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Прекрасное в трёх аспектах Палийский оригинал

пали Nyanamoli thera - english Комментарии
75.Tividhakalyāṇaṃdasalakkhaṇasampannanti ettha pana ādimajjhapariyosānavasena tividhakalyāṇatā. 110. Is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics (§79): the goodness in three ways is in the beginning, middle, and end.
Tesaṃyeva ca ādimajjhapariyosānānaṃ lakkhaṇavasena dasalakkhaṇasampannatā veditabbā. The possession of the ten characteristics should be understood as the characteristics of the beginning, middle, and end, too.
Tatrāyaṃ pāḷi – Here is the text:
"Paṭhamassa jhānassa paṭipadāvisuddhi ādi, upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe, sampahaṃsanā pariyosānaṃ, paṭhamassa jhānassa paṭipadāvisuddhi ādi, ādissa kati lakkhaṇāni? 111. “Of the first jhāna, purification of the way is the beginning, intensification of equanimity is the middle, and satisfaction is the end. “‘Of the first jhāna, purification of the way is the beginning’: how many characteristics has the beginning?
Ādissa tīṇi lakkhaṇāni, yo tassa paribandho, tato cittaṃ visujjhati, visuddhattā cittaṃ majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati, paṭipannattā tattha cittaṃ pakkhandati. The beginning has three characteristics: the mind is purified of obstructions to that [jhāna]; because it is purified the mind makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity; because it has made way the mind enters into that state.
Yañca paribandhato cittaṃ visujjhati, yañca visuddhattā cittaṃ majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati, yañca paṭipannattā tattha cittaṃ pakkhandati. And it is since the mind becomes purified of obstructions and, through being purified, makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity and, having made way, enters into that state,
Paṭhamassa jhānassa paṭipadāvisuddhi ādi, ādissa imāni tīṇi lakkhaṇāni. that the purification of the way is the beginning of the first jhāna. These are the three characteristics of the beginning.
Tena vuccati paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ ādikalyāṇañceva hoti tilakkhaṇasampannañca. Hence it is said: ‘The first jhāna is good in the beginning which possesses three characteristics. ’ [148]
"Paṭhamassa jhānassa upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe, majjhassa kati lakkhaṇāni? 112. “‘Of the first jhāna intensification of equanimity is the middle’: how many characteristics has the middle?
Majjhassa tīṇi lakkhaṇāni, visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati. The middle has three characteristics. He [now] looks on with equanimity at the mind that is purified; he looks on with equanimity at it as having made way for serenity; he looks on with equanimity at the appearance of unity.32 Comm. NT: 32. Four unities (ekatta) are given in the preceding paragraph of the same Paṭisambhidā ref.: “The unity consisting in the appearance of rel...
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Yañca visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati. And in that he [now] looks on with equanimity at the mind that is purified and looks on with equanimity at it as having made way for serenity and looks on with equanimity at the appearance of unity,
Paṭhamassa jhānassa upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe, majjhassa imāni tīṇi lakkhaṇāni. that intensification of equanimity is the middle of the first jhāna. These are the three characteristics of the middle.
Tena vuccati paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ majjhekalyāṇañceva hoti tilakkhaṇasampannañca. Hence it is said: ‘The first jhāna is good in the middle which possesses three characteristics. ’
"Paṭhamassa jhānassa sampahaṃsanā pariyosānaṃ, pariyosānassa kati lakkhaṇāni? 113. “‘Of the first jhāna satisfaction is the end’: how many characteristics has the end?
Pariyosānassa cattāri lakkhaṇāni, tattha jātānaṃ dhammānaṃ anativattanaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā, indriyānaṃ ekarasaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā, tadupagavīriyavāhanaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā, āsevanaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā. The end has four characteristics. The satisfaction in the sense that there was non-excess of any of the states arisen therein, and the satisfaction in the sense that the faculties had a single function, and the satisfaction in the sense that the appropriate energy was effective, and the satisfaction in the sense of repetition,
Paṭhamassa jhānassa sampahaṃsanā pariyosānaṃ, pariyosānassa imāni cattāri lakkhaṇāni. are the satisfaction in the end of the first jhāna. These are the four characteristics of the end.
Tena vuccati paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇañceva hoti catulakkhaṇasampannañcā"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.158). Hence it is said: ‘The first jhāna is good in the end which possesses four characteristics’” (Paṭis I 167–68).
Tatra paṭipadāvisuddhi nāma sasambhāriko upacāro. 114. Herein, purification of the way is access together with its concomitants.
Upekkhānubrūhanā nāma appanā. Intensification of equanimity is absorption.
Sampahaṃsanā nāma paccavekkhaṇāti evameke vaṇṇayanti. Satisfaction is reviewing. So some comment.33 Comm. NT: 33.
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Yasmā pana "ekattagataṃ cittaṃ paṭipadāvisuddhipakkhandañceva hoti upekkhānubrūhitañca ñāṇena ca sampahaṃsita"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.158) pāḷiyaṃ vuttaṃ, tasmā antoappanāyameva āgamanavasena paṭipadāvisuddhi, tatramajjhattupekkhāya kiccavasena upekkhānubrūhanā, dhammānaṃ anativattanādibhāvasādhanena pariyodāpakassa ñāṇassa kiccanipphattivasena sampahaṃsanā ca veditabbā. But it is said in the text, “The mind arrived at unity enters into purification of the way, is intensified in equanimity, and is satisfied by knowledge” (Paṭis I 167), and therefore it is from the standpoint within actual absorption that purification of the way firstly should be understood as the approach, with intensification of equanimity as the function of equanimity consisting in specific neutrality, and satisfaction as the manifestation of clarifying knowledge’s function in accomplishing non-excess of states.
Kathaṃ? How?
Yasmiñhi vāre appanā uppajjati, tasmiṃ yo nīvaraṇasaṅkhāto kilesagaṇo tassa jhānassa paribandho, tato cittaṃ visujjhati. 115. Firstly, in a cycle [of consciousness] in which absorption arises the mind becomes purified from the group of defilements called hindrances that are an obstruction to jhāna.
Visuddhattā āvaraṇavirahitaṃ hutvā majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati. Being devoid of obstruction because it has been purified, it makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity.
Majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ nāma samappavatto appanāsamādhiyeva. Now, it is the absorption concentration itself occurring evenly that is called the sign of serenity.
Tadanantaraṃ pana purimacittaṃ ekasantatipariṇāmanayena tathattamupagacchamānaṃ majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati nāma, evaṃ paṭipannattā tathattupagamanena tattha pakkhandati nāma. But the consciousness immediately before that [149] reaches that state by way of change in a single continuity (cf. XXII.1–6), and so it is said that it makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity. And it is said that it enters into that state by approaching it through having made way for it.
Evaṃ tāva purimacitte vijjamānākāranipphādikā paṭhamassa jhānassa uppādakkhaṇeyeva āgamanavasena paṭipadāvisuddhi veditabbā. That is why in the first place purification of the way, while referring to aspects existing in the preceding consciousness, should nevertheless be understood as the approach at the moment of the first jhāna’s actual arising.
Evaṃ visuddhassa pana tassa puna visodhetabbābhāvato visodhane byāpāraṃ akaronto visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati nāma. 116. Secondly, when he has more interest in purifying, since there is no need to re-purify what has already been purified thus, it is said that he looks on with equanimity at the mind that is purified.
Samathabhāvupagamanena samathapaṭipannassa puna samādhāne byāpāraṃ akaronto samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati nāma. And when he has no more interest in concentrating again what has already made way for serenity by arriving at the state of serenity, it is said that he looks on with equanimity at it as having made way for serenity.
Samathapaṭipannabhāvato eva cassa kilesasaṃsaggaṃ pahāya ekattena upaṭṭhitassa puna ekattupaṭṭhāne byāpāraṃ akaronto ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati nāma. And when he has no more interest in again causing appearance of unity in what has already appeared as unity through abandonment of its association with defilement in making way for serenity, it is said that he looks on with equanimity at the appearance of unity.
Evaṃ tatramajjhattupekkhāya kiccavasena upekkhānubrūhanā veditabbā. That is why intensification of equanimity should be understood as the function of equanimity that consists in specific neutrality.
Ye panete evaṃ upekkhānubrūhite tattha jātā samādhipaññāsaṅkhātā yuganaddhadhammā aññamaññaṃ anativattamānā hutvā pavattā, yāni ca saddhādīni indriyāni nānākilesehi vimuttattā vimuttirasena ekarasāni hutvā pavattāni, yañcesa tadupagaṃ tesaṃ anativattanaekarasabhāvānaṃ anucchavikaṃ vīriyaṃ vāhayati, yā cassa tasmiṃ khaṇe pavattā āsevanā, sabbepi te ākārā yasmā ñāṇena saṃkilesavodānesu taṃ taṃ ādīnavañca ānisaṃsañca disvā tathā tathā sampahaṃsitattā visodhitattā pariyodāpitattā nipphannāva, tasmā "dhammānaṃ anativattanādibhāvasādhanena pariyodāpakassa ñāṇassa kiccanipphattivasena sampahaṃsanā veditabbā"ti vuttaṃ. 117. And lastly, when equanimity was thus intensified, the states called concentration and understanding produced there, occurred coupled together without either one exceeding the other. And also the [five] faculties beginning with faith occurred with the single function (taste) of deliverance owing to deliverance from the various defilements. And also the energy appropriate to that, which was favourable to their state of non-excess and single function, was effective. And also its repetition occurs at that moment. 34 Now, all these [four] aspects are only produced because it is after seeing with knowledge the various dangers in defilement and advantages in cleansing that satisfiedness, purifiedness and clarifiedness ensue accordingly. That is the reason why it was said that satisfaction should be understood as the manifestation of clarifying knowledge’s function in accomplishing non-excess, etc., of states (§114). Comm. NT: 34.
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Tattha yasmā upekkhāvasena ñāṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti. 118. Herein, satisfaction as a function of knowledge is called “the end” since the knowledge is evident as due to onlooking equanimity,
Yathāha – "tathāpaggahitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhati, upekkhāvasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti, upekkhāvasena nānattakilesehi cittaṃ vimuccati, vimokkhavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. according as it is said: “He looks on with complete equanimity at the mind thus exerted; then the understanding faculty is outstanding as understanding due to equanimity. Owing to equanimity the mind is liberated from the many sorts of defilements; then the understanding faculty is outstanding as understanding due to liberation.
Vimuttattā te dhammā ekarasā honti. Because of being liberated these states come to have a single function;
Ekarasaṭṭhena bhāvanā"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.201). then [the understanding faculty is outstanding as understanding due to] development in the sense of the single function”35 (Paṭis II 25). Comm. NT: 35. The quotation is incomplete and the end should read, “… ekarasaṭṭhena bhāvanāvasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti.”
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Tasmā ñāṇakiccabhūtā sampahaṃsanā pariyosānanti vuttā.
Idāni paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇanti ettha gaṇanānupubbatā paṭhamaṃ, paṭhamaṃ uppannantipi paṭhamaṃ. 119. Now, as to the words and so he has attained the first jhāna … of the earth kasiṇa (§79): Here it is first because it starts a numerical series; [150] also it is first because it arises first.
Ārammaṇūpanijjhānato paccanīkajhāpanato vā jhānaṃ. It is called jhāna because of lighting (upanijjhāna) the object and because of burning up (jhāpana) opposition (Paṭis I 49).
Pathavīmaṇḍalaṃ pana sakalaṭṭhena pathavīkasiṇanti vuccati, taṃ nissāya paṭiladdhanimittampi, pathavīkasiṇanimitte paṭiladdhajhānampi. The disk of earth is called earth kasiṇa (paṭhavīkasiṇa—lit. “earth universal”) in the sense of entirety,36 and the sign acquired with that as its support and also the jhāna acquired in the earth-kasiṇa sign are so called too. Comm. NT: 36.
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Tatra imasmiṃ atthe jhānaṃ pathavīkasiṇanti veditabbaṃ. So that jhāna should be understood as of the earth kasiṇa in this sense,
Taṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ "paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇa"nti. with reference to which it was said above “and so he has attained to the first jhāna … of the earth kasiṇa.”
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