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Принцип расширения представления Палийский оригинал

пали Nyanamoli thera - english Комментарии
77.Tatrāyaṃ vaḍḍhananayo, tena yoginā taṃ nimittaṃ pattavaḍḍhanapūvavaḍḍhanabhattavaḍḍhanalatāvaḍḍhanadussavaḍḍhanayogena avaḍḍhetvā yathā nāma kassako kasitabbaṭṭhānaṃ naṅgalena paricchinditvā paricchedabbhantare kasati, yathā vā pana bhikkhū sīmaṃ bandhantā paṭhamaṃ nimittāni sallakkhetvā pacchā bandhanti, evameva tassa yathāladdhassa nimittassa anukkamena ekaṅguladvaṅgulativaṅgulacaturaṅgulamattaṃ manasā paricchinditvā yathāparicchedaṃ vaḍḍhetabbaṃ. 127. The way to extend it is this.The meditator should not extend the sign as a clay bowl or a cake or boiled rice or a creeper or a piece of cloth is extended. He should first delimit with his mind successive sizes for the sign, according as acquired, that is to say, one finger, two fingers, three fingers, four fingers, and then extend it by the amount delimited, just as a ploughman delimits with the plough the area to be ploughed and then ploughs within the area delimited, or just as bhikkhus fixing a boundary first observe the marks and then fix it.
Aparicchinditvā pana na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ. He should not, in fact, extend it without having delimited [the amount it is to be extended by].
Tato vidatthiratanapamukhapariveṇavihārasīmānaṃ gāmanigamajanapadarajjasamuddasīmānañca paricchedavasena vaḍḍhayantena cakkavāḷaparicchedena vā tato vāpi uttari paricchinditvā vaḍḍhetabbaṃ. After that has been done, he can further extend it, doing so by delimiting successive boundaries of, say, a span, a ratana (=2 spans), the veranda, the surrounding space,38 the monastery, and the boundaries of the village, the town, the district, the kingdom and the ocean, [153] making the extreme limit the world-sphere or even beyond. Comm. NT: 38. For pamukha—“veranda” see n. 2 above. Pariveṇa—“surrounding space”: this meaning, not given in PED, is brought out clearly in XI.7.
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Yathā hi haṃsapotakā pakkhānaṃ uṭṭhitakālato paṭṭhāya parittaṃ parittaṃ padesaṃ uppatantā paricayaṃ katvā anukkamena candimasūriyasantikaṃ gacchanti, evameva bhikkhu vuttanayena nimittaṃ paricchinditvā vaḍḍhento yāva cakkavāḷaparicchedā tato vā uttari vaḍḍheti. 128. Just as young swans first starting to use their wings soar a little distance at a time, and by gradually increasing it eventually reach the presence of the moon and sun, so too when a bhikkhu extends the sign by successive delimitations in the way described, he can extend it up to the limit of the world- sphere or even beyond.
Athassa taṃ nimittaṃ vaḍḍhitavaḍḍhitaṭṭhāne pathaviyā ukkūlavikūlanadīviduggapabbatavisamesu saṅkusatasamabbhāhataṃ usabhacammaṃ viya hoti. 129. Then that sign [appears] to him like an ox hide stretched out with a hundred pegs39 over the earth’s ridges and hollows, river ravines, tracts of scrub and thorns, and rocky inequalities (see M III 105) in any area to which it has been extended. Comm. NT: 39. Samabbhāhata—“stretch flat”: not in this sense in PED. This word replaces the word suvihata used at M III 105 where this clause is borro...
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Tasmiṃ pana nimitte pattapaṭhamajjhānena ādikammikena samāpajjanabahulena bhavitabbaṃ, na paccavekkhaṇabahulena. When a beginner has reached the first jhāna in this sign, he should enter upon it often without reviewing it much.
Paccavekkhaṇabahulassa hi jhānaṅgāni thūlāni dubbalāni hutvā upaṭṭhahanti. For the first jhāna factors occur crudely and weakly in one who reviews it much.
Athassa tāni evaṃ upaṭṭhitattā upari ussukkanāya paccayataṃ āpajjanti. Then because of that they do not become conditions for higher endeavour.
So appaguṇe jhāne ussukkamāno pattapaṭhamajjhānā ca parihāyati, na ca sakkoti dutiyaṃ pāpuṇituṃ. While he is endeavouring for the unfamiliar [higher jhāna] he falls away from the first jhāna and fails to reach the second.
Tenāha bhagavā – 130. Hence the Blessed One said:
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate carituṃ. “Bhikkhus, suppose there were a foolish stupid mountain cow, with no knowledge of fields and no skill in walking on craggy mountains,
Tassā evamassa 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva disaṃ gaccheyyaṃ, akhāditapubbāni ca tiṇāni khādeyyaṃ, apītapubbāni ca pānīyāni piveyya'nti. who thought: ‘What if I walked in a direction I never walked in before, ate grass I never ate before, drank water I never drank before?’
Sā purimaṃ pādaṃ na supatiṭṭhitaṃ patiṭṭhāpetvā pacchimaṃ pādaṃ uddhareyya, sā na ceva agatapubbaṃ disaṃ gaccheyya, na ca akhāditapubbāni tiṇāni khādeyya, na ca apītapubbāni pānīyāni piveyya. and without placing her forefoot properly she lifted up her hind foot; then she would not walk in the direction she never walked in before or eat the grass she never ate before or drink the water she never drank before,
Yasmiñcassā padese ṭhitāya evamassa 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva - pe - piveyya'nti. ‘What if I walked in a direction I never walked in before … drank water I never drank before?
Tañca padesaṃ na sotthinā paccāgaccheyya. and also she would not get back safely to the place where she had thought,
Taṃ kissa hetu ? Why is that?
Tathā hi sā, bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate carituṃ, evameva kho, bhikkhave, idhekacco bhikkhu bālo abyatto akhettaññū akusalo vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ. Because that mountain cow was foolish and stupid with no knowledge of fields and no skill in walking on craggy mountains. So too, bhikkhus, here is a certain foolish stupid bhikkhu with no knowledge of fields and no skill, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, in entering upon and dwelling in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied thought and sustained thought with happiness and bliss born of seclusion;
So taṃ nimittaṃ nāsevati, na bhāveti, na bahulīkaroti, na svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti, tassa evaṃ hoti 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā - pe - dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyya'nti. he does not repeat, develop or cultivate that sign or properly establish it. He thinks: ‘What if with the subsiding of applied and sustained thought I entered upon and dwelt in the second jhāna, which is … with happiness and bliss born of concentration?’ [154]
So na sakkoti vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā - pe - dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ. He is unable with the subsiding of applied and sustained thought to enter upon and dwell in the second jhāna, which is … with happiness and bliss born of concentration.
Tassevaṃ hoti 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyya'nti. Then he thinks: ‘What if, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, I entered upon and dwelt in the first jhāna, which is … with happiness and bliss born of seclusion?’
So na sakkoti vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ. He is unable, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, to enter upon and dwell in the first jhāna which is … with happiness and bliss born of seclusion.
Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ubhato bhaṭṭho ubhato parihīno, seyyathāpi sā gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate caritu"nti (a. ni. 9.35). This bhikkhu is called one who has slipped between the two, who has fallen between the two, just like the foolish stupid mountain cow with no knowledge of fields and no skill in walking on craggy mountains …” (A IV 418–19).
Tasmānena tasmiṃyeva tāva paṭhamajjhāne pañcahākārehi ciṇṇavasinā bhavitabbaṃ. 131. Therefore he should acquire mastery in the five ways first of all with respect to the first jhāna.
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