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19. Очищение путём преодоления сомнения Палийский оригинал

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Paccayapariggahakathā Таблица Палийский оригинал

678.Etasseva pana nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṇena tīsu addhāsu kaṅkhaṃ vitaritvā ṭhitaṃ ñāṇaṃ kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhi nāma. 1.[598] Knowledge established by overcoming doubt about the three divisions of time by means of discerning the conditions of that same mentality-materiality is called “purification by overcoming doubt.”
Taṃ sampādetukāmo bhikkhu yathā nāma kusalo bhisakko rogaṃ disvā tassa samuṭṭhānaṃ pariyesati. [WAYS OF DISCERNING CAUSE AND CONDITION] 2. The bhikkhu who wants to accomplish this - just as when a skilled physician encounters a disease he seeks its origin,
Yathā vā pana anukampako puriso daharaṃ kumāraṃ mandaṃ uttānaseyyakaṃ rathikāya nipannaṃ disvā "kassa nu kho ayaṃ puttako"ti tassa mātāpitaro āvajjati, evameva tassa nāmarūpassa hetupaccayapariyesanaṃ āpajjati. or just as when a compassionate man sees a tender little child lying on its back in the road he wonders who its parents are - sets about seeking the cause and condition for that mentality-materiality.
So āditova iti paṭisañcikkhati "na tāvidhaṃ nāmarūpaṃ ahetukaṃ, sabbattha sabbadā sabbesañca ekasadisabhāvāpattito, na issarādihetukaṃ, nāmarūpato uddhaṃ issarādīnaṃ abhāvato. [NEITHER CREATED BY A CREATOR NOR CAUSELESS] 3. To begin with, he considers thus: “Firstly this mentality-materiality is not causeless, because if that were so, it would follow that [having no causes to differentiate it,] it would be identical everywhere always and for all. It has no Overlord, etc., because of the non-existence of any Overlord, etc. (XVI.85), over and above mentality-materiality.
Yepi nāmarūpamattameva issarādayoti vadanti, tesaṃ issarādisaṅkhātanāmarūpassa ahetukabhāvappattito. And because, if people then argue that mentality- materiality itself is its Overlord, etc., then it follows that their mentality-materiality, which they call the Overlord, etc., would itself be causeless.
Tasmā bhavitabbamassa hetupaccayehi, ke nu kho te"ti. Consequently there must be a cause and a condition for it. What are they? ”
679.So evaṃ nāmarūpassa hetupaccaye āvajjetvā imassa tāva rūpakāyassa evaṃ hetupaccaye pariggaṇhāti – "ayaṃ kāyo nibbattamāno neva uppalapadumapuṇḍarīkasogandhikādīnaṃ abbhantare nibbattati, na maṇimuttāhārādīnaṃ, atha kho āmāsayapakkāsayānaṃ antare udarapaṭalaṃ pacchato piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ purato katvā antaantaguṇaparivārito sayampi duggandhajegucchapaṭikkūlo duggandhajegucchapaṭikkūle paramasambādhe okāse pūtimacchapūtikummāsaoḷigallacandanikādīsu kimiva nibbattati. 4. Having thus directed his attention to mentality-materiality’s cause and condition, he first discerns the cause and condition for the material body in this way: “When this body is born it is not born inside a blue, red or white lotus or water-lily, etc., or inside a store of jewels or pearls, etc.; on the contrary, like a worm in rotting flesh, in a rotting corpse, in rotting dough, in a drain, in a cesspool, etc., it is born in between the receptacle for undigested food and the receptacle for digested food, behind the belly lining, in front of the backbone, surrounded by the bowel and the entrails, in a place that is stinking, disgusting, repulsive, and extremely cramped, being itself stinking, disgusting, and repulsive.
Tassevaṃ nibbattamānassa 'avijjā taṇhā upādānaṃ kamma'nti ime cattāro dhammā nibbattakattā hetu, āhāro upatthambhakattā paccayoti pañca dhammā hetupaccayā honti. When it is born thus, its causes (root-causes) are the four things, namely, ignorance, craving, clinging, and kamma, [599] since it is they that bring about its birth; and nutriment is its condition, since it is that that consolidates it. So five things constitute its cause and condition.
Tesupi avijjādayo tayo imassa kāyassa mātā viya dārakassa upanissayā honti. And of these, the three beginning with ignorance are the decisive-support for this body, as the mother is for her infant,
Kammaṃ pitā viya puttassa janakaṃ. and kamma begets it, as the father does the child;
Āhāro dhāti viya dārakassa sandhārako"ti. and nutriment sustains it, as the wet-nurse does the infant.”
Evaṃ rūpakāyassa paccayapariggahaṃ katvā, puna "cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇa"ntiādinā (saṃ. ni. 2.43) nayena nāmakāyassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. [ITS OCCURANCE IS ALWAYS DUE TO CONDITIONS] 5.After discerning the material body’s conditions in this way, he again discerns the mental body in the way beginning: “Due to eye and to visible object eye- consciousness arises” (S II 72; M I 111).
So evaṃ paccayato nāmarūpassa pavattiṃ disvā yathā idaṃ etarahi, evaṃ atītepi addhāne paccayato pavattittha, anāgatepi paccayato pavattissatīti samanupassati. When he has thus seen that the occurrence of mentality-materiality is due to conditions, then he sees that, as now, so in the past too its occurrence was due to conditions, and in the future too its occurrence will be due to conditions.
680.Tassevaṃ samanupassato yā sā pubbantaṃ ārabbha "ahosiṃ nu kho ahaṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, na nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, kathaṃ nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ hutvā kiṃ ahosiṃ nu kho ahaṃ atītamaddhāna"nti (ma. ni. 1.18; saṃ. ni. 2.20) pañcavidhā vicikicchā vuttā, yāpi aparantaṃ ārabbha "bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṃ anāgatamaddhānaṃ, na nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ, kathaṃ nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ hutvā kiṃ bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṃ anāgatamaddhāna"nti pañcavidhā vicikicchā vuttā, yāpi paccuppannaṃ ārabbha "etarahi vā pana paccuppannaṃ addhānaṃ ajjhattaṃ kathaṃkathī hoti – ahaṃ nu khosmi, no nu khosmi, kiṃ nu khosmi, kathaṃ nu khosmi, ayaṃ nu kho satto kuto āgato, so kuhiṃ gāmī bhavissatī"ti (ma. ni. 1.18) chabbidhā vicikicchā vuttā, sā sabbāpi pahīyati. 6.When he sees it in this way, all his uncertainty is abandoned, that is to say, the five kinds of uncertainty about the past stated thus: “Was I in the past? Was I not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what, what was I in the past? ” (M I 8), and also the five kinds of uncertainty about the future stated thus: “Shall I be in the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what shall I be in the future? ” (M I 8); and also the six kinds of uncertainty about the present stated thus: “Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Whence will this being have come? Whither will it be bound? ” (M I 8).
681.Aparo sādhāraṇāsādhāraṇavasena duvidhaṃ nāmassa paccayaṃ passati, kammādivasena catubbidhaṃ rūpassa. [GENERAL AND PARTICULAR CONDITIONS] 7.Another sees the conditions for mentality as two-fold, according to what is common to all and to what is not common to all, and that for materiality as fourfold, according to kamma, and so on.
Duvidho hi nāmassa paccayo sādhāraṇo asādhāraṇo ca. 8.The condition for mentality is twofold, as that which is common to all and that which is not common to all.
Tattha cakkhādīni cha dvārāni, rūpādīni cha ārammaṇāni nāmassa sādhāraṇo paccayo, kusalādibhedato sabbappakārassāpi tato pavattito. Herein, the six doors beginning with the eye and the six objects beginning with visible data are a condition-common-to-all for mentality because the occurrence of all kinds [of mentality] classified as profitable, etc., is due to that [condition].
Manasikārādiko asādhāraṇo. But attention, etc., are not common to all;
Yoniso manasikārasaddhammassavanādiko hi kusalasseva hoti, viparīto akusalassa, kammādiko vipākassa, bhavaṅgādiko kiriyassāti. for wise attention, hearing the Good Dhamma, etc., are a condition only for the profitable, [600] while the opposite kinds are a condition for the unprofitable. Kamma, etc., are a condition for the resultant mentality; and the life-continuum, etc., are a condition for the functional.
Rūpassa pana kammaṃ cittaṃ utu āhāroti ayaṃ kammādiko catubbidho paccayo. 9.Kamma, consciousness, temperature, and nutriment constitute this fourfold condition for materiality beginning with kamma.
Tattha kammaṃ atītameva kammasamuṭṭhānassa rūpassa paccayo hoti. Herein it is only when it is past that kamma is a condition for kamma-originated materiality;
Cittaṃ cittasamuṭṭhānassa uppajjamānaṃ. consciousness is a condition, when it is arising, for consciousness-originated materiality.
Utuāhārā utuāhārasamuṭṭhānassa ṭhitikkhaṇe paccayā hontīti. Temperature and nutriment are conditions at the instant (moment) of their presence for temperature-originated and nutriment-originated materiality.1 Comm. NT:
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Evameveko nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. This is how one man discerns the conditions for mentality-materiality.
So evaṃ paccayato nāmarūpassa pavattiṃ disvā yathā idaṃ etarahi, evaṃ atītepi addhāne paccayato pavattittha, anāgatepi paccayato pavattissatīti samanupassati. 10. When he has seen that the occurrence of mentality-materiality is due to conditions in this way, he sees also that, as now, so too in the past its occurrence was due to conditions, and in the future its occurrence will be due to conditions.
Tassevaṃ samanupassato vuttanayeneva tīsupi addhāsu vicikicchā pahīyati. When he sees it in this way, his uncertainty about the three periods of time is abandoned in the way already stated.
682.Aparo tesaṃyeva nāmarūpasaṅkhātānaṃ saṅkhārānaṃ jarāpattiṃ jiṇṇānañca bhaṅgaṃ disvā idaṃ saṅkhārānaṃ jarāmaraṇaṃ nāma jātiyā sati hoti, jāti bhave sati, bhavo upādāne sati, upādānaṃ taṇhāya sati, taṇhā vedanāya sati, vedanā phasse sati, phasso saḷāyatane sati, saḷāyatanaṃ nāmarūpe sati, nāmarūpaṃ viññāṇe sati, viññāṇaṃ saṅkhāresu sati, saṅkhārā avijjāya satīti evaṃ paṭilomapaṭiccasamuppādavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. [DEPENDENT ORIGINATION IN REVERSE ORDER] 11.Another, when he has seen that the formations called mentality-materiality arrive at aging and that those that have aged dissolve, discerns mentality-materiality’s conditions by means of dependent origination in reverse order in this way: “This is called aging-and-death of formations; it comes to be when there is birth, and birth when there is becoming, and becoming when there is clinging, and clinging when there is craving, and craving when there is feeling, and feeling when there is contact, and contact when there is the sixfold base, and the sixfold base when there is mentality-materiality, and mentality-materiality when there is consciousness, and consciousness when there are formations, and formations when there is ignorance.”
Athassa vuttanayeneva vicikicchā pahīyati. Then his uncertainty is abandoned in the way already stated.
683.Aparo "iti kho avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.2) pubbe vitthāretvā dassitaanulomapaṭiccasamuppādavaseneva nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. [DEPENDENT ORIGINATION IN DIRECT ORDER] 12.Another discerns mentality-materiality’s conditions by means of dependent origination in direct order as already shown (XVII.29) in detail, doing so in this way: “So, with ignorance as condition there are formations” (M I 261).
Athassa vuttanayeneva kaṅkhā pahīyati. Then his uncertainty is abandoned in the way already stated.
684.Aparo "purimakammabhavasmiṃ moho avijjā, āyūhanā saṅkhārā, nikanti taṇhā, upagamanaṃ upādānaṃ, cetanā bhavoti ime pañca dhammā purimakammabhavasmiṃ idha paṭisandhiyā paccayā, idha paṭisandhi viññāṇaṃ, okkanti nāmarūpaṃ, pasādo āyatanaṃ, phuṭṭho phasso, vedayitaṃ vedanāti ime pañca dhammā idhūpapattibhavasmiṃ purekatassa kammassa paccayā. [KAMMA AND KAMMA-RESULT] 13.Another discerns mentality-materiality’s conditions by means of the round of kamma and the round of kamma-result in this way: “In the previous kamma-process becoming there is delusion, which is ignorance; there is accumulation, which is formations; there is attachment, which is craving; there is embracing, which is clinging; there is volition, which is becoming; thus these five things in the previous kamma-process becoming are conditions for rebirth-linking here [in the present becoming].
Idha paripakkattā āyatanānaṃ moho avijjā - pe - cetanā bhavoti ime pañca dhammā idha kammabhavasmiṃ āyatiṃ paṭisandhiyā paccayā"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.47) evaṃ kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. “Here [in the present becoming] there is rebirth-linking, which is consciousness; there is descent [into the womb], which is mentality-materiality; there is sensitivity, which is sense base; there is what is touched, which is contact; there is what is felt, which is feeling; thus these five things here in the [present] rebirth-process becoming have their conditions in kamma done in the past. “Here [in the present becoming] with the maturing of the bases there is delusion, which is ignorance; there is accumulation, which is formations; there is attachment, which is craving; there is embracing, which is clinging; there is volition, which is becoming; thus these five things here in the [present] kamma- process becoming are conditions for rebirth-linking in the future. “In the future there is rebirth-linking, which is consciousness; there is descent [into the womb], which is mentality-materiality; there is sensitivity, which is sense base; there is what is touched, which is contact; there is what is felt, which is feeling; thus these five things in the future rebirth-process becoming have their conditions in kamma done here [in the present becoming]” (Paṭis I 52). [601]
685.Tattha catubbidhaṃ kammaṃ – diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ, upapajjavedanīyaṃ, aparāpariyavedanīyaṃ, ahosikammanti. 14.Herein, kamma is fourfold: to be experienced here and now, to be experienced on rebirth, to be experienced in some subsequent becoming, and lapsed kamma.2 Comm. NT:
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Tesu ekajavanavīthiyaṃ sattasu cittesu kusalā vā akusalā vā paṭhamajavanacetanā diṭṭhidhammavedanīyakammaṃ nāma. Of these, (i) the volition, either profitable or unprofitable, of the first of the seven impulsion consciousnesses in a single cognitive series of impulsions is called kamma to be experienced here and now:
Taṃ imasmiññeva attabhāve vipākaṃ deti. it gives its result in this same selfhood.
Tathā asakkontaṃ pana "ahosikammaṃ nāhosi kammavipāko, na bhavissati kammavipāko, natthi kammavipāko"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.234) imassa tikassa vasena ahosikammaṃ nāma hoti. But if it cannot do so, it is called (iv) lapsed kamma (ahosi-kamma), according to the triad described thus, “There has been (ahosi) kamma, there has been no kamma-result, there will be no kamma-result” (see Paṭis II 78).
Atthasādhikā pana sattamajavanacetanā upapajjavedanīyakammaṃ nāma. (ii) The volition of the seventh impulsion that accomplishes its purpose is called kamma to be experienced on rebirth:
Taṃ anantare attabhāve vipākaṃ deti. it gives its result in the next selfhood.
Tathā asakkontaṃ vuttanayeneva ahosikammaṃ nāma hoti. If it cannot do so, it is called (iv) lapsed kamma in the way already described.
Ubhinnaṃ antare pañca javanacetanā aparāpariyavedanīyakammaṃ nāma. (iii) The volition of the five impulsions between these two is called kamma to be experienced in some subsequent becoming:
Taṃ anāgate yadā okāsaṃ labhati, tadā vipākaṃ deti. it gives its result in the future when it gets the opportunity,
Sati saṃsārappavattiyā ahosikammaṃ nāma na hoti. and however long the round of rebirths continues it never becomes lapsed kamma.
686.Aparampi catubbidhaṃ kammaṃ – yaṃ garukaṃ, yaṃ bahulaṃ, yadāsannaṃ, kaṭattā vā pana kammanti. 15.Another fourfold classification of kamma is this: weighty, habitual, death- threshold, and kamma [stored up] by being performed.3 Comm NT: Vism-mhṭ then cites various Birth Stories and MN 136 in order to show how, for various reasons, the result of one kind of kamma may...
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Tattha kusalaṃ vā hotu akusalaṃ vā, garukāgarukesu yaṃ garukaṃ mātughātādikammaṃ vā mahaggatakammaṃ vā, tadeva paṭhamaṃ vipaccati. Herein, (v) when there is weighty and unweighty kamma, the weightier, whether profitable or unprofitable, whether kamma consisting in matricide or kamma of the exalted spheres, takes precedence in ripening.
Tathā bahulābahulesupi yaṃ bahulaṃ hoti susīlyaṃ vā dussīlyaṃ vā, tadeva paṭhamaṃ vipaccati. (vi) Likewise, when there is habitual and unhabitual kamma, the more habitual, whether consisting in good or bad conduct, takes precedence in ripening.
Yadāsannaṃ nāma maraṇakāle anussaritakammaṃ. (vii) Death-threshold kamma is that remembered at the time of death;
Yañhi āsannamaraṇo anussarituṃ sakkoti, teneva upapajjati. for when a man near death can remember [kamma], he is born according to that.
Etehi pana tīhi muttaṃ punappunaṃ laddhāsevanaṃ kaṭattā vā pana kammaṃ nāma hoti, tesaṃ abhāve taṃ paṭisandhiṃ ākaḍḍhati. (viii) Kamma not included in the foregoing three kinds that has been often repeated is called kamma [stored up] by being performed. This brings about rebirth-linking if other kinds fail.
687.Aparampi catubbidhaṃ kammaṃ – janakaṃ, upatthambhakaṃ, upapīḷakaṃ, upaghātakanti. 16.Another fourfold classification of kamma is this: productive, consolidating, frustrating, and supplanting.4 Comm. NT:
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Tattha janakaṃ nāma kusalampi hoti akusalampi. Herein, (ix) what is called productive is both profitable and unprofitable.
Taṃ paṭisandhiyampi pavattepi rūpārūpavipākakkhandhe janeti. It produces the material and immaterial aggregates both at rebirth-linking and during the course of an existence.
Upatthambhakaṃ pana vipākaṃ janetuṃ na sakkoti, aññena kammena dinnāya paṭisandhiyā janite vipāke uppajjamānakasukhadukkhaṃ upatthambheti, addhānaṃ pavatteti. (x) Consolidating kamma cannot produce result, but when result has already been produced in the provision of rebirth- linking by other kamma, it consolidates the pleasure or pain that arises and makes it last.
Upapīḷakaṃ aññena kammena dinnāya paṭisandhiyā janite vipāke uppajjamānakasukhadukkhaṃ pīḷeti bādhati, addhānaṃ pavattituṃ na deti. (xi) And when result has already been produced in the provision of rebirth-linking by other kamma, frustrating kamma frustrates and obstructs the pleasure or pain that arises and does not allow it to last.
Upaghātakaṃ pana sayaṃ kusalampi akusalampi samānaṃ aññaṃ dubbalakammaṃ ghātetvā tassa vipākaṃ paṭibāhitvā attano vipākassa okāsaṃ karoti. (xii) Supplanting kamma is itself both profitable and unprofitable; [602] and it supplants other, weaker kamma, prevents its resulting and usurps that kamma’s opportunity in order to cause its own result.
Evaṃ pana kammena kate okāse taṃ vipākaṃ uppannaṃ nāma vuccati. But when the opportunity has thus been furnished by the [other] kamma, it is that [supplanting kamma’s] result that is called arisen.5 Comm. NT: 5. See the various meanings of “arisen” given in XXII.81f.
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Iti imesaṃ dvādasannaṃ kammānaṃ kammantarañceva vipākantarañca buddhānaṃ kammavipākañāṇasseva yāthāvasarasato pākaṭaṃ hoti, asādhāraṇaṃ sāvakehi. 17.The succession of kamma and its result in the twelve classes of kamma is clear in its true nature only to the Buddhas’ “knowledge of kamma and its result,” which knowledge is not shared by disciples.6 Comm. NT:
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Vipassakena pana kammantarañca vipākantarañca ekadesato jānitabbaṃ. But the succession of kamma and its result can be known in part by one practicing insight.
Tasmā ayaṃ mukhamattadassanena kammaviseso pakāsitoti. That is why this explanation of difference in kamma shows only the mere headings.
688.Iti imaṃ dvādasavidhaṃ kammaṃ kammavaṭṭe pakkhipitvā evaṃ eko kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. This is how one man discerns mentality-materiality by means of the round of kamma and the round of kamma-result, applying this twelve-fold kamma classification to the round of kamma.
So evaṃ kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena paccayato nāmarūpassa pavattiṃ disvā "yathā idaṃ etarahi, evaṃ atītepi addhāne kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena paccayato pavattittha, anāgatepi kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavaseneva paccayato pavattissatī"ti. 18.When he has thus seen by means of the round of kamma and the round of kamma-result how mentality-materiality’s occurrence is due to a condition, he sees that as now, so in the past, its occurrence was due to a condition by means of the round of kamma and the round of kamma-result, and that in the future its occurrence will be due to a condition by means of the round of kamma and the round of kamma-result.
Iti kammañceva kammavipāko ca, kammavaṭṭañca vipākavaṭṭañca, kammapavattañca vipākapavattañca, kammasantati ca vipākasantati ca, kiriyā ca kiriyāphalañca. This is kamma and kamma-result, the round of kamma and the round of kamma-result, the occurrence of kamma and the occurrence of kamma-result, the continuity of kamma and the continuity of kamma-result, action and the fruit of action:
Kammā vipākā vattanti, vipāko kammasambhavo; Kamma-result proceeds from kamma, Result has kamma for its source,
Kammā punabbhavo hoti, evaṃ loko pavattatīti. – Future becoming springs from kamma, And this is how the world goes round.
Samanupassati.
Tassevaṃ samanupassato yā sā pubbantādayo ārabbha "ahosiṃ nu kho aha"ntiādinā nayena vuttā soḷasavidhā vicikicchā, sā sabbā pahīyati. 19.When he sees thus, he abandons all his uncertainty, that is to say, the sixteen kinds described in the way beginning, “Was I in the past? ” [see §6].
Sabbabhavayonigatiṭṭhitinivāsesu hetuphalasambandhavasena pavattamānaṃ nāmarūpamattameva khāyati. [NO DOER APART FROM KAMMA AND RESULT] In all kinds of becoming, generation, destiny, station, and abode there appears only mentality-materiality, which occurs by means of linking of cause with fruit.
So neva kāraṇato uddhaṃ kārakaṃ passati, na vipākappavattito uddhaṃ vipākapaṭisaṃvedakaṃ. He sees no doer over and above the doing, no experiencer of the result over and above the occurrence of the result.
Kāraṇe pana sati "kārako"ti, vipākappavattiyā sati "paṭisaṃvedako"ti samaññāmattena paṇḍitā voharanticcevassa sammappaññāya sudiṭṭhaṃ hoti. But he sees clearly with right understanding that the wise say “doer” when there is doing and “experiencer” when there is experiencing simply as a mode of common usage.
689.Tenāhu porāṇā – 20. Hence the Ancients said:
"Kammassa kārako natthi, vipākassa ca vedako; There is no doer of a deed Or one who reaps the deed’s result;
Suddhadhammā pavattanti, evetaṃ sammadassanaṃ. Phenomena alone flow on— No other view than this is right.
"Evaṃ kamme vipāke ca, vattamāne sahetuke; And so, while kamma and result Thus causally maintain their round,
Bījarukkhādikānaṃva, pubbā koṭi na nāyati; As seed and tree succeed in turn, No first beginning can be shown.
Anāgatepi saṃsāre, appavattaṃ na dissati. Nor in the future round of births Can they be shown not to occur:
"Etamatthaṃ anaññāya, titthiyā asayaṃvasī; Sectarians, not knowing this, Have failed to gain self-mastery. [603]
Sattasaññaṃ gahetvāna, sassatucchedadassino; They assume a being, see it as Eternal or annihilated.
Dvāsaṭṭhidiṭṭhiṃ gaṇhanti, aññamaññavirodhitā. Adopt the sixty-two wrong views, Each contradicting one another.
"Diṭṭhibandhanabaddhā te, taṇhāsotena vuyhare; The stream of craving bears them on Caught in the meshes of their views:
Taṇhāsotena vuyhantā, na te dukkhā pamuccare. And as the stream thus bears them on They are not freed from suffering.
"Evametaṃ abhiññāya, bhikkhu buddhassa sāvako; A monk, disciple of the Buddha, With direct knowledge of this fact
Gambhīraṃ nipuṇaṃ suññaṃ, paccayaṃ paṭivijjhati. Can penetrate this deep and subtle Void conditionality.
"Kammaṃ natthi vipākamhi, pāko kamme na vijjati; There is no kamma in result, Nor does result exist in kamma;
Aññamaññaṃ ubho suññā, na ca kammaṃ vinā phalaṃ. Though they are void of one another, There is no fruit without the kamma.
"Yathā na sūriye aggi, na maṇimhi na gomaye; As fire does not exist inside The sun, a gem, cow-dung, nor yet
Na tesaṃ bahi so atthi, sambhārehi ca jāyati. Outside them, but is brought to be By means of its component parts,
"Tathā na anto kammassa, vipāko upalabbhati; So neither can result be found Within the kamma, nor without;
Bahiddhāpi na kammassa, na kammaṃ tattha vijjati. Nor does the kamma still persist [In the result it has produced].
"Phalena suññaṃ taṃ kammaṃ, phalaṃ kamme na vijjati; The kamma of its fruit is void; No fruit exists yet in the kamma;
Kammañca kho upādāya, tato nibbattate phalaṃ. And still the fruit is born from it, Wholly depending on the kamma.
"Na hettha devo brahmā vā, saṃsārassatthikārako; For here there is no Brahmā God, Creator of the round of births,
Suddhadhammā pavattanti, hetusambhārapaccayā"ti. Phenomena alone flow on— Cause and component their condition.
690.Tassevaṃ kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ katvā tīsu addhāsu pahīnavicikicchassa sabbe atītānāgatapaccuppannadhammā cutipaṭisandhivasena viditā honti, sāssa hoti ñātapariññā. [FULL-UNDERSTANDING OF THE KNOWN] 21.When he has discerned the conditions of mentality-materiality in this way by means of the round of kamma and the round of kamma-result, and has abandoned uncertainty about the three periods of time, then all past, future and present states are understood by him in accordance with death and rebirth- linking. This is his full-understanding of the known (see XX.3).
So evaṃ pajānāti – ye atīte kammapaccayā nibbattā khandhā, te tattheva niruddhā, atītakammapaccayā pana imasmiṃ bhave aññe nibbattā, atītabhavato imaṃ bhavaṃ āgato ekadhammopi natthi, imasmimpi bhave kammapaccayena nibbattā khandhā nirujjhissanti, punabbhave aññe nibbattissanti, imamhā bhavā punabbhavaṃ ekadhammopi na gamissati. 22. He understands thus: “Aggregates produced in the past with kamma as condition ceased there too. But other aggregates are produced in this becoming with past kamma as their condition, although there is no single thing that has come over from the past becoming to this becoming. And aggregates produced in this becoming with kamma as their condition will cease. And in the future becoming other aggregates will be produced, although no single thing will go over from this becoming to the future becoming.
Apica kho yathā na ācariyamukhato sajjhāyo antevāsikassa mukhaṃ pavisati, na ca tappaccayā tassa mukhe sajjhāyo na vattati, na dūtena mantodakaṃ pītaṃ rogino udaraṃ pavisati, na ca tassa tappaccayā rogo na vūpasammati, na mukhe maṇḍanavidhānaṃ ādāsatalādīsu mukhanimittaṃ gacchati, na ca tattha tappaccayā maṇḍanavidhānaṃ na paññāyati, na ekissā vaṭṭiyā dīpasikhā aññaṃ vaṭṭiṃ saṅkamati, na ca tattha tappaccayā dīpasikhā na nibbattati, evameva na atītabhavato imaṃ bhavaṃ, ito vā punabbhavaṃ koci dhammo saṅkamati, na ca atītabhave khandhāyatanadhātupaccayā idha, idha vā khandhāyatanadhātupaccayā punabbhave khandhāyatanadhātuyo na nibbattantīti. “Furthermore, just as, while the recitation from the teacher’s mouth does not enter into the pupil’s mouth, yet recitation does not because of that fail to take place in the pupil’s mouth—and while the potion drunk by the proxy does not enter the sick man’s stomach, yet the sickness does not because of that fail to be cured—and while the arrangement of the ornaments on the face does not pass over to the reflection of the face in the looking glass, yet the arrangement of the ornaments does not because of that fail to appear—and while the flame of a lamp does not move over from one wick to another, yet the flame does not because of that fail to be produced—so too, while nothing whatever moves over from the past becoming to this becoming, or from this to the future becoming, [604] yet aggregates, bases, and elements do not fail to be produced here with aggregates, §bases, and elements in the past becoming as their condition, or in the future becoming with aggregates, bases, and elements here as their condition.”
Yatheva cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, manodhātuanantaraṃ; 23. Just as eye-consciousness comes next Following on mind element,
Na ceva āgataṃ nāpi, na nibbattaṃ anantaraṃ. Which, though it does not come from that, Yet fails not next to be produced,
Tatheva paṭisandhimhi, vattate cittasantati; So too, in rebirth-linking, conscious Continuity takes place:
Purimaṃ bhijjate cittaṃ, pacchimaṃ jāyate tato. The prior consciousness breaks up, The subsequent is born from that.
Tesaṃ antarikā natthi, vīci tesaṃ na vijjati; They have no interval between, Nor gap [that separates the two];
Na cito gacchati kiñci, paṭisandhi ca jāyatīti. While naught whatever passes over, Still rebirth-linking comes about.
691.Evaṃ cutipaṭisandhivasena viditasabbadhammassa sabbākārena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahañāṇaṃ thāmagataṃ hoti, soḷasavidhā kaṅkhā suṭṭhutaraṃ pahīyati. 24.When all states are understood by him thus in accordance with death and rebirth-linking, his knowledge of discerning the conditions of mentality- materiality is sound in all its aspects and the sixteen kinds of doubt are more effectively abandoned.
Na kevalañca sā eva, "satthari kaṅkhatī"ti (dha. sa. 1008) ādinayappavattā aṭṭhavidhāpi kaṅkhā pahīyatiyeva, dvāsaṭṭhi diṭṭhigatāni vikkhambhanti. And not only that, but the eight kinds of doubt that occur in the way beginning thus, “He is doubtful about the Master” (A III 248; Dhs §1004) are abandoned too, and the sixty-two kinds of views are suppressed (See DN 1 and MN 102).
Evaṃ nānānayehi nāmarūpapaccayapariggahaṇena tīsu addhāsu kaṅkhaṃ vitaritvā ṭhitaṃ ñāṇaṃ kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhīti veditabbaṃ. 25.The knowledge that has been established by the overcoming of doubt about the three periods of time by discerning the conditions of mentality-materiality according to the various methods should be understood as “purification by overcoming doubt.”
Dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇantipi yathābhūtañāṇantipi sammādassanantipi etassevādhivacanaṃ. Other terms for it are “knowledge of the relations of states” and “correct knowledge” and “right vision.”
Vuttañhetaṃ – 26. For this is said:
"Avijjā paccayo, saṅkhārā paccayasamuppannā. ‘Ignorance is a condition, formations are conditionally arisen,
Ubhopete dhammā paccayasamuppannāti paccayapariggahe paññā dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇa"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.46). and both these states are conditionally arisen,’ - understanding of discernment of conditions thus is knowledge of the causal relationship of states” (Paṭis I 50). And:
"Aniccato manasikaronto katame dhamme yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati, kathaṃ sammādassanaṃ hoti, kathaṃ tadanvayena sabbe saṅkhārā aniccato sudiṭṭhā honti, kattha kaṅkhā pahīyati? “When he brings to mind as impermanent, what states does he correctly know and see? How is there right seeing? How, by inference from that, are all formations clearly seen as impermanent? Wherein is doubt abandoned?
Dukkhato - pe - anattato manasikaronto katame dhamme yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati - pe - kattha kaṅkhā pahīyatīti? When he brings to mind as painful … When he brings to mind as not-self, what states does he correctly know and see? … Wherein is doubt abandoned?
"Aniccato manasikaronto nimittaṃ yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati, tena vuccati sammādassanaṃ. “When he brings to mind as impermanent, he correctly knows and sees the sign. Hence ‘right seeing’ is said.
Evaṃ tadanvayena sabbe saṅkhārā aniccato sudiṭṭhā honti. Thus, by inference from that, all formations are clearly seen as impermanent.
Ettha kaṅkhā pahīyati. Herein doubt is abandoned.
Dukkhato manasikaronto pavattaṃ yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati - pe - anattato manasikaronto nimittañca pavattañca yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati, tena vuccati sammādassanaṃ. When he brings to mind as painful, he correctly knows and sees occurrence. Hence … When he brings to mind as not-self, he correctly knows and sees the sign and occurrence. Hence ‘right seeing’ is said.
Evaṃ tadanvayena sabbe dhammā anattato sudiṭṭhā honti. Thus, by inference from that, all states are clearly seen as not-self.
Ettha kaṅkhā pahīyati. Herein doubt is abandoned.
"Yañca yathābhūtañāṇaṃ yañca sammādassanaṃ yā ca kaṅkhāvitaraṇā, ime dhammā nānatthā ceva nānābyañjanā ca, udāhu ekatthā byañjanameva nānanti? “Correct knowledge and right seeing and overcoming of doubt [605]—are these things different in meaning and different in the letter or are they one in meaning and only the letter is different?
Yañca yathābhūtañāṇaṃ yañca sammādassanaṃ yā ca kaṅkhāvitaraṇā, ime dhammā ekatthā, byañjanameva nāna"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.227). Correct knowledge and right seeing and overcoming of doubt—these things are one in meaning and only the letter is different” (Paṭis II 62f.).
Iminā pana ñāṇena samannāgato vipassako buddhasāsane laddhassāso laddhapatiṭṭho niyatagatiko cūḷasotāpanno nāma hoti. 27.When a man practicing insight has become possessed of this knowledge, he has found comfort in the Buddhas’ Dispensation, he has found a foothold, he is certain of his destiny, he is called a “lesser stream-enterer.”
Tasmā bhikkhu sadā sato, nāmarūpassa sabbaso; So would a bhikkhu overcome His doubts, then ever mindfully
Paccaye pariggaṇheyya, kaṅkhāvitaraṇatthikoti. Let him discern conditions both Of mind and matter thoroughly.
Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.
Paññābhāvanādhikāre in the Treatise on the Development of Understanding
Kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhiniddeso nāma called “The Description of Purification by Overcoming Doubt”
Ekūnavīsatimo paricchedo. The nineteenth chapter