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Nidānasodhanaṃ Палийский оригинал

пали Nyanamoli thera - english Комментарии
Idāni yāyaṃ – 3. Now it was said in the Schedule above:
"Yena vuttaṃ yadā yattha, yasmā cetesa dīpanā; which illustrates as well By whom ’twas spoken, when, where, why,
Nidānaṃ sodhayitvāssa, karissāmatthavaṇṇana"nti. – ‘ I shall set out to clarify Its Source, And then a comment I shall tell.’
Mātikā nikkhittā, tattha idaṃ mettasuttaṃ bhagavatāva vuttaṃ, na sāvakādīhi, tañca pana yadā himavantapassato devatāhi ubbāḷhā bhikkhū bhagavato santikaṃ āgatā, tadā sāvatthiyaṃ tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ parittatthāya kammaṭṭhānatthāya ca vuttanti evaṃ tāva saṅkhepato etesaṃ padānaṃ dīpanā nidānasodhanā veditabbā. Herein, this Lovingkindness Sutta was spoken by the Blessed One, not by disciples, etc.; and that was when bhikkhus, who had been harassed by deities on the slopes of the Himalayas, had gone to the Blessed One’s presence; and it was uttered then at Savatthi as a meditation subject with the purpose of [providing] a Safeguard for those bhikkhus. That, it should be understood in brief to start with, is how the clarification of the source illustrates those questions.
Vitthārato pana evaṃ veditabbā – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati upakaṭṭhāya vassūpanāyikāya, tena kho pana samayena sambahulā nānāverajjakā bhikkhū bhagavato santike kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā tattha tattha vassaṃ upagantukāmā bhagavantaṃ upasaṅkamanti. 4. But in detail it should be understood as follows. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthi when the [time for the] taking up of the Residence for the Rains 1 was near at hand. Now on that occasion many bhikkhus from various countries, who were desirous of taking up residence for the rains in various places after taking a meditation subject in the Blessed One’s presence, had approached the Blessed One.
Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā rāgacaritānaṃ saviññāṇakaaviññāṇakavasena ekādasavidhaṃ asubhakammaṭṭhānaṃ, dosacaritānaṃ catubbidhaṃ mettādikammaṭṭhānaṃ, mohacaritānaṃ maraṇassatikammaṭṭhānādīni, vitakkacaritānaṃ ānāpānassatipathavīkasiṇādīni, saddhācaritānaṃ buddhānussatikammaṭṭhānādīni, buddhicaritānaṃ catudhātuvavatthānādīnīti iminā nayena caturāsītisahassappabhedacaritānukūlāni kammaṭṭhānāni katheti. And there he had expounded meditation subjects suitable for the eighty-four thousand shades of temperament in the following way, that is to say: for those of lustful temperament he showed Loathesomeness as a meditation subject of the eleven kinds as with consciousness and without consciousness for those of hating temperament, the fourfold meditation subject beginning with Lovingkindness; for those of deluded temperament, the meditation subject consisting in Mindfulness of Death, etc.; for those of speculative-thinking temperament, Mindfulness of Breathing, the Earth Universal, etc.; for those of faithful temperament, the meditation subjects consisting of the Recollections of the Enlightened One, etc.; and for those of intelligent (discovering) temperament, the Definition of the Four Elements.
Atha kho pañcamattāni bhikkhusatāni bhagavato santike kammaṭṭhānaṃ uggahetvā sappāyasenāsanañca gocaragāmañca pariyesamānāni anupubbena gantvā paccante himavantena saddhiṃ ekābaddhaṃ nīlakācamaṇisannibhasilātalaṃ sītalaghanacchāyanīlavanasaṇḍamaṇḍitaṃ muttājālarajatapaṭṭasadisavālukākiṇṇabhūmibhāgaṃ sucisātasītalajalāsayaparivāritaṃ pabbatamaddasaṃsu. So when [a party of] five hundred bhikkhus had learnt each a meditation subject in the Blessed One's presence and were seeking a suitable resting place with a village as alms resort, eventually in the outland country they came in sight of a mountain forming part of the Himalaya range. While its surface glittered like blue quartz crystal, it was embellished with a cool dense shady green forest grove and a stretch of ground strewn with sand resembling a pearlnet or a silver sheet, and it was furnished with a clean spring of grateful cool water.
Atha te bhikkhū tatthekarattiṃ vasitvā pabhātāya rattiyā sarīraparikammaṃ katvā tassa avidūre aññataraṃ gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisiṃsu. Now when the bhikkhus had spent one night there and the dawn was drawing near, they attended to the needs of the physical frame and then went for alms into a town not far distant.
Gāmo ghananivesanasanniviṭṭhakulasahassayutto, manussā cettha saddhā pasannā te paccante pabbajitadassanassa dullabhatāya bhikkhū disvā eva pītisomanassajātā hutvā te bhikkhū bhojetvā "idheva, bhante, temāsaṃ vasathā"ti yācitvā pañca padhānakuṭisatāni kāretvā tattha mañcapīṭhapānīyaparibhojanīyaghaṭādīni sabbūpakaraṇāni paṭiyādesuṃ. The town was connected with a thousand clans and constructed as a community-residence, and the people there had faith and confidence. Since it is hard in the outlands to get a sight of those gone forth into homelessness, they were happy and joyful when they saw the bhikkhus, and they fed them and begged them to stay on there for the three months [of obligatory residence during the Rains], and they had five hundred work-rooms built and furnished with all such necessaries as beds, chairs, pots for drinking and washing water, and so on.
Bhikkhū dutiyadivase aññaṃ gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisiṃsu. On the following day the bhikkhus went into another town for alms,
Tatthapi manussā tatheva upaṭṭhahitvā vassāvāsaṃ yāciṃsu. and there too the people served them in like manner and begged them to stay on for the Rains.
Bhikkhū "asati antarāye"ti adhivāsetvā taṃ vanasaṇḍaṃ pavisitvā sabbarattindivaṃ āraddhavīriyā yāmaghaṇḍikaṃ koṭṭetvā yonisomanasikārabahulā viharantā rukkhamūlāni upagantvā nisīdiṃsu. The bhikkhus consented subject to there being no obstacle. They re-entered the wood, where they [arranged to keep up] energy night and day by having a wood-block struck for the watches, and abiding much in reasoned attention, they went to the roots of trees and sat down.
Sīlavantānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ tejena vihatatejā rukkhadevatā attano attano vimānā oruyha dārake gahetvā ito cito vicaranti. The tree deities were discouraged by the virtuous bhikkhus' courage, and they came down from their own mansions and wandered back and forth with their children.
Seyyathāpi nāma rājūhi vā rājamahāmattehi vā gāmakāvāsaṃ gatehi gāmavāsīnaṃ gharesu okāse gahite gharamanussakā gharā nikkhamitvā aññatra vasantā "kadā nu gamissantī"ti dūratova olokenti, evameva devatā attano attano vimānāni chaḍḍetvā ito cito ca vicarantiyo dūratova olokenti "kadā nu bhadantā gamissantī"ti. Just as when a block of houses is commandeered from villagers by kings or royal ministers and the human inhabitants of the houses who have had to evacuate them and go to live elsewhere watch from a distance, [wondering] ' When are they going away? ', so too the deities came down from their own mansions and wandered back and forth, watching from a distance [and wondering] 'When are the venerable ones going away?'
Tato evaṃ samacintesuṃ "paṭhamavassūpagatā bhikkhū avassaṃ temāsaṃ vasissanti, mayaṃ pana tāva ciraṃ dārake gahetvā okkamma vasituṃ na sakkoma, handa mayaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ bhayānakaṃ ārammaṇaṃ dassemā"ti. Next they thought thus ' Bhikkhus who enter upon the first period of residence for the Rains will certainly stay on for three months; but we cannot live with our children away from home for so long. Let us show the bhikkhus some object that will scare them away'.
Tā rattiṃ bhikkhūnaṃ samaṇadhammakaraṇavelāya bhiṃsanakāni yakkharūpāni nimminitvā purato purato tiṭṭhanti, bheravasaddañca karonti. So in the night when it was the bhikkhus' time to give effect to the monks' True Ideal, they created terrifying forms of spirits, and standing in front of each of them, they made a dreadful noise.
Bhikkhūnaṃ tāni rūpāni disvā tañca saddaṃ sutvā hadayaṃ phandi, dubbaṇṇā ca ahesuṃ uppaṇḍuppaṇḍukajātā. When the bhikkhus saw the forms and heard the noise, their hearts quailed, they grew pale and jaundiced
Tena te bhikkhū cittaṃ ekaggaṃ kātuṃ nāsakkhiṃsu, tesaṃ anekaggacittānaṃ bhayena ca punappunaṃ saṃviggānaṃ sati sammussi, tato tesaṃ muṭṭhasatīnaṃ duggandhāni ārammaṇāni payojesuṃ, tesaṃ tena duggandhena nimmathiyamānamiva matthaluṅgaṃ ahosi, gāḷhā sīsavedanā uppajjiṃsu, na ca taṃ pavattiṃ aññamaññassa ārocesuṃ. and they could no longer unify their cognizance. When they were harassed again and again by this fear, with their cognizance ununified they forgot their mindfulness. As soon as they had forgotten their mindfulness, the deities harassed them with bad smells as objects. Their brains seemed to smother in the stench, with feelings of oppression in their heads. However, they did not mention their hauntings to each other.
Athekadivasaṃ saṅghattherassa upaṭṭhānakāle sabbesu sannipatitesu saṅghatthero pucchi "tumhākaṃ, āvuso, imaṃ vanasaṇḍaṃ paviṭṭhānaṃ katipāhaṃ ativiya parisuddho chavivaṇṇo ahosi pariyodāto, vippasannāni ca indriyāni, etarahi panattha kisā dubbaṇṇā uppaṇḍuppaṇḍukajātā, kiṃ vo idha asappāya"nti. Then one day when all had assembled at the time for waiting on the Senior Elder of the Community, he asked them 'Friends, when you went into this wood, the colour of your skin was quite pure and bright for some days and your faculties were clear; but now you are lean and pale and jaundiced. What does not suit you here? '.
Tato eko bhikkhu āha – "ahaṃ, bhante, rattiṃ īdisañca īdisañca bheravārammaṇaṃ passāmi ca suṇāmi ca, īdisañca gandhaṃ ghāyāmi, tena me cittaṃ na samādhiyatī"ti, eteneva upāyena sabbeva te taṃ pavattiṃ ārocesuṃ. Then a bhikkhu said ' Venerable sir, at night I saw and heard such-and-such a dreadful object and I smelt such-and-such a smell, and so my mind was not concentrated, and all told in the same way what had been happening.
Saṅghatthero āha – "bhagavatā, āvuso, dve vassūpanāyikā paññattā, amhākañca idaṃ senāsanaṃ asappāyaṃ, āyāmāvuso, bhagavato santikaṃ gantvā aññaṃ sappāyasenāsanaṃ pucchāmā"ti. The Senior Elder said 'Friends, two kinds of Entry upon Residence for the Rains have been described by the Blessed One (A.i. 51), and this resting place does not suit us. So let us go to the Blessed One and ask about another resting place that will suit us'.
"Sādhu, bhante"ti te bhikkhū therassa paṭissuṇitvā sabbeva senāsanaṃ saṃsāmetvā pattacīvaramādāya anupalittattā kulesu kañci anāmantetvā eva yena sāvatthi tena cārikaṃ pakkamiṃsu. The others agreed, and so they all put their resting places in order, and then they took their bowls and [outer] robes and without even telling anyone — for they had no attachments among the clans — they set out to wander by stages to Sävatthi.
Anupubbena sāvatthiṃ gantvā bhagavato santikaṃ āgamiṃsu. They went to the Blessed One.
Bhagavā te bhikkhū disvā etadavoca – "na, bhikkhave, antovassaṃ cārikā caritabbāti mayā sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ, kissa tumhe cārikaṃ carathā"ti. When he saw them, he said 'Bhikkhus, a training rule has been made known by me saying that no one is to go wandering during the Rains (Vin.i. 138). Why are you wandering? '.
Te bhagavato sabbamārocesuṃ. They told the Blessed One all that had happened.
Bhagavā āvajjento sakalajambudīpe antamaso catupādapīṭhakaṭṭhānamattampi tesaṃ sappāyasenāsanaṃ nāddasa. The Blessed One adverted to the whole of Jambudipa, but he saw not even so much as a place for a four-legged chair that might suit them as a resting place.
Atha te bhikkhū āha – "na, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ aññaṃ sappāyasenāsanaṃ atthi, tattheva tumhe viharantā āsavakkhayaṃ pāpuṇissatha, gacchatha, bhikkhave, tameva senāsanaṃ upanissāya viharatha, sace pana devatāhi abhayaṃ icchatha, imaṃ parittaṃ uggaṇhatha. Then he told them 'Bhikkhus, there is no other resting place that will suit you. It is only by living there that you might reach the exhaustion of taints. So go and occupy that same resting place. But if you want to be free from fear of deities, then learn this safeguard;
Etañhi vo parittañca kammaṭṭhānañca bhavissatī"ti idaṃ suttamabhāsi. for this will be both a safeguard and a meditation subject for you' and he uttered this Sutta.
Apare panāhu – "gacchatha, bhikkhave, tameva senāsanaṃ upanissāya viharathā"ti idañca vatvā bhagavā āha – "apica kho āraññakena pariharaṇaṃ ñātabbaṃ. According to some others, [however, he said] ' So go and occupy that same resting place' after saying which, the Blessed One added ' A forest-dwelling bhikkhu should know the protection [procedure],
Seyyathidaṃ – sāyaṃ pātaṃ karaṇavasena dve mettā dve parittā dve asubhā dve maraṇassatī aṭṭhamahāsaṃvegavatthusamāvajjanañca, aṭṭha mahāsaṃvegavatthūni nāma jātijarābyādhimaraṇaṃ cattāri apāyadukkhānīti, atha vā jātijarābyādhimaraṇāni cattāri, apāyadukkhaṃ pañcamaṃ, atīte vaṭṭamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ, anāgate vaṭṭamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ, paccuppanne āhārapariyeṭṭhimūlakaṃ dukkha"nti. that is to say, by doing every evening and morning two [spells of] Lovingkindness, two [of] Safeguards, two [of] Loathesomeness, and two [of] Mindfulness of Death, and also by adverting to the Eight Principal Grounds for a Sense of Urgency —and the Eight Principal Grounds for a Sense of Urgency are either birth, ageing, sickness, death, and the suffering in the four states of deprivation, or else they are the four consisting of birth, ageing, sickness, and death, and then the suffering in the states of deprivation as the fifth, the suffering rooted in the round during the past, the suffering rooted in the round during the future, and the suffering rooted in the search for nutriment'.
Evaṃ bhagavā pariharaṇaṃ ācikkhitvā tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ mettatthañca parittatthañca vipassanāpādakajjhānatthañca idaṃ suttamabhāsīti. And [they say that] when the Blessed One had told those bhikkhus the protection procedure, he then uttered this Sutta for the sake of Lovingkindness, for the sake of a Safeguard, and for the sake of the jhana [obtainable through loving-kindness that is to be used] as the basis for insight [into the Three Characteristics of impermanence, suffering, and not-self].
Evaṃ vitthāratopi "yena vuttaṃ yadā yattha, yasmā ce"ti etesaṃ padānaṃ dīpanā nidānasodhanā veditabbā. 11. That is how the classification of the source, which illustrates why’, should be understood in detail.
Ettāvatā ca yā sā "yena vuttaṃ yadā yattha, yasmā cetesa dīpanā. And at this point, namely, 'which illustrates as well By whom ’twas spoken, when, where, why'
Nidānaṃ sodhayitvā"ti mātikā ṭhapitā, sā sabbākārena vitthāritā hoti. I shall set out to clarify Its Source,' what was laid down in the Schedule has been given in detail in all aspects.
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