for its ally;
Tassā ca aparisuddhāya divā aparisuddhacandalekhāya pabhā viya sahajātāpi satiādayo aparisuddhāva honti. and because it is not purified, the conascent mindfulness and other states are not purified either, like the unpurified crescent moon’s radiance by day.
Tasmā tesu ekampi "upekkhāsatipārisuddhi"nti na vuttaṃ. That is why no one among these [first three jhānas] is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
Idha pana vitakkādipaccanīkadhammatejābhibhavābhāvā sabhāgāya ca upekkhāvedanārattiyā paṭilābhā ayaṃ tatramajjhattupekkhācandalekhā ativiya parisuddhā. But here this crescent moon consisting in specific neutrality is utterly pure because it is not outshone by the glare of the opposing states consisting in applied thought, etc., and because it has the night of equanimity-as-feeling for its ally.
Tassā parisuddhattā parisuddhacandalekhāya pabhā viya sahajātāpi satiādayo parisuddhā honti pariyodātā. And since it is purified, the conascent mindfulness and other states are purified and clear also, like the purified crescent moon’s radiance.
Tasmā idameva "upekkhāsatipārisuddhi"nti vuttanti veditabbaṃ. That, it should be understood, is why only this jhāna is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
Catutthanti gaṇanānupubbatā catutthaṃ. 196.Fourth: it is fourth in numerical series;
Idaṃ catutthaṃ samāpajjatītipi catutthaṃ. and it is fourth because it is entered upon fourth.
Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "ekaṅgavippahīnaṃ duvaṅgasamannāgata"nti, tattha somanassassa pahānavasena ekaṅgavippahīnatā veditabbā. 197. Then it was said, which abandons one factor, possesses two factors (§183); here the abandoning of the one factor should be understood as the abandoning of joy.
Tañca pana somanassaṃ ekavīthiyaṃ purimajavanesuyeva pahīyati. But that joy is actually abandoned in the first impulsions of the same cognitive series (cf. §185).
Tenassa taṃ pahānaṅganti vuccati. Hence it is called its factor of abandoning.
Upekkhāvedanā cittassekaggatāti imesaṃ pana dvinnaṃ uppattivasena duvaṅgasamannāgatatā veditabbā. The possession of the two factors should be understood as the arising of the two, namely, equanimity as feeling and unification of mind.
Sesaṃ paṭhamajjhāne vuttanayameva. The rest is as stated in the case of the first jhāna.
Esa tāva catukkajjhāne nayo. This, in the first place, is according to the fourfold reckoning of jhāna.
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