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Paṭhamagāthāvaṇṇanā Палийский оригинал

пали Nyanamoli thera - english Комментарии
1.Idāni "assa karissāmatthavaṇṇana"nti vuttattā evaṃ katanidānasodhanassa assa suttassa atthavaṇṇanā ārabbhate. And now, since it was also said 'And then a comment I shall tell' there begins the commentary on the meaning of this discourse whose source has just been clarified in this way.
Tattha karaṇīyamatthakusalenāti imissā paṭhamagāthāya tāva ayaṃ padavaṇṇanā – karaṇīyanti kātabbaṃ, karaṇārahanti attho. Herein, there follows first a word-commentarv on the first stanza: 'What should be done by one with skill in good'. Should be done: karaniyam=kätabbam (alternative gerundive);it is worth doing (karanäraham).
Atthoti paṭipadā, yaṃ vā kiñci attano hitaṃ, taṃ sabbaṃ araṇīyato atthoti vuccati, araṇīyato nāma upagantabbato. Good (attha) is the Way; or alternatively, anything at all that is beneficial to oneself (attano hitam), since it should be honoured (araniya), is ' good ' (attha) —and ' since it should be honoured ' means since it should be approached.
Atthe kusalena atthakusalena atthachekenāti vuttaṃ hoti. By one with skill in good: atthakusalena=atthe kusalena (resolution of compound); by one clever in good, is what is meant.
Yanti aniyamitapaccattaṃ. What (yam): either (1) this is a nominative indefinite [pronoun agreeing with karaniyam],
Nti niyamitaupayogaṃ, ubhayampi vā yaṃ tanti paccattavacanaṃ. and this (tam) is an accusative definite [pronoun agreeing with santam padam], or else (2) the words yan tarn (in this case ' that which ') are both nominative [agreeing with karaniyam], and [only] the words
Santaṃ padanti upayogavacanaṃ, tattha lakkhaṇato santaṃ, pattabbato padaṃ, nibbānassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. santam padam (' the State of Peace') are accusative— and herein, this last is a designation for extinction, since that is ' peace ' (santam) by characteristic and it is a ' state' (padam) by its reachability (pattabbata).
Abhisameccāti abhisamāgantvā. To have attained (abhisa-mecca): having come up to (abhisamägantvä).
Sakkotīti sakko, samattho paṭibaloti vuttaṃ hoti. He can (sakkoti), thus he is able (sakko); what is meant is that he is capable, has power.
Ujūti ajjavayutto. Right (uju): yoked to rectitude (ajjava).
Suṭṭhu ujūti suhuju. He is thoroughly right (sutthuuju) thus he is upright (süjü).
Sukhaṃ vaco tasminti suvaco. Speaking (vaca) [to him] is easy (sukha) in his case, thus he is meek (suvaco—lit. ' easily-speakable-to).
Assāti bhaveyya. He would be: assa=bhaveyya (alternative grammatical form).
Mudūti maddavayutto. Gentle (mudu— lit. 'malleable'): yoked to mildness (maddava).
Na atimānīti anatimāni. Not proud: anatimänl=na atimänl (alternative negative).
Ayaṃ panettha atthavaṇṇanā – karaṇīyamatthakusalena, yantaṃ santaṃ padaṃ abhisameccāti ettha tāva atthi karaṇīyaṃ, atthi akaraṇīyaṃ. Now here is a commentary on the meaning of the two clauses:' What should be done by one with skill in good, The State of Peace to have attained is this.'
Tattha saṅkhepato sikkhattayaṃ karaṇīyaṃ. Herein, there is what should be done and there is what should not be done.
Sīlavipatti, diṭṭhivipatti, ācāravipatti, ājīvavipattīti evamādi akaraṇīyaṃ. Herein, briefly what should be done is the three Trainings and what should not be done comprises failure in virtue, failure in views, failure in conduct, failure in livelihood, and so on.
Tathā atthi atthakusalo, atthi anatthakusalo. Likewise there is one with skill in good and there is one without skill in good.
Tattha yo imasmiṃ sāsane pabbajitvā na attānaṃ sammā payojeti, khaṇḍasīlo hoti, ekavīsatividhaṃ anesanaṃ nissāya jīvikaṃ kappeti. Herein, one without skill in good is one gone forth in the Dispensation who does not devote himself rightly, whose virtue is torn (see A.iii. 54), who makes a living by depending on the twenty-one kinds of improper search —
Seyyathidaṃ – veḷudānaṃ pattadānaṃ pupphadānaṃ phaladānaṃ dantakaṭṭhadānaṃ mukhodakadānaṃ sinānadānaṃ cuṇṇadānaṃ mattikādānaṃ cāṭukamyataṃ muggasūpyataṃ pāribhaṭayataṃ jaṅghapesanikaṃ vejjakammaṃ dūtakammaṃ pahiṇagamanaṃ piṇḍapaṭipiṇḍaṃ dānānuppadānaṃ vatthuvijjaṃ nakkhattavijjaṃ aṅgavijjanti. namely, be depending [as a bhikkhu] on giving (trading) bamboos, giving leaves, giving flowers, giving fruits, giving tooth-sticks, giving mouth-washing water, giving bathing facilities, giving bath powder, giving clay, flattery, bean-soupery, fondling, carrying communications on foot, practising medicine, acting as a messenger, going on errands, getting almsfood given in exchange for alms food, science of lands, science of fields, science of astrology, science of limbs —,
Chabbidhe ca agocare carati. who goes to the sixfold wrong resort—
Seyyathidaṃ – vesiyāgocare vidhavathullakumārikapaṇḍakabhikkhunīpānāgāragocareti. namely, ' A harlot as resort, or a widow, oldmaid, eunuch, bhikkhuni, or a tavern;
Saṃsaṭṭho ca viharati rājūhi rājamahāmattehi titthiyehi titthiyasāvakehi ananulomikena gihisaṃsaggena, yāni vā pana tāni kulāni assaddhāni appasannāni anopānabhūtāni akkosakaparibhāsakāni anatthakāmāni ahitaaphāsukayogakkhemakāmāni bhikkhūnaṃ - pe - upāsikānaṃ, tathārūpāni kulāni sevati bhajati payirupāsati. who dwells associated with kings, kings' ministers, other sectarians, other sectarians' disciples, by association not in conformity [with the True Idea], who cultivates, frequents, and honours such clans as are faithless, without confidence, addicted to abuse and calumny and undesirous of good and desirous of harm, discomfort, and what is not safety from bondage, where bhikkhus [and bhikkhunis and laymen followers] and laywomen followers are concerned ' (Vbh. 246).
Ayaṃ anatthakusalo. - that one is without skill in good.
Yo pana imasmiṃ sāsane pabbajitvā attānaṃ sammā payojeti, anesanaṃ pahāya catupārisuddhisīle patiṭṭhātukāmo saddhāsīsena pātimokkhasaṃvaraṃ satisīsena indriyasaṃvaraṃ vīriyasīsena ājīvapārisuddhiṃ, paññāsīsena paccayapaṭisevanaṃ pūreti. But one gone forth in this Dispensation, who devotes himself rightly, and abandoning improper search and desiring to establish himself in the Virtue of Fourfold Purity (see Vis. Ch. i, §42/p. 15), fulfils the Restraint by Pätimokkha Rule under the heading of faith, Faculty-Restraint under the heading of mindfulness, Purification of Livelihood under the heading of energy, and [right] Use of the Requisite-Conditions [for the bhikkhu's life] under the heading of understanding.
Ayaṃ atthakusalo. - is one with skill in good.
Yo vā sattāpattikkhandhasodhanavasena pātimokkhasaṃvaraṃ, chadvāre ghaṭṭitārammaṇesu abhijjhādīnaṃ anuppattivasena indrisaṃvaraṃ, anesanaparivajjanavasena viññuppasatthabuddhabuddhasāvakavaṇṇitapaccayapaṭisevanena ca ājīvapārisuddhiṃ, yathāvuttapaccavekkhaṇavasena paccayapaṭisevanaṃ, catuiriyāpathaparivattane sātthakatādipaccavekkhaṇavasena sampajaññañca sodheti. And when he purifies Restraint by Pätimokkha Rule by means of purification in the seven categories of offences (see Ch. v, § 129), [purifies] Faculty-Restraint by means of non-arousing of covetousness and [ill will] when objects have impinged in the six doors [of the five faculties beginning with the eye, and that of the mind], [purifies] livelihood by means of avoidance of improper search and by use of what is commended by the wise and praised by the Enlightened Ones and their disciples, [purifies] the use of the [four] requisite-conditions by means of the reviewing already mentioned, and [purifies] Full Awareness (see M. i. 57) by means of the reviewing, in the case of alternation of the postures, the purposefulness, [suitability, resort, and non-delusion (see MA. i. 253-70)].
Ayampi atthakusalo. - he is also one with skill in good.
Yo vā yathā ūsodakaṃ paṭicca saṃkiliṭṭhaṃ vatthaṃ pariyodāpayati, chārikaṃ paṭicca ādāso, ukkāmukhaṃ paṭicca jātarūpaṃ, tathā ñāṇaṃ paṭicca sīlaṃ vodāyatīti ñatvā ñāṇodakena dhovanto sīlaṃ pariyodāpeti. And when he knows that virtue is cleaned with knowledge just as dirty cloth is cleaned with bean-water or a looking-glass with ashes or gold with a furnace, and he cleans his virtue by washing it in the water of knowledge, and that is when he guards his own Virtue Category most diligently,
Yathā ca kikī sakuṇikā aṇḍaṃ, camarī migo vāladhiṃ, ekaputtikā nārī piyaṃ ekaputtakaṃ, ekanayano puriso taṃ ekanayanañca rakkhati, tathā ativiya appamatto attano sīlakkhandhaṃ rakkhati, sāyaṃ pātaṃ paccavekkhamāno aṇumattampi vajjaṃ na passati. just as ahen bird guards her eggs, as a yak guards his tail, as a woman with an only child guards her dearly beloved only child, or as a one-eyed man guards his only eye (cf. Vis. Ch. i,§98/p. 36), and he reviews it evening and morning till he sees no slightest blame there.
Ayampi atthakusalo. - he is also one with skill in good.
Yo vā pana avippaṭisārakare sīle patiṭṭhāya kilesavikkhambhanapaṭipadaṃ paggaṇhāti, taṃ paggaṇhitvā kasiṇaparikammaṃ karoti, kasiṇaparikammaṃ katvā samāpattiyo nibbatteti. And when he becomes established in the virtue that provides non-remorse, when he exerts himself in the way of suppression of defilement and in the pursuit of that does the preliminary work on a Universal (kasina: see Vis.Chs. iv-v), and when, by doing the preliminary work on a Universal, he generates the attainment [of jhana].
Ayampi atthakusalo. - he is also one with skill in good.
Yo vā pana samāpattito vuṭṭhāya saṅkhāre sammasitvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti, ayaṃ atthakusalānaṃ aggo. But the acme of skill in good is when, having emerged from an attainment, he comprehends determinations (Vis.Chs. xviii-xxi) till he [eventually] reaches Arahantship.
Tattha ye ime yāva avippaṭisārakare sīle patiṭṭhānena yāva vā kilesavikkhambhanapaṭipadāyapaggahaṇena vaṇṇitā atthakusalā, te imasmiṃ atthe atthakusalāti adhippetā. Herein those 'with skill in good ', praised either in so far as they are established in the virtue that provides non-remorse, or [in so far as] they exert themselves in the ' way of suppression of defilement', [or in so far as they attain] the paths and fruitions, are 'those with skill in good ' in this sense.
Tathā vidhā ca te bhikkhū. And those bhikkhus were of such kinds.
Tena bhagavā te bhikkhū sandhāya ekapuggalādhiṭṭhānāya desanāya "karaṇīyamatthakusalenā"ti āha. Hence the Blessed One said What should be done by one with skill in good (karaniyam atthakusalena) with reference to those bhikkhus, but giving the teaching in terms of a single person.
Tato "kiṃ karaṇīya"nti tesaṃ sañjātakaṅkhānaṃ āha "yantaṃ santaṃ padaṃ abhisameccā"ti. Next, when they were wondering ' What should be done? ' , he told them The State of Peace to have attained is this (yan tam santam padamabhisamecca).
Ayamettha adhippāyo – taṃ buddhānubuddhehi vaṇṇitaṃ santaṃ nibbānapadaṃ paṭivedhavasena abhisamecca viharitukāmena yaṃ karaṇīyanti. Now the intention [can be taken] as follows. [It is] what (yam) should be done (karaniyam) by one who desires, after [contriving] to have attained (abhisamecca) [it] by penetration, to abide in this (tarn) extinction-State-of-Peace (santa.m nibbäna-padarh), which is praised by the Enlightened Ones and their like.
Ettha ca yanti imassa gāthāpadassa ādito vuttameva karaṇīyanti adhikārato anuvattati, taṃ santaṃ padaṃ abhisameccāti. And here ' what' (yam) implies only the practice that at the beginning of this line in the stanza it was said ' should be done ' (karaniyam) ;but then the clause ' to have attained the State of Peace is this' (tarn santarh padarh abhisamecca)
Ayaṃ pana yasmā sāvasesapāṭho attho, tasmā viharitukāmenāti vuttanti veditabbaṃ. must be understood as one whose meaning requires completing, which is why ' by one who desires . . . to abide in ' was said above (this para.).
Atha vā santaṃ padaṃ abhisameccāti anussavādivasena lokiyapaññāya nibbānapadaṃ "santa"nti ñatvā taṃ adhigantukāmena yantaṃ karaṇīyanti adhikārato anuvattati, taṃ karaṇīyamatthakusalenāti evampettha adhippāyo veditabbo. Or alternatively, the intention can be understood as follows. When through hearsay, etc., to this effect, namely, ' To have attained (abhisamecca) the State of Peace ', he knows with mundane understanding the extinction-State (nibbana-padarh) to be one of peace (santarh), and when he wants to arrive at it, then the 'what 'that (yantarn) it is proper as the practice should be done (karaniyam) by him is this (tarn) which should be done by one with skill in good (atthakusalena).
Atha vā "karaṇīyamatthakusalenā"ti vutte "ki"nti cintentānaṃ āha "yantaṃ santaṃ padaṃ abhisameccā"ti. (3) Or alternatively, it had been said that there is something that ' should be done by one with skill in good' (karaniyam atthakusalena), and the [bhikkhus] were wondering ' What? ', and then [the Blessed One] told them ' The State of Peace to have attained is this ' (yantam santam padam abhisamecca),
Tassevaṃ adhippāyo veditabbo – lokiyapaññāya santaṃ padaṃ abhisamecca yaṃ karaṇīyaṃ kātabbaṃ, taṃ karaṇīyaṃ, karaṇārahameva tanti vuttaṃ hoti. the intention of which can be understood also as follows. After [contriving] to have attained (abhisamecca) with mundane understanding the State of Peace (santarh padam), what (yam) should be done (karaniyarh) [is] this (tarn) — . what must be done (katabbam) is what should be done (karaniyam)] only that is worth doing (karariäraham), is what is meant
Kiṃ pana tanti ? But what is that?
Kimaññaṃ siyā aññatra tadadhigamupāyato, kāmañcetaṃ karaṇārahaṭṭhena sikkhattayadīpakena ādipadeneva vuttaṃ. What else should be done but [the doing that is] the means to that [State]? And, of course, this [means] is already expressed by the initial clause with its indication of the Three Trainings in the sense of their being worth doing;
Tathā hi tassa atthavaṇṇanāyaṃ avocumhā "atthi karaṇīyaṃ, atthi akaraṇīyaṃ. for we already said as much in the comment on the meaning, namely,' There is what should be done and there is what should not be done.
Tattha saṅkhepato sikkhattayaṃ karaṇīya"nti. Herein, briefly what should be done is the Three Trainings (§ 15)'.
Atisaṅkhepena desitattā pana tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ kehici viññātaṃ, kehici na viññātaṃ. Now while some of the bhikkhus understood it, some did not, since the teaching was extremely brief.
Tato yehi na viññātaṃ, tesaṃ viññāpanatthaṃ yaṃ visesato āraññakena bhikkhunā kātabbaṃ, taṃ vitthārento "sakko ujū ca suhujū ca, suvaco cassa mudu anatimānī"ti imaṃ tāva upaḍḍhagāthamāha. Consequently, in order to make those who had not yet understood understand, he uttered the second half-stanza, namely,' He would be able, right, upright, And meek and gentle and not proud giving in detail what must especially be done by a forest-dwelling bhikkhu.
Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti? What is meant?
Santaṃ padaṃ abhisamecca viharitukāmo, lokiyapaññāya vā taṃ abhisamecca tadadhigamāya paṭipajjamāno āraññako bhikkhu dutiyacatutthapadhāniyaṅgasamannāgamena kāye ca jīvite ca anapekkho hutvā saccappaṭivedhāya paṭipajjituṃ sakko assa, tathā kasiṇaparikammavattasamādānādīsu attano pattacīvarappaṭisaṅkharaṇādīsu ca yāni tāni sabrahmacārīnaṃ uccāvacāni kiṃ karaṇīyāni, tesu aññesu ca evarūpesu sakko assa dakkho analaso samattho. A forest-dwelling bhikkhu, who desires to abide in the State of Peace, after having contrived to attain it, or who,after contriving to attain it with [only] mundane understanding, is practising the way finally to arrive at it, would be able (sakkoassa) with the possession of the second and fourth factors of endeavour to practise for the penetration of the Truths without regard for body and life. Likewise, he would be able, that is, clever, unidle, capable, in the preliminary work for a Universal (kasina: see Vis. Ch. iv), in undertaking the duties, etc., and in repairing his own bowl, robes, etc., and in these and other such major and minor things to be done for companions in the Divine Life.
Sakko hontopi ca tatiyapadhāniyaṅgasamannāgamena uju assa. Being able, he would also be right (uju) with possession of the third factor of endeavour.
Uju hontopi ca sakiṃ ujubhāvena daharakāle vā ujubhāvena santosaṃ anāpajjitvā yāvajīvaṃ punappunaṃ asithilakaraṇena suṭṭhutaraṃ uju assa. Being right, instead of being content with being right once he would be more thoroughly right (sutthutararh uju), [that is, upright (süjü)] by repeatedly promoting non-laxity aslong as he lives.
Asaṭhatāya vā uju, amāyāvitāya suhuju. Or alternatively, he is right by means of non-fraudulence and upright by means of non-deceitfulness.
Kāyavacīvaṅkappahānena vā uju, manovaṅkappahānena suhuju. Or he is right with abandonment of crookedness of body and speech and upright with abandonment of crookedness of mind.
Asantaguṇassa vā anāvikaraṇena uju, asantaguṇena uppannassa lābhassa anadhivāsanena suhuju. Or he is right by non-publication of any special qualities [of jhana and path] that are non-existent [in himself] (see Vin. Päräjika 4) and upright by non-endurance of gain arisen on account of [such] non-existent special qualities.
Evaṃ ārammaṇalakkhaṇūpanijjhānehi purimadvayatatiyasikkhāhi payogāsayasuddhīhi ca uju ca suhuju ca assa. Thus he would be right and upright with the purity of ends and means consisting in meditation upon objects[of pure concentration] and upon the [three General] characteristics [of impermanence, etc.,] which are ensured respectively by the first pair of Trainings, [namely, the Higher Virtue and Higher Cognizance,] and by the third, [namely, the Higher Understanding.]
Na kevalañca uju ca suhuju ca, apica pana suvaco ca assa. And he would be not only right and upright but also meek (suvaco) as well;
Yo hi puggalo "idaṃ na kattabba"nti vutto "kiṃ te diṭṭhaṃ, kiṃ te sutaṃ, ko me sutvā vadasi, kiṃ upajjhāyo ācariyo sandiṭṭho sambhatto vā"ti vadeti, tuṇhībhāvena vā taṃ viheseti, sampaṭicchitvā vā na tathā karoti, so visesādhigamassa dūre hoti. for a person who, when told 'This ought not to be done ' says ' What has been seen by you? What has been heard by you? Who are you that you speak to me; are you a Preceptor, Teacher, friend, companion?' or obstructs with silence or accepts [the admonition] but does not act on it, is far from arriving at any distinction;
Yo pana ovadiyamāno "sādhu, bhante suṭṭhu vuttaṃ, attano vajjaṃ nāma duddasaṃ hoti, punapi maṃ evarūpaṃ disvā vadeyyātha anukampaṃ upādāya, cirassaṃ me tumhākaṃ santikā ovādo laddho"ti vadati, yathānusiṭṭhañca paṭipajjati, so visesādhigamassa avidūre hoti. but one who, when advised, says 'Good, venerable sir, well said. What is blameworthy is hard to see in oneself. If you should see me again thus, tell me out of compassion. May I long have advice from you ' and practises according as instructed, is not far from arriving at distinction.
Tasmā evaṃ parassa vacanaṃ sampaṭicchitvā karonto suvaco ca assa. That is why he would be meek (easily-speakable-to) by accepting [others' advice] and acting on it.
Yathā ca suvaco, evaṃ mudu assa. And he would be gentle (mudu:lit.' malleable ') just as he would be meek.
Mudūti gahaṭṭhehi dūtagamanapahiṇagamanādīsu niyujjamāno tattha mudubhāvaṃ akatvā thaddho hutvā vattapaṭipattiyaṃ sakalabrahmacariye ca mudu assa suparikammakatasuvaṇṇaṃ viya tattha tattha viniyogakkhamo. But while firm in not practising malleableness with laymen when pressed by them to go with messages, go on errands, etc., he would yet be as malleable (gentle) in the performance of the duties in the whole Divine Life as well-refined gold is for employment in this and that (see e.g. M.ii. 18).
Atha vā mudūti abhākuṭiko uttānamukho sukhasambhāso paṭisanthāravutti sutitthaṃ viya sukhāvagāho assa. Or alternatively, the word gentle [means that] he would be without grimaces (see Vis. Ch. i,§ 61/p. 23), open-countenanced, easy to talk with and as welcoming as a good ford with an easy approach.
Na kevalañca mudu, apica pana anatimānī assa, jātigottādīhi atimānavatthūhi pare nātimaññeyya, sāriputtatthero viya caṇḍālakumārakasamena cetasā vihareyyāti. And he would be not only gentle but also not proud (anatimani) as well; he would not be proud towards others on account of such grounds for pride as birth, race, etc., but would abide like the Elder Säriputta even-minded [to all alike] whether outcaste or prince (A. iv. 376).
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