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Охрана дверей чувств как вид нравственности Палийский оригинал

пали Nyanamoli thera - english khantibalo - русский Комментарии
15.Yaṃ panetaṃ tadanantaraṃ "so cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā"tiādinā nayena dassitaṃ indriyasaṃvarasīlaṃ, tattha soti pātimokkhasaṃvarasīle ṭhito bhikkhu. 53.(b) Now, as regards the virtue of restraint of faculties shown next to that in the way beginning, “on seeing a visible object with the eye,” herein he is a bhikkhu established in the virtue of Pātimokkha restraint.
Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvāti kāraṇavasena cakkhūti laddhavohārena rūpadassanasamatthena cakkhuviññāṇena rūpaṃ disvā. On seeing a visible object with the eye: on seeing a visible object with the eye-consciousness that is capable of seeing visible objects and has borrowed the name “eye” from its instrument.
Porāṇā panāhu "cakkhu rūpaṃ na passati, acittakattā, cittaṃ na passati, acakkhukattā, dvārārammaṇasaṅghaṭṭe pana cakkhupasādavatthukena cittena passati. But the Ancients (porāṇā) said: “The eye does not see a visible object because it has no mind. The mind does not see because it has no eyes. But when there is the impingement of door and object he sees by means of the consciousness that has eye-sensitivity as its physical basis. Но учителя древности сказали: "Глаз не видит образное, потому что у него нет ума. Ум не видит, потому что у него нет глаз. Но когда есть столкновение врат чувств и предмета чувств он видит посредством сознания, основой которого является зрительная чувствительность.
Īdisī panesā 'dhanunā vijjhatī'tiādīsu viya sasambhārakathā nāma hoti, tasmā cakkhuviññāṇena rūpaṃ disvāti ayamevettha attho"ti. Now, (an idiom) such as this is called an ‘accessory locution’ (sasambhārakathā), like ‘He shot him with his bow,’ and so on.So the meaning here is this: ‘On seeing a visible object with eye-consciousness.’”14 Эта идиома называется ... подобно тому как "он сразил его своим луком". Поэтому смысл здесь: "Видя образное с помощью зрительного сознания"". Comm. NT: 14.
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Na nimittaggāhīti itthipurisanimittaṃ vā subhanimittādikaṃ vā kilesavatthubhūtaṃ nimittaṃ na gaṇhāti, diṭṭhamatteyeva saṇṭhāti. 54.Apprehends neither the signs: he does not apprehend the sign of woman or man, or any sign that is a basis for defilement such as the sign of beauty, etc.; he stops at what is merely seen.
Nānubyañjanaggāhīti kilesānaṃ anuanubyañjanato pākaṭabhāvakaraṇato anubyañjananti laddhavohāraṃ hatthapādasitahasitakathitavilokitādibhedaṃ ākāraṃ na gaṇhāti, yaṃ tattha bhūtaṃ, tadeva gaṇhāti, cetiyapabbatavāsī mahātissatthero viya. Nor the particulars: he does not apprehend any aspect classed as hand, foot, smile, laughter, talk, looking ahead, looking aside, etc., which has acquired the name “particular” (anubyañjana) because of its particularizing (anu anu byañjanato) defilements, because of its making them manifest themselves. He only apprehends what is really there. Like the Elder Mahā Tissa who dwelt at Cetiyapabbata.
Theraṃ kira cetiyapabbatā anurādhapuraṃ piṇḍacāratthāya āgacchantaṃ aññatarā kulasuṇhā sāmikena saddhiṃ bhaṇḍitvā sumaṇḍitapasādhitā devakaññā viya kālasseva anurādhapurato nikkhamitvā ñātigharaṃ gacchantī antarāmagge disvā vipallatthacittā mahāhasitaṃ hasi. 55.It seems that as the elder was on his way from Cetiyapabbata to Anurādhapura for alms, a certain daughterinlaw of a clan, who had quarrelled with her husband and had set out early from Anurādhapura all dressed up and tricked out like a celestial nymph to go to her relatives’ home, saw him on the road, and being low- minded, [21] she laughed a loud laugh.
Thero kimetanti olokento tassā dantaṭṭhike asubhasaññaṃ paṭilabhitvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇi. [Wondering] “What is that?” the elder looked up and finding in the bones of her teeth the perception of foulness (ugliness), he reached Arahantship.15 Comm. NT: 15.
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Tena vuttaṃ – Hence it was said:
"Tassā dantaṭṭhikaṃ disvā, pubbasaññaṃ anussari; “He saw the bones that were her teeth, And kept in mind his first perception;
Tattheva so ṭhito thero, arahattaṃ apāpuṇī"ti. And standing on that very spot The elder became an Arahant.”
Sāmikopi kho panassā anumaggaṃ gacchanto theraṃ disvā "kiñci, bhante, itthiṃ passathā"ti pucchi. But her husband, who was going after her, saw the elder and asked, “Venerable sir, did you by any chance see a woman?
Taṃ thero āha – ” The elder told him:
"Nābhijānāmi itthī vā, puriso vā ito gato; “Whether it was a man or woman That went by I noticed not,
Apica aṭṭhisaṅghāṭo, gacchatesa mahāpathe"ti. But only that on this high road There goes a group of bones.”
Yatvādhikaraṇamenantiādimhi yaṃkāraṇā yassa cakkhundriyāsaṃvarassa hetu etaṃ puggalaṃ satikavāṭena cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ apihitacakkhudvāraṃ hutvā viharantaṃ ete abhijjhādayo dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ anubandheyyuṃ. 56.As to the words through which, etc., the meaning is: by reason of which, because of which non-restraint of the eye faculty, if he, if that person, left the eye faculty unguarded, remained with the eye door unclosed by the door-panel of mindfulness, these states of covetousness, etc., might invade, might pursue, might threaten, him.
Tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjatīti tassa cakkhundriyassa satikavāṭena pidahanatthāya paṭipajjati. He enters upon the way of its restraint: he enters upon the way of closing that eye faculty by the door-panel of mindfulness.
Evaṃ paṭipajjantoyeva ca rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ, cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjatītipi vuccati. It is the same one of whom it is said he guards the eye faculty, undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty.
Tattha kiñcāpi cakkhundriye saṃvaro vā asaṃvaro vā natthi. 57.Herein, there is neither restraint nor non-restraint in the actual eye faculty,
Na hi cakkhupasādaṃ nissāya sati vā muṭṭhasaccaṃ vā uppajjati. since neither mindfulness nor forgetfulness arises in dependence on eye-sensitivity.
Apica yadā rūpārammaṇaṃ cakkhussa āpāthaṃ āgacchati, tadā bhavaṅge dvikkhattuṃ uppajjitvā niruddhe kiriyamanodhātu āvajjanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā uppajjitvā nirujjhati. On the contrary when a visible datum as object comes into the eye’s focus, then, after the life-continuum has arisen twice and ceased, the functional mind-element accomplishing the function of adverting arises and ceases.
Tato cakkhuviññāṇaṃ dassanakiccaṃ. After that, eye- consciousness with the function of seeing;
Tato vipākamanodhātu sampaṭicchanakiccaṃ. after that, resultant mind-element with the function of receiving;
Tato vipākāhetukamanoviññāṇadhātu santīraṇakiccaṃ. after that, resultant root-causeless mind-consciousness- element with the function of investigating;
Tato kiriyāhetukamanoviññāṇadhātu voṭṭhabbanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā uppajjitvā nirujjhati, tadanantaraṃ javanaṃ javati. after that, functional root-causeless mind-consciousness-element accomplishing the function of determining arises and ceases. Next to that, impulsion impels.16 Comm. NT: 16. To expect to find in the Paramatthamañjūsā an exposition of the “cognitive series” (citta-vīthi), and some explanation of the individual...
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Tatrāpi neva bhavaṅgasamaye, na āvajjanādīnaṃ aññatarasamaye saṃvaro vā asaṃvaro vā atthi. Herein, there is neither restraint nor non- restraint on the occasion of the life-continuum, or on any of the occasions beginning with adverting.
Javanakkhaṇe pana sace dussīlyaṃ vā muṭṭhasaccaṃ vā aññāṇaṃ vā akkhanti vā kosajjaṃ vā uppajjati, asaṃvaro hoti. But there is non-restraint if unvirtuousness or forgetfulness or unknowing or impatience or idleness arises at the moment of impulsion.
Evaṃ honto pana so cakkhundriye asaṃvaroti vuccati. When this happens, it is called “non-restraint in the eye faculty.” [22]
Kasmā? 58.Why is that?
Yasmā tasmiṃ sati dvārampi aguttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni. Because when this happens, the door is not guarded, nor are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series.
Yathā kiṃ? Like what?
Yathā nagare catūsu dvāresu asaṃvutesu kiñcāpi antogharadvārakoṭṭhakagabbhādayo susaṃvutā honti, tathāpi antonagare sabbaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ arakkhitaṃ agopitameva hoti. Just as, when a city’s four gates are not secured, although inside the city house doors, storehouses, rooms, etc., are secured, yet all property inside the city is unguarded and unprotected
Nagaradvārena hi pavisitvā corā yadicchanti, taṃ kareyyuṃ, evameva javane dussīlyādīsu uppannesu tasmiṃ asaṃvare sati dvārampi aguttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni. since robbers coming in by the city gates can do as they please, so too, when unvirtuousness, etc., arise in impulsion in which there is no restraint, then the door too is unguarded, and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting.
Tasmiṃ pana sīlādīsu uppannesu dvārampi guttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni. But when virtue, etc., has arisen in it, then the door too is guarded and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting.
Yathā kiṃ? Like what?
Yathā nagaradvāresu saṃvutesu kiñcāpi antogharādayo asaṃvutā honti, tathāpi antonagare sabbaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ surakkhitaṃ sugopitameva hoti. Just as, when the city gates are secured, although inside the city the houses, etc., are not secured, yet all property inside the city is well guarded, well protected,
Nagaradvāresu hi pihitesu corānaṃ paveso natthi, evameva javane sīlādīsu uppannesu dvārampi guttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni. since when the city gates are shut there is no ingress for robbers, so too, when virtue, etc., have arisen in impulsion, the door too is guarded and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting.
Tasmā javanakkhaṇe uppajjamānopi cakkhundriye saṃvaroti vutto. Thus although it actually arises at the moment of impulsion, it is nevertheless called “restraint in the eye faculty.”
Sotena saddaṃ sutvātiādīsupi eseva nayo. 59.So also as regards the phrases on hearing a sound with the ear and so on.
Evamidaṃ saṅkhepato rūpādīsu kilesānubandhanimittādiggāhaparivajjanalakkhaṇaṃ indriyasaṃvarasīlanti veditabbaṃ. So it is this virtue, which in brief has the characteristic of avoiding apprehension of signs entailing defilement with respect to visible objects, etc.., that should be understood as virtue of restraint of faculties.
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