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Медитация на четырёх первоэлементах Палийский оригинал

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306.Idāni āhāre paṭikkūlasaññānantaraṃ ekaṃ vavatthānanti evaṃ uddiṭṭhassa catudhātuvavatthānassa bhāvanāniddeso anuppatto. [WORD DEFINITIONS] 27.Now comes the description of the development of the definition of the four elements, which was listed as the “one defining” next to the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment (III.105).
Tattha vavatthānanti sabhāvūpalakkhaṇavasena sanniṭṭhānaṃ, catunnaṃ dhātūnaṃ vavatthānaṃ catudhātuvavatthānaṃ. Herein, “defining” (vavatthāna) is determining by characterizing individual essences. 19 [The compound] catudhātuvavatthāna (“four-element defining”) is [resolvable into] catunnaṃ dhātūnaṃ vavatthānaṃ (“defining of the four elements”). Comm. NT: 19.
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Dhātumanasikāro, dhātukammaṭṭhānaṃ, catudhātuvavatthānanti atthato ekaṃ. “Attention given to elements,” “the meditation subject consisting of elements” and “defining of the four elements” all mean the same thing. "Направление ума на первоэлементы материи", "первоэлементы как объект медитации" и "определение четырёх элементов" означают одно и то же.
Tayidaṃ dvidhā āgataṃ saṅkhepato ca vitthārato ca. This is given in two ways: in brief and in detail. Этот объект объясняется двумя способами: кратко и подробно.
Saṅkhepato mahāsatipaṭṭhāne āgataṃ. It is given in brief in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (D II 294), Кратко он объясняется в Наставлении о способах установления памятования,
Vitthārato mahāhatthipadūpame rāhulovāde dhātuvibhaṅge ca. and in detail in the Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta (M I 185), the Rāhulovāda Sutta (M I 421), and the Dhātuvibhaṅga Sutta (M III 240). а подробно в Большом наставлении с метафорой слоновьего следа, в наставлении Рахуле и в Трактате о первоэлементах.
Tañhi –
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā catumahāpathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa, evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati, atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"ti – [TEXTS AND COMMENTARY IN BRIEF] 28. : “Bhikkhus, just as though a skilled butcher or butcher’s apprentice had killed a cow and were seated at the crossroads [348] with it cut up into pieces, so too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reviews this body however placed, however disposed, as consisting of elements: In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element” 20 (D II 294). "Как если бы, о монахи, мудрый мясник либо его ученик, зарезав корову и разделав её по частям, сел бы на перекрёсток четырёх столбовых дорог, так и монах созерцает само это тело, вне зависимости от его положения, посредством первоэлементов: "В этом теле есть первоэлемент твёрдости, первоэлемент жидкости, первоэлемент теплоты, первоэлемент вибрации." Comm. NT: 20. To avoid confusion, it might be mentioned here that in “physical” earth, fire, water, and air, it would be held that all four ...
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Evaṃ tikkhapaññassa dhātukammaṭṭhānikassa vasena mahāsatipaṭṭhāne (dī. ni. 2.378) saṅkhepato āgataṃ. It is given in brief in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, for one of quick understanding whose meditation subject is elements, as (above). так объект даётся кратко в Наставлении о способах установления памятования для быстро соображающего практикующего, избравшего первоэлементы материи предметом медитации.
Tassattho – yathā cheko goghātako vā tasseva vā bhattavetanabhato antevāsiko gāviṃ vadhitvā vinivijjhitvā catasso disā gatānaṃ mahāpathānaṃ vemajjhaṭṭhānasaṅkhāte catumahāpathe koṭṭhāsaṃ katvā nisinno assa, evameva bhikkhu catunnaṃ iriyāpathānaṃ yena kenaci ākārena ṭhitattā yathāṭhitaṃ. 29. The meaning is this: just as though a clever butcher, or his apprentice who worked for his keep, had killed a cow and divided it up and were seated at the crossroads, reckoned as the intersection of the main roads going in the four directions, having laid it out part by part, so too a bhikkhu reviews the body, however placed because it is in some one of the four postures Смысл следующий: как умный мясник или работающий на него подмастерье убил корову, разделал её и сидит на перекрёстке, называемом пересечением главных дорог, ведущих в четыре направления, разложив её по частям, так и монах, рассматривает это тело, где бы оно не находилось, находясь в одной из четырёх поз
Yathāṭhitattāva yathāpaṇihitaṃ kāyaṃ atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu - pe - vāyodhātūti evaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati. and however disposed because it is so placed, thus: In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element. и как бы оно не располагалось находясь там следующим образом: в этом теле есть первоэлемент твёрдости, первоэлемент жидкости, первоэлемент тепла и первоэлемент вибрации.
Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti? 30.What is meant? Что это значит? Далее аналогично https://tipitaka.theravada.su/node/table/19300
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Yathā goghātakassa gāviṃ posentassapi āghātanaṃ āharantassapi āharitvā tattha bandhitvā ṭhapentassapi vadhantassapi vadhitaṃ mataṃ passantassapi tāvadeva gāvītisaññā na antaradhāyati, yāva naṃ padāletvā bilaso na vibhajati. Just as the butcher, while feeding the cow, bringing it to the shambles, keeping it tied up after bringing it there, slaughtering it, and seeing it slaughtered and dead, does not lose the perception “cow” so long as he has not carved it up and divided it into parts;
Vibhajitvā nisinnassa pana gāvīsaññā antaradhāyati, maṃsasaññā pavattati. but when he has divided it up and is sitting there, he loses the perception “cow” and the perception “meat” occurs;
Nāssa evaṃ hoti "ahaṃ gāviṃ vikkiṇāmi, ime gāviṃ harantī"ti. he does not think “I am selling cow” or “They are carrying cow away,”
Atha khvassa "ahaṃ maṃsaṃ vikkiṇāmi, imepi maṃsaṃ haranti"cceva hoti, evameva imassāpi bhikkhuno pubbe bālaputhujjanakāle gihibhūtassapi pabbajitassapi tāvadeva sattoti vā posoti vā puggaloti vā saññā na antaradhāyati, yāva imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ ghanavinibbhogaṃ katvā dhātuso na paccavekkhati. but rather he thinks “I am selling meat” or “They are carrying meat away”; so too this bhikkhu, while still a foolish ordinary person—both formerly as a layman and as one gone forth into homelessness—does not lose the perception “living being” or “man” or “person” so long as he does not, by resolution of the compact into elements, review this body, however placed, however disposed, as consisting of elements.
Dhātuso paccavekkhato pana sattasaññā antaradhāyati, dhātuvaseneva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati. But when he does review it as consisting of elements, he loses the perception “living being” and his mind establishes itself upon elements.
Tenāha bhagavā "seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā - pe - nisinno assa, evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu - pe - vāyodhātū"ti. That is why the Blessed One said: “Bhikkhus, just as though a skilled butcher … were seated at the crossroads … so too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu … air element. ”
307.Mahāhatthipadūpame (ma. ni. 1.300 ādayo) pana – "katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu? [IN DETAIL] 31. In the Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta —as follows: “And what is the internal earth element, friends? В Большом наставлении с метафорой слоновьего следа сказано: "А что же такое, друзья, внутренний элемент твёрдости?
Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ kakkhaḷaṃ kharigataṃ upādinnaṃ. Whatever there is internally in oneself that is hard, harsh,21 and clung to (acquired through kamma), Всё, находящееся внутри в себе, твёрдое, плотное, каммически приобретённое Comm. NT: 21. Kharigata—“harsh”: not in PED, but see khara.
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Seyyathidaṃ, kesā lomā - pe - udariyaṃ karīsaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ kakkhaḷaṃ kharigataṃ upādinnaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati, āvuso, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātū"ti ca, that is to say, head hairs, body hairs, teeth, nails, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone marrow, kidney, heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lungs, bowels, entrails, gorge, dung, or whatever else there is internally in oneself that is hard, harsh, and clung to— this is called the internal earth element” (M I 185). [349] такое как волосы головы и тела, ногти, зубы, кожа, мышцы, сухожилия, кости, костный мозг, почки, сердце, печень, диафрагма, селезёнка, лёгкие, желудок, кишки, брыжейка, экскременты - или что-либо другое внутри в себе - твёрдое, плотное, каммически приобретённое - это называется внутренним элементом твёрдости.
"Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā āpodhātu? And: “What is the internal water element, friends? "Что такое, друзья, внутренний элемент жидкости?
Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ āpo āpogataṃ upādinnaṃ. Whatever there is internally in oneself that is water, watery, and clung to, Всё, находящееся внутри в себе, жидкое, текучее, каммически приобретённое
Seyyathidaṃ, pittaṃ - pe - muttaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ āpo āpogataṃ upādinnaṃ, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā āpodhātū"ti ca, that is to say, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil of the joints, and urine, or whatever else there is internally in oneself that is water, watery, and clung to—this is called the internal water element” (M I 187). такое как желчь, слизь, гной, кровь, пот, жир, слёзы, сальные выделения, слюна, носовая слизь, суставная смазка, моча - или что бы то ни было внутри в себе - жидкое, текучее, каммически приобретённое называется внутренним первоэлементом жидкости.
"Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā tejodhātu? And: “What is the internal fire element, friends? "Что такое, друзья, внутренний элемент тепла?
Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ tejo tejogataṃ upādinnaṃ. Whatever there is internally in oneself that is fire, fiery, and clung to, Всё, находящееся внутри в себе, являющееся теплом или тёплым, каммически приобретённым
Seyyathidaṃ, yena ca santappati, yena ca jīrīyati, yena ca pariḍayhati, yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ sammā pariṇāmaṃ gacchati, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ tejo tejogataṃ upādinnaṃ, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā tejodhātū"ti ca, that is to say, that whereby one is warmed, ages, and burns up, and whereby what is eaten, drunk, chewed and tasted gets completely digested, or whatever else there is internally in oneself that is fire, fiery, and clung to—this is called the internal fire element” (M I 188). а именно посредством чего происходит нагревание, старение, перегрев, всё, что было съедено, выпито, разжёвано, опробовано, переварено и усвоено - или что-либо другое внутри в себе, являющееся огнём, огненным и каммически приобретённым - это внутренний первоэлемент тепла."
"Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā vāyodhātu? And: “What is the internal air element, friends? "Что такое, друзья, внутренний элемент вибрации?
Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ vāyo vāyogataṃ upādinnaṃ. Whatever there is internally in oneself that is air, airy, and clung to, Всё, находящееся внутри в себе, являющееся ветром или дуновением, каммически приобретённым,
Seyyathidaṃ, uddhaṅgamā vātā, adhogamā vātā, kucchisayā vātā, koṭṭhāsayā vātā, aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātā, assāso passāso iti vā, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ vāyo vāyogataṃ upādinnaṃ, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā vāyodhātū"ti ca – that is to say, up-going winds, down- going winds, winds in the belly, winds in the bowels, winds that course through all the limbs, in-breath and out-breath, or whatever else there is internally in oneself that is air, airy, and clung to—this is called the internal air element” (M I 188). такое как восходящие и нисходящие ветры, ветры желудка и кишечника, ветер, пронизывающий части тела, вдыхание и выдыхание - или что-либо другое внутри в себе, являющееся ветром или дуновением, каммически приобретённым - это внутренний элемент вибрации." В МН62 есть ещё элемент пространства, не приведённый здесь.
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Evaṃ nātitikkhapaññassa dhātukammaṭṭhānikassa vasena vitthārato āgataṃ. - it is given in detail for one of not over- quick understanding whose meditation subject is elements— Таково подробное объяснение для не слишком быстро соображающего человека, выбравшего первоэлементы материи в качестве объекта медитации.
Yathā cettha, evaṃ rāhulovādadhātuvibhaṅgesupi. and as here so also in the Rāhulovāda and Dhātuvibhaṅga Suttas. Так это объяснено в этом наставлении, а также в Наставлении рахуле и Трактате о первоэлементах.
Tatrāyaṃ anuttānapadavaṇṇanā, ajjhattaṃ paccattanti idaṃ tāva ubhayampi niyakassa adhivacanaṃ. 32.Here is the commentary on the words that are not clear. Internally in oneself (ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ): both these words are terms for what is one’s own (niyaka), since what is one’s own is what is produced in one’s own self (attani jātaṃ);
Niyakaṃ nāma attani jātaṃ sasantānapariyāpannanti attho. the meaning is, included in one’s continuity (sasantati-pariyāpanna).
Tayidaṃ yathā loke itthīsu kathā adhitthīti vuccati, evaṃ attani pavattattā ajjhattaṃ, attānaṃ paṭicca paṭicca pavattattā paccattantipi vuccati. This is called “internal” (ajjhanaṃ = adhi + attā, lit. “belonging-to-self”) because it occurs in self (attani—locative case) just as in the world, speech among women (itthīsu—loc. case) is called “[speech] belonging-to-women” (adhitthi). And it is called, “in oneself” (paccattaṃ) because it occurs owing to self (attānaṃ paṭicca). 22 Comm. NT: 22.
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Kakkhaḷanti thaddhaṃ. 33.Hard: rigid.
Kharigatanti pharusaṃ. Harsh: rough.
Tattha paṭhamaṃ lakkhaṇavacanaṃ, dutiyaṃ ākāravacanaṃ, kakkhaḷalakkhaṇā hi pathavīdhātu, sā pharusākārā hoti, tasmā kharigatanti vuttā. Herein, the first is a word for the characteristic, while the second is a word for the mode; for the earth element is characterized as hard, but its mode is rough, which is why it is called “harsh.”
Upādinnanti daḷhaṃ ādinnaṃ, ahaṃ mamanti evaṃ daḷhaṃ ādinnaṃ, gahitaṃ parāmaṭṭhanti attho. Clung to: taken firmly [by kamma]; the meaning is, firmly taken, seized, adhered to, as “I,” “mine” (see §89f.). Каммически приобретённым: крепко взятым [каммой], что означает "крепко схвачен, захвачен, воспринимается как "я" или "моё". Судя по этому объяснению к камме это отношения не имеет. Просто присвоение и самоотождествление.
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Seyyathidanti nipāto. 34.That is to say: the word seyyathidaṃ (“that is to say”) is a particle;
Tassa taṃ katamanti ceti attho. its meaning is, “What is that?”
Tato taṃ dassento "kesā lomā"tiādimāha. Next, showing what that is, “head hairs, body hairs,” etc., is said. Затем, показывая о чём речь говорится: "волосы головы, волосы тела и т.п."
Ettha ca matthaluṅgaṃ pakkhipitvā vīsatiyā ākārehi pathavīdhātu niddiṭṭhāti veditabbā. And here the brain must be added since it has to be understood that the earth element needs to be described in twenty modes. И здесь следует добавить головной мозг, потому что нужно понимать необходимость описать первоэлемент твёрдости в 20 видах.
Yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñcīti avasesesu tīsu koṭṭhāsesu pathavīdhātu saṅgahitā. Or whatever else: the earth element included in the remaining three portions. "или что-либо другое": первоэлемент твёрдости в оставшихся трёх разделах.
Vissandanabhāvena taṃ taṃ ṭhānaṃ appotīti āpo. 35.[350] It flows (appoti), flows on (pappoti), to such and such a place as a state of streaming, thus it is water (āpo). Она течёт, протекает к такому-то месту в виде потока, поэтому это жидкость.
Kammasamuṭṭhānādivasena nānāvidhesu āpesu gatanti āpogataṃ. The watery (āpo-gata) is what is gone (gata) among such various kinds of water (āpo) as the kamma-originated, and so on. Жидкое, это то, что ушло среди различных видов жидкости, таких как порождённые каммой и прочие.
Kiṃ taṃ? What is that? Что это?
Āpodhātuyā ābandhanalakkhaṇaṃ. It is what has the water element’s characteristic of cohesion. Это то, что обладает текучестью элемента жидкости.
Tejanavasena tejo, vuttanayeneva tejesu gatanti tejogataṃ. 36. Fire (tejo) [is definable] as heating (tejana). The fiery (tejo-gata) is what is gone (gata), in the way already described, among the kinds of fire (tejo). Тепло определяется как нагрев. Тёплое - это то, что ушло уже описанным образом среди различных видов тепла.
Kiṃ taṃ? What is that? Что это?
Uṇhattalakkhaṇaṃ. It is what has the characteristic of heat. Это обладающее характеристикой тепла.
Yena cāti yena tejodhātugatena kupitena ayaṃ kāyo santappati, ekāhikajarādibhāvena usumajāto hoti. Whereby: by means of which the fire element, when excited, this body is warmed, becomes heated by the state of one- day fever,23 and so on. Посредством чего: посредством возбуждения элемента тепла тело разогревается, становится разогретым однодневной лихорадкой и т.п. Comm. NT: 23. Jara—“fever”: not in PED; see A V 100; Nidd I 17.
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Yena ca jīrīyatīti yena ayaṃ kāyo jīrati, indriyavekallataṃ balaparikkhayaṃ valipalitādibhāvañca pāpuṇāti. Ages: whereby this body grows old, reaches the decline of the faculties, loss of strength, wrinkles, grayness, and so on. "Стареет": посредством чего это тело становится старым, достигает упадка способностей восприятия, теряет силы, это морщины, седина и прочее.
Yena ca pariḍayhatīti yena kupitena ayaṃ kāyo ḍayhati. Burns up: whereby, when excited, it causes this body to burn, Перегрев: посредством чего, когда оно возбуждено, тело начинает гореть
So ca puggalo "ḍayhāmi ḍayhāmī"ti kandanto satadhotasappigosīsacandanādilepañceva tālavaṇṭavātañca paccāsīsati. and the person cries out, “I am burning, I am burning!” and longs for ghee a hundred times washed and for gosīsa sandalwood ointment, etc., and for the breeze of a fan. и человек вопит: "я горю, я горю" и желает 100 раз промытое топлёное масло, мазь из сандалового дерева, потока воздуха от веера.
Yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ sammā pariṇāmaṃ gacchatīti yenetaṃ asitaṃ vā odanādi pītaṃ vā pānakādi khāyitaṃ vā piṭṭhakhajjakādi sāyitaṃ vā ambapakkamadhuphāṇitādi sammā paripākaṃ gacchati, rasādibhāvena vivekaṃ gacchatīti attho. And whereby what is eaten, drunk, chewed and tasted gets completely digested: whereby the boiled rice, etc., that is eaten, or the beverage, etc., that is drunk, or the hard food consisting of flour biscuits, etc., that is chewed, the mango fruit, honey, molasses, etc., that is tasted, gets completely cooked; gets its juice, etc., extracted, is the meaning. Смысл в том, что всё съеденное, выпитое, пережёванное и опробованное становится полностью переваренным этим. Путём чего варёный рис и прочее съеденное, напитки и прочее выпитое, твёрдая пища из мучных печений и прочее пережёванное, фрукт манго, мёд, патока и прочее опробованное полностью переваривается, из него извлекаются питательные соки.
Ettha ca purimā tayo tejodhātusamuṭṭhānā. And here the first three kinds of fire element [that is to say, “is warmed,” “ages,” and “burns up”] are of fourfold origination (XX.27ff.), Первые три вида элемента тепла [имеют четырёхфакторное происхождение].
Pacchimo kammasamuṭṭhānova. while the last is only kamma-originated. Только последний вид порождён каммой.
Vāyanavasena vāyo, vuttanayeneva vāyesu gatanti vāyogataṃ. 37.Air (vāyo) [is definable] as blowing (vāyana). The airy (vāyo-gata) is what is gone (gata), in the way already described, among the kinds of air. Вибрация (воздух) определён как то, что дует. Дуновение - это то, что ушло описанным выше образом среди различных видов воздуха.
Kiṃ taṃ? What is that? Что это?
Vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ. It is what has the characteristic of distension.24 Это то, что имеет характеристику расширения. Comm. NT: 24. Vitthambhana—“distension”: the word most usually employed to describe the air element. It is often rendered by “supporting,” a word earm...
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Uddhaṅgamā vātāti uggārahikkādipavattakā uddhaṃ ārohaṇavātā. Upgoing winds: winds (forces) mounting upwards that cause the occurrence of vomiting, belching, and so on.
Adhogamā vātāti uccārapassāvādinīharaṇakā adho orohaṇavātā. Down-going winds: winds (forces) descending downwards that expel excrement and urine.
Kucchisayā vātāti antānaṃ bahivātā. Winds in the belly: winds (forces) outside the bowels.
Koṭṭhāsayā vātāti antānaṃ antovātā. Winds in the bowels: winds (forces) inside the bowels.
Aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātāti dhamanijālānusārena sakalasarīre aṅgamaṅgāni anusaṭā samiñjanapasāraṇādinibbattakā vātā. Winds that course through all the limbs: winds (forces) that produce flexing, extending, etc., and are distributed over the limbs and the whole body by means of the network of veins (nerves). Вибрации, проходящие через части тела: вибрации, порождающие сгибание, разгибание и прочее, распределённые по частям и всему телу путём сети сосудов (нервов).
Assāsoti antopavisananāsikavāto. In-breath: wind in the nostrils entering in.
Passāsoti bahinikkhamananāsikavāto. Out-breath: wind in the nostrils issuing out.
Ettha ca purimā pañca catusamuṭṭhānā. And here the first five are of fourfold origination. Первые пять имеют четырёхчастное происхождение.
Assāsapassāsā cittasamuṭṭhānāva. In-breath and out-breath are consciousness-originated. [351] Вдохи и выдохи порождаются умом.
Sabbattha yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñcīti iminā padena avasesakoṭṭhāsesu āpodhātuādayo saṅgahitā. In each instance the phrase or whatever else comprises respectively the water element, the fire element, or the air element included in the other three portions.
Iti vīsatiyā ākārehi pathavīdhātu, dvādasahi āpodhātu, catūhi tejodhātu, chahi vāyodhātūti dvācattālīsāya ākārehi catasso dhātuyo vitthāritā hontīti ayaṃ tāvettha pāḷivaṇṇanā. 38.So the four elements have been detailed in forty-two aspects, that is to say, the earth element in twenty aspects, the water element in twelve, the fire element in four, and the air element in six. This, firstly, is the commentary on the texts here. Четыре первоэлемента описаны в 42 аспектах, а именно - элемент твёрдости в 20, элемент жидкости в 12, элемент тепла в 4, элемент вибрации в 6. Таков здесь комментарий тексту.
308.Bhāvanānaye panettha tikkhapaññassa bhikkhuno kesā pathavīdhātu, lomā pathavīdhātūti evaṃ vitthārato dhātupariggaho papañcato upaṭṭhāti. [METHOD OF DEVELOPMENT IN BRIEF] 39.As regards the method of development here, however, to discern the elements in detail in this way, “The head hairs are the earth element, the body hairs are the earth element,” appears redundant to a bhikkhu of quick understanding. Однако что касается способа практики, то подробно анализировать элементы как "Волосы головы - это первоэлемент твёрдости, волосы тела - это элемент твёрдости" оказывается избыточным для быстро соображающего монаха.
Yaṃ thaddhalakkhaṇaṃ, ayaṃ pathavīdhātu. “What has the characteristic of stiffenedness is the earth element, "То, что обладает характеристикой твёрдости - это элемент твёрдости
Yaṃ ābandhanalakkhaṇaṃ, ayaṃ āpodhātu. what has the characteristic of cohesion is the water element, что обладает характеристикой жидкости - это элемент жидкости
Yaṃ paripācanalakkhaṇaṃ, ayaṃ tejodhātu. what has the characteristic of ripening (maturing) is the fire element, что обладает характеристикой созревания - это элемент тепла
Yaṃ vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ, ayaṃ vāyodhātūti evaṃ manasikaroto panassa kammaṭṭhānaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti. what has the characteristic of distending (supporting) is the air element.” - though the meditation subject becomes clear to him if he gives his attention to it in this way. что обладает характеристикой расширения - это элемент вибрации" - если он направляет внимание на него таким образом, объект медитации становится ему ясен.
Nātitikkhapaññassa pana evaṃ manasikaroto andhakāraṃ avibhūtaṃ hoti. But when one of not over-quick understanding gives his attention to it in this way, it appears obscure and unevident, Но если не очень сообразительный направляет ум таким образом, объект выглядит размытым и неочевидным.
Purimanayena vitthārato manasikarontassa pākaṭaṃ hoti. and it only becomes plain to him if he gives his attention to it in the first-mentioned way. И он становится для него ясен только если он направляет на него внимание первым способом из перечисленных.
Kathaṃ ? Why? Почему?
Yathā dvīsu bhikkhūsu bahupeyyālaṃ tantiṃ sajjhāyantesu tikkhapañño bhikkhu sakiṃ vā dvikkhattuṃ vā peyyālamukhaṃ vitthāretvā tato paraṃ ubhatokoṭivaseneva sajjhāyaṃ karonto gacchati. 40.Suppose two bhikkhus are reciting a text with many elided repetitions, then the bhikkhu with the quicker understanding fills out the elided repetitions once or twice, after which he goes on doing the recital with only the two end parts of the elisions.
Tatra nātitikkhapañño evaṃ vattā hoti "kiṃ sajjhāyo nāmesa oṭṭhapariyāhatamattaṃ kātuṃ na deti, evaṃ sajjhāye kariyamāne kadā tanti paguṇā bhavissatī"ti. Here the one of less quick understanding says, “What is he reciting? Why, he does not even give one time to move one’s lips! If the recitation is done like this, when shall we ever get familiar with the text?”
So āgatāgataṃ peyyālamukhaṃ vitthāretvāva sajjhāyaṃ karoti. and so he does his recitation filling out each elision as it comes.
Tamenaṃ itaro evamāha – "kiṃ sajjhāyo nāmesa pariyosānaṃ gantuṃ na deti, evaṃ sajjhāye kariyamāne kadā tanti pariyosānaṃ gamissatī"ti. Then the other says, “What is he reciting? Why, he never lets one get to the end of it! If the recitation is done like this; when shall we ever get to the end of it?”
Evameva tikkhapaññassa kesādivasena vitthārato dhātupariggaho papañcato upaṭṭhāti. So too, the detailed discerning of the elements by head hairs, etc., appears redundant to one of quick understanding,
Yaṃ thaddhalakkhaṇaṃ, ayaṃ pathavīdhātūtiādinā nayena saṅkhepato manasikaroto kammaṭṭhānaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti. though the meditation subject becomes clear to him if he gives his attention to it in brief in this way, “What has the characteristic of stiffenedness is the earth element,” and so on.
Itarassa tathā manasikaroto andhakāraṃ avibhūtaṃ hoti. But when the other gives his attention to it in this way, it appears obscure and unevident,
Kesādivasena vitthārato manasikarontassa pākaṭaṃ hoti. and it only becomes plain to him if he gives his attention in detail by head hairs and so on.
Tasmā imaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvetukāmena tikkhapaññena tāva rahogatena paṭisallīnena sakalampi attano rūpakāyaṃ āvajjetvā yo imasmiṃ kāye thaddhabhāvo vā kharabhāvo vā, ayaṃ pathavīdhātu. 41.So firstly, one of quick understanding who wants to develop this meditation subject should go into solitary retreat. Then he should advert to his own entire material body and discern the elements in brief in this way: “In this body what is stiffenedness or harshness is the earth element, Поэтому сообразительный человек, желающий практиковать этот объект должен уйти в одиночный ритрит. Он должен обратиться ко всему своему материальному телу и кратким способом определить элементы: "То, то в этом теле является твёрдым или жёстким - это элемент твёрдости.
Yo ābandhanabhāvo vā dravabhāvo vā, ayaṃ āpodhātu. what is cohesion or fluidity25 [352] is the water element, что является текучим или жидким - это элемент жидкости Comm. NT: 25. Drava-bhāva—“fluidity”: not in PED.
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Yo paripācanabhāvo vā uṇhabhāvo vā, ayaṃ tejodhātu. what is maturing (ripening) or heat is the fire element, что является созреванием или теплом - это элемент тепла.
Yo vitthambhanabhāvo vā samudīraṇabhāvo vā, ayaṃ vāyodhātūti evaṃ saṃkhittena dhātuyo pariggahetvā punappunaṃ pathavīdhātu āpodhātūti dhātumattato nissattato nijjīvato āvajjitabbaṃ manasikātabbaṃ paccavekkhitabbaṃ. what is distension or movement is the air element.” And he should advert and give attention to it and review it again and again as “earth element, water element,” that is to say, as mere elements, not a living being, and soulless. Что является расширением или движением - это элемент вибрации." И он должен обращаться и направлять внимание на него снова и снова "элемент твёрдости, элемент жидкости", то есть, как одни лишь элементы, а не живое существо или личность.
Tassevaṃ vāyamamānassa nacireneva dhātuppabhedāvabhāsanapaññāpariggahito sabhāvadhammārammaṇattā appanaṃ appatto upacāramatto samādhi uppajjati. 42.As he makes effort in this way it is not long before concentration arises in him, which is reinforced by understanding that illuminates the classification of the elements, and which is only access and does not reach absorption because it has states with individual essences as its object. По мере того, как он прилагает такие усилия, через небольшое время собранность ума возникает в нём, которая усиливается мудростью, освещающей классификацию первоэлементов и которая является лишь сосредоточением доступа, не достигая полной поглощённости, поскольку его опорой являются явления с конкретными сущностями.
Atha vā pana ye ime catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ nissattabhāvadassanatthaṃ dhammasenāpatinā "aṭṭhiñca paṭicca nhāruñca paṭicca maṃsañca paṭicca cammañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito rūpantveva saṅkhaṃ gacchatī"ti (ma. ni. 1.306) cattāro koṭṭhāsā vuttā. 43.Or alternatively, there are these four [bodily] parts mentioned by the General of the Dhamma [the Elder Sāriputta] for the purpose of showing the absence of any living being in the four great primary elements thus: “When a space is enclosed with bones and sinews and flesh and skin, there comes to be the term ‘material form’ (rūpa)” (M I 190). Альтернативный вариант: таковы четыре части, упомянутые полководцем Дхаммы с целью показать отсутствие живого существа в четырёх первоэлементах: "Когда пространство окружено костями, сухожилиями и плотью, возникает понятие "тело"".
Tesu taṃ taṃ antarānusārinā ñāṇahatthena vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā yo etesu thaddhabhāvo vā kharabhāvo vā, ayaṃ pathavīdhātūti purimanayeneva dhātuyo pariggahetvā punappunaṃ pathavīdhātu āpodhātūti dhātumattato nissattato nijjīvato āvajjitabbaṃ manasikātabbaṃ paccavekkhitabbaṃ. And he should resolve each of these [as a separate entity], separating them out by the hand of knowledge, and then discern them in the way already stated thus: “In these what is stiffenedness or harshness is the earth element. ” And he should again and again advert to them, give attention to them and review them as mere elements, not a living being, not a soul. И практикующий должен определить каждую из них, отделяя их с помощью руки знания и затем уже описанным образом исследовать: "В них что является твёрдым и жёстким является элементом твёрдости". И он должен снова и снова обращаться, направлять на них ум и рассматривать их лишь как первоэлементы, не живое существо или личность.
Tassevaṃ vāyamamānassa nacireneva dhātuppabhedāvabhāsanapaññāpariggahito sabhāvadhammārammaṇattā appanaṃ appatto upacāramatto samādhi uppajjati. 44.As he makes effort in this way, it is not long before concentration arises in him, which is reinforced by understanding that illuminates the classification of the elements, and which is only access and does not reach absorption because it has states with individual essences as its object.
Ayaṃ saṅkhepato āgate catudhātuvavatthāne bhāvanānayo. This is the method of development when the definition of the elements is given in brief. Таков способ практики, когда определение первоэлементов даётся вкратце.
309.Vitthārato āgate pana evaṃ veditabbo. [METHOD OF DEVELOPMENT IN DETAIL] 45.The method given in detail should be understood in this way. Подробно метод практики следует понимать так.
Idaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvetukāmena hi nātitikkhapaññena yoginā ācariyasantike dvācattālīsāya ākārehi vitthārato dhātuyo uggaṇhitvā vuttappakāre senāsane viharantena katasabbakiccena rahogatena paṭisallīnena sasambhārasaṅkhepato, sasambhāravibhattito, salakkhaṇasaṅkhepato, salakkhaṇavibhattitoti evaṃ catūhākārehi kammaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvetabbaṃ. A meditator of not over-quick understanding who wants to develop this meditation subject should learn the elements in detail in the forty-two aspects from a teacher, and he should live in an abode of the kind already described. Then, when he has done all the duties, he should go into solitary retreat and develop the meditation subject in four ways thus: (1) with constituents in brief, (2) with constituents by analysis, (3) with characteristics in brief, and (4) with characteristics by analysis. Не очень сообразительный практикующий, желающий заниматься этим объектом медитации должен узнать от учителя первоэлементы в подробном виде из 42 аспектов и должен проживать в месте уже описанного типа. Затем, когда он исполнил все обязанности, ему следует удалиться в уединённый ритрит и развивать объект медитации следующим образом: (1) с составляющими кратко, (2) с составляющими путём анализа, (3) с характеристиками кратко, (4) с характеристиками путём анализа.
Tattha kathaṃ sasambhārasaṅkhepato bhāveti? [(1) WITH CONSTITUENTS IN BRIEF] 46.Herein, how does he develop it with constituents in brief? Как он развивает его с составляющими кратко?
Idha bhikkhu vīsatiyā koṭṭhāsesu thaddhākāraṃ pathavīdhātūti vavatthapeti. Here a bhikkhu does his defining in this way, “In twenty of the parts what has the stiffened mode is the earth element,” Здесь монах определяет следующим образом: "В двадцати частях то, что имеет признак твёрдости является первоэлементом твёрдости."
Dvādasasu koṭṭhāsesu yūsagataṃ udakasaṅkhātaṃ ābandhanākāraṃ āpodhātūti vavatthapeti. and he does his defining thus, “In twelve parts the liquid called water with the mode of cohesion is the water element,” и он определяет так: "В 12 частях жидкость, называемая водой с признаком текучести является первоэлементом жидкости"
Catūsu koṭṭhāsesu paripācanakaṃ tejaṃ tejodhātūti vavatthapeti. [353] and he does his defining thus, “In four parts what matures (what has the mode of ripening) is the fire element,” и он определяет так: "В четырёх частях то, что приводит к созреванию - это элемент теплоты"
Chasu koṭṭhāsesu vitthambhanākāraṃ vāyodhātūti vavatthapeti. and he does his defining thus, “In six parts what has the mode of distending is the air element.” и он определяет так: "В 6 частях то, что имеет признак расширения является элементом вибрации".
Tassevaṃ vavatthāpayatoyeva dhātuyo pākaṭā honti. As he defines them in this way they become evident to him. И по мере того как он определяет их таким образом, они становятся для него ясны.
Tā punappunaṃ āvajjato manasikaroto vuttanayeneva upacārasamādhi uppajjati. As he again and again adverts to them and gives his attention to them, concentration arises as access only. И снова и снова он обращается к ним и направляет ум на них, тогда возникает сосредоточение доступа.
310.Yassa pana evaṃ bhāvayato kammaṭṭhānaṃ na ijjhati, tena sasambhāravibhattito bhāvetabbaṃ. [(2) WITH CONSTITUENTS BY ANALYSIS] 47.However, if his meditation subject is not successful while he develops it in this way, then he should develop it with constituents by analysis. Однако, если такая практика этого объекта не достигает успеха, он должен развивать её с составными частями путём анализа.
Kathaṃ? How? Как?
Tena hi bhikkhunā yaṃ taṃ kāyagatāsatikammaṭṭhānaniddese sattadhā uggahakosallaṃ dasadhā manasikārakosallañca vuttaṃ. Firstly, the bhikkhu should carry out all the directions given for the thirty-two-fold aspect in the description of mindfulness occupied with the body as a meditation subject (VIII.48–78), namely, the sevenfold skill in learning and the tenfold skill in giving attention, Сначала следует выполнить все указания, даваемые для 32 частного объекта медитации в описании памятования, направленного на тело, а именно семифакторный навык в изучении и десятифакторный навык в направлении ума.
Dvattiṃsākāre tāva taṃ sabbaṃ aparihāpetvā tacapañcakādīnaṃ anulomapaṭilomato vacasā sajjhāyaṃ ādiṃkatvā sabbaṃ tattha vuttavidhānaṃ kātabbaṃ. and he should start with the verbal recitation, in direct and reverse order, of the skin pentad and so on, without omitting any of it. Следует начать со словесного повторения в прямом и обратном порядке пятёрки кожи так далее, не опуская ни одну из них.
Ayameva hi viseso, tattha vaṇṇasaṇṭhānadisokāsaparicchedavasena kesādayo manasikaritvāpi paṭikkūlavasena cittaṃ ṭhapetabbaṃ, idha dhātuvasena. The only difference is this: there, after giving attention to the head hairs, etc., as to colour, shape, direction, location, and delimitation, the mind had to be fixed by means of repulsiveness (VIII.83), but here it is done by means of elements. Единственная разница заключается в следующем: направив ум на волосы тела и т.п. в части цвета, формы, направления, местонахождения и ограничения, ум в том объекте направлялся путём отвратительности, но здесь он должен направляться путём первоэлементов.
Tasmā vaṇṇādivasena pañcadhā pañcadhā kesādayo manasikaritvā avasāne evaṃ manasikāro pavattetabbo. Therefore at the end of each part after giving attention to head hairs, etc., each in the five ways beginning with colour (VIII.83), attention should be given as follows. Поэтому по окончании каждой части после направления ума на волосы головы и т.п. пятью способами, начиная с цвета, ум следует направить следующим образом:
311.Ime kesā nāma sīsakaṭāhapaliveṭhanacamme jātā. 48. These things called head hairs grow on the inner skin that envelops the skull. Эти вещи, называемые волосами головы растут в коже, оборачивающей череп.
Tattha yathāvammikamatthake jātesu kuṇṭhatiṇesu na vammikamatthako jānāti mayi kuṇṭhatiṇāni jātānīti, napi kuṇṭhatiṇāni jānanti mayaṃ vammikamatthake jātānīti, evameva na sīsakaṭāhapaliveṭhanacammaṃ jānāti mayi kesā jātāti, napi kesā jānanti mayaṃ sīsakaṭāhaveṭhanacamme jātāti, aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. Herein, just as when kuṇṭha grasses grow on the top of an anthill, the top of the termite-mound does not know, “Kuṇṭha grasses are growing on me,” nor do the kuṇṭha grasses know, “We are growing on the top of a termite-mound,” so too, the inner skin that covers the skull does not know, “Head hairs grow on me,” nor do the head hairs know, “We grow on inner skin that envelops a skull. ” These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing. Здесь подобно тому как травинки кунтха растут на вершине муравейника, вершина муравейника не знает "на мне растёт травинки кунтха" и травинки кунтха не знает "мы растём на вершине муравейника". Так и кожа, оборачивающая череп, не знает "волосы головы растут на мне" и волосы головы не знают "мы растём в коже, оборачивающей череп". Им нет дела друг до друга они не проводят такой анализ.
Iti kesā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what are called head hairs are a particular component of this body, without thought, [morally] indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid (stiffened) earth element. Так что то, что зовётся волосами головы является конкретной составной частью этого тела, без мышления, морально неопределённые, пустые, не живое существо, а лишь жёсткий элемент твёрдости.
312.Lomā sarīraveṭhanacamme jātā. 49.Body hairs grow on the inner skin that envelops the body. Волосы тела растут в коже, охватывающей тело.
Tattha yathā suññagāmaṭṭhāne jātesu dabbatiṇakesu na suññagāmaṭṭhānaṃ jānāti mayi dabbatiṇakāni jātānīti, napi dabbatiṇakāni jānanti mayaṃ suññagāmaṭṭhāne jātānīti, evameva na sarīraveṭhanacammaṃ jānāti mayi lomā jātāti. Herein, just as, when dabba grasses grow on the square in an empty village, the square in the empty village does not know, “Dabba grasses grow on me,” nor do the dabba grasses know, “We grow on the square in an empty village,” so too, the inner skin that envelops the body does not know, “Body hairs grow on me,” Подобно тому как травинки дабба растут на площади пустой деревни и площадь пустой деревни не знает "на мне растут травинки дабба" и травинки дабба не знают "мы растём на площади пустой деревни", так и здесь внутренняя часть кожи, охватывающей тело, не знают "Из меня растут волосы тела"
Napi lomā jānanti mayaṃ sarīraveṭhanacamme jātāti. nor do the body hairs know, “We grow on inner skin that envelops a body.” и волосы тела не знают "Мы растём из внутренней части кожи, охватывающей тело".
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing. Им нет дела друг до друга они не проводят такой анализ.
Iti lomā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what are called body hairs are a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element. Так что то, что зовётся волосами тела является конкретной составной частью этого тела, без мышления, морально неопределённые, пустые, не живое существо, а лишь жёсткий элемент твёрдости.
313.Nakhā aṅgulīnaṃ aggesu jātā. 50.Nails grow on the tips of the fingers and toes.
Tattha yathā kumārakesu daṇḍakehi madhukaṭṭhike vijjhitvā kīḷantesu na daṇḍakā jānanti amhesu madhukaṭṭhikā ṭhapitāti, napi madhukaṭṭhikā jānanti mayaṃ daṇḍakesu ṭhapitāti, evameva na aṅguliyo jānanti amhākaṃ aggesu nakhā jātāti. Herein, just as, when children play a game by piercing madhuka-fruit kernels with sticks, the sticks [354] do not know, “Madhuka-fruit kernels are put on us,” nor do the madhuka-fruit kernels know, “We are put on sticks,” so too, the fingers and toes do not know, “Nails grow on our tips,”
Napi nakhā jānanti mayaṃ aṅgulīnaṃ aggesu jātāti. nor do the nails know, “We grow on the tips of fingers and toes.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti nakhā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what are called nails are a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
314.Dantā hanukaṭṭhikesu jātā. 51. Teeth grow in the jaw bones.
Tattha yathā vaḍḍhakīhi pāsāṇaudukkhalakesu kenacideva silesajātena bandhitvā ṭhapitathambhesu na udukkhalā jānanti amhesu thambhā ṭhitāti. Herein, just as, when posts are placed by builders in stone sockets and fastened with some kind of cement,26 the sockets do not know, “Posts are placed in us,” Comm. NT: 26. Silesa—”cement”: not in this meaning in PED; M-a I 37 saṃsilesa.
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Napi thambhā jānanti mayaṃ udukkhalesu ṭhitāti, evameva na hanukaṭṭhīni jānanti amhesu dantā jātāti. nor do the posts know, “We are placed in sockets,” so too, the jaw bones do not know, “Teeth grow in us,”
Napi dantā jānanti mayaṃ hanukaṭṭhīsu jātāti. nor do the teeth know, “We grow in jaw bones’.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti dantā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what are called teeth are a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
315.Taco sakalasarīraṃ pariyonandhitvā ṭhito. 52.Skin is to be found covering the whole body.
Tattha yathā allagocammapariyonaddhāya mahāvīṇāya na mahāvīṇā jānāti ahaṃ allagocammena pariyonaddhāti. Herein, just as, when a big lute is covered with damp ox-hide, the lute does not know, “I am covered with damp ox-hide,”
Napi allagocammaṃ jānāti mayā mahāvīṇā pariyonaddhāti, evameva na sarīraṃ jānāti ahaṃ tacena pariyonaddhanti. nor does the damp ox-hide know, “A lute is covered by me,” so too, the body does not know, “I am covered by skin,”
Napi taco jānāti mayā sarīraṃ pariyonaddhanti. nor does the skin know, “A body is covered by me.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti taco nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called skin is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
316.Maṃsaṃ aṭṭhisaṅghāṭaṃ anulimpitvā ṭhitaṃ. 53.Flesh is to be found plastered over the framework of bones.
Tattha yathā mahāmattikalittāya bhittiyā na bhitti jānāti ahaṃ mahāmattikāya littāti. Herein, just as, when a wall is plastered with thick clay, the wall does not know, “I am plastered with thick clay,”
Napi mahāmattikā jānāti mayā bhitti littāti, evameva na aṭṭhisaṅghāṭo jānāti ahaṃ navapesisatappabhedena maṃsena littoti. nor does the thick clay know, “A wall is plastered with me,” so too, the framework of bones does not know, “I am plastered with flesh consisting of nine hundred pieces of flesh,”
Napi maṃsaṃ jānāti mayā aṭṭhisaṅghāṭo littoti. nor does the flesh know, “A framework of bones is plastered with me.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti maṃsaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called flesh is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
317.Nhāru sarīrabbhantare aṭṭhīni ābandhamānā ṭhitā. 54.Sinews are to be found in the interior of the body binding the bones together.
Tattha yathā vallīhi vinaddhesu kuṭṭadārūsu na kuṭṭadārūni jānanti mayaṃ vallīhi vinaddhānīti. Herein, just as, when withies and sticks are bound together with creepers, the withies and sticks do not know [355] “We are bound together with creepers,”
Napi valliyo jānanti amhehi kuṭṭadārūni vinaddhānīti, evameva na aṭṭhīni jānanti mayaṃ nhārūhi ābaddhānīti. nor do the creepers know, “Withies and sticks are bound together by us,” so too, the bones do not know, “We are bound by sinews,”
Napi nhārū jānanti amhehi aṭṭhīni ābaddhānīti. nor do the sinews know, “Bones are bound together by us.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti nhāru nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what are called sinews are a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
318.Aṭṭhīsu paṇhikaṭṭhi gopphakaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ. 55.As to the bones, the heel bone is to be found holding up the ankle bone,
Gopphakaṭṭhi jaṅghaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ. the ankle bone holding up the shin bone,
Jaṅghaṭṭhi ūruṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ. the shin bone the thigh bone,
Ūruṭṭhi kaṭiṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ. the thigh bone the hip bone,
Kaṭiṭṭhi piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ, piṭṭhikaṇṭako gīvaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhito. the hip bone the backbone, the backbone the neck bone,
Gīvaṭṭhi sīsaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ. and the neck bone is to be found holding up the cranium bone.
Sīsaṭṭhi gīvaṭṭhike patiṭṭhitaṃ. The cranium bone rests on the neck bone,
Gīvaṭṭhi piṭṭhikaṇṭake patiṭṭhitaṃ. the neck bone on the backbone,
Piṭṭhikaṇṭako kaṭiṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhito. the backbone on the hip bone,
Kaṭiṭṭhi ūruṭṭhike patiṭṭhitaṃ. the hip bone on the thigh bone,
Ūruṭṭhi jaṅghaṭṭhike patiṭṭhitaṃ. the thigh bone on the shin bone,
Jaṅghaṭṭhi gopphakaṭṭhike patiṭṭhitaṃ. the shin bone on the ankle bone,
Gopphakaṭṭhi paṇhikaṭṭhike patiṭṭhitaṃ. the ankle bone on the heel bone.
Tattha yathā iṭṭhakadārugomayādisañcayesu na heṭṭhimā heṭṭhimā jānanti mayaṃ uparime uparime ukkhipitvā ṭhitāti. 56.Herein, just as, when bricks, timber or [blocks of dried] cow dung are built up, those below do not know, “We each stand holding up those above us,”
Napi uparimā uparimā jānanti mayaṃ heṭṭhimesu heṭṭhimesu patiṭṭhitāti, evameva na paṇhikaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ gopphakaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitanti. nor do those above know, “We each rest on those below us,” so too, the heel bone does not know, “I stand holding up the ankle bone,”
Na gopphakaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ jaṅghaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitanti. nor does the ankle bone know, “I stand holding up the shin bone,”
Na jaṅghaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ ūruṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitanti. nor does the shin bone know, “I stand holding up the thigh bone,”
Na ūruṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ kaṭiṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitanti. nor does the thigh bone know, “I stand holding up the hip bone,”
Na kaṭiṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitanti. nor does the hip bone know, “I stand holding up the backbone,”
Na piṭṭhikaṇṭako jānāti ahaṃ gīvaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitanti. nor does the backbone know, “I stand holding up the neck bone,”
Na gīvaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ sīsaṭṭhiṃ ukkhipitvā ṭhitanti. nor does the neck bone know, “I stand holding up the cranium bone,”
Na sīsaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ gīvaṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhitanti. nor does the cranium bone know, “I rest on the neck bone,”
Na gīvaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ piṭṭhikaṇṭake patiṭṭhitanti. nor does the neck bone know, “I rest on the backbone,”
Na piṭṭhikaṇṭako jānāti ahaṃ kaṭiṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhitoti. nor does the backbone know, “I rest on the hip bone,”
Na kaṭiṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ ūruṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhitanti. nor does the hip bone know, “I rest on the thigh bone,”
Na ūruṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ jaṅghaṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhitanti. nor does the thigh bone know, “I rest on the shin bone,”
Na jaṅghaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ gopphakaṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhitanti. nor does the shin bone know, “I rest on the ankle bone,”
Na gopphakaṭṭhi jānāti ahaṃ paṇhikaṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhitanti. nor does the ankle bone know, “I rest on the heel bone.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti aṭṭhi nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what are called bones [356] are a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
319.Aṭṭhimiñjaṃ tesaṃ tesaṃ aṭṭhīnaṃ abbhantare ṭhitaṃ. 57.Bone marrow is to be found inside the various bones.
Tattha yathā veḷupabbādīnaṃ anto pakkhittachinnavettaggādīsu na veḷupabbādīni jānanti amhesu vettaggādīni pakkhittānīti. Herein, just as, when boiled bamboo sprouts, etc., are put inside bamboo joints, etc., the bamboo joints, etc., do not know, “Bamboo sprouts, etc., are put in us,”
Napi vettaggādīni jānanti mayaṃ veḷupabbādīsu ṭhitānīti, evameva na aṭṭhīni jānanti amhākaṃ anto miñjaṃ ṭhitanti. nor do the bamboo sprouts, etc., know, “We are inside bamboo joints, etc.,” so too, the bones do not know, “Marrow is inside us,”
Nāpi miñjaṃ jānāti ahaṃ aṭṭhīnaṃ anto ṭhitanti. nor does the bone marrow know, “I am inside bones.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti aṭṭhimiñjaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called bone marrow is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
320.Vakkaṃ galavāṭakato nikkhantena ekamūlena thokaṃ gantvā dvidhā bhinnena thūlanhārunā vinibaddhaṃ hutvā hadayamaṃsaṃ parikkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ. 58.Kidney is to be found on each side of the heart flesh, being fastened by the stout sinew that starts out with a single root from the base of the neck and divides into two after going a short way.
Tattha yathā vaṇṭupanibaddhe ambaphaladvaye na vaṇṭaṃ jānāti mayā ambaphaladvayaṃ upanibaddhanti. Herein, just as, when a pair of mango fruits are bound together by their stalk, the stalk does not know, “A pair of mango fruits is bound together by me,”
Napi ambaphaladvayaṃ jānāti ahaṃ vaṇṭena upanibaddhanti, evameva na thūlanhāru jānāti mayā vakkaṃ upanibaddhanti. nor do the pair of mango fruits know, “We are bound together by a stalk,” so too, the stout sinew does not know, “Kidneys are bound together by me,”
Napi vakkaṃ jānāti ahaṃ thūlanhārunā upanibaddhanti. nor does the kidney know, “I am bound together by a stout sinew.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti vakkaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called kidney is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
321.Hadayaṃ sarīrabbhantare uraṭṭhipañjaramajjhaṃ nissāya ṭhitaṃ. 59.Heart is to be found in the inside of the body near the middle of the frame of the ribs.
Tattha yathā jiṇṇasandamānikapañjaraṃ nissāya ṭhapitāya maṃsapesiyā na sandamānikapañjarabbhantaraṃ jānāti maṃ nissāya maṃsapesi ṭhitāti. Herein, just as, when a piece of meat is placed near the framework of an old cart, the inside of the framework of the old cart does not know, “A piece of meat is placed near the middle of me,”
Napi maṃsapesi jānāti ahaṃ jiṇṇasandamānikapañjaraṃ nissāya ṭhitāti, evameva na uraṭṭhipañjarabbhantaraṃ jānāti maṃ nissāya hadayaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the piece of meat know, “I am near the middle of the inside of the framework of an old cart,” so too, the inside of the framework of the ribs does not know, “A heart is near the middle of me,”
Napi hadayaṃ jānāti ahaṃ uraṭṭhipañjaraṃ nissāya ṭhitanti. nor does the heart know, “I am near the middle of the inside of a framework of ribs.
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. ” These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti hadayaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called heart is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
322.Yakanaṃ antosarīre dvinnaṃ thanānamabbhantare dakkhiṇapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitaṃ. 60. Liver is to be found inside the body, near the right side between the two breasts.
Tattha yathā ukkhalikapālapassamhi lagge yamakamaṃsapiṇḍe na ukkhalikapālapassaṃ jānāti mayi yamakamaṃsapiṇḍo laggoti. Herein, just as, when a twin lump of meat is stuck on the side of a cooking pot, the side of the cooking pot does not know, “A twin lump of meat is stuck on me,”
Napi yamakamaṃsapiṇḍo jānāti ahaṃ ukkhalikapālapasse laggoti, evameva na thanānamabbhantare dakkhiṇapassaṃ jānāti maṃ nissāya yakanaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the twin lump of meat know, [357] “I am stuck on the side of a cooking pot,” so too, the right side between the breasts does not know, “Liver is near me,”
Napi yakanaṃ jānāti ahaṃ thanānamabbhantare dakkhiṇapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitanti. nor does the liver know, “I am near a right side between two breasts.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti yakanaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called liver is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
323.Kilomakesu paṭicchannakilomakaṃ hadayañca vakkañca parivāretvā ṭhitaṃ. 61.As to the midriff, the concealed midriff is to be found surrounding the heart and kidney,
Appaṭicchannakilomakaṃ sakalasarīre cammassa heṭṭhato maṃsaṃ pariyonandhitvā ṭhitaṃ. while the unconcealed midriff is to be found covering the flesh under the skin in the whole body.
Tattha yathā pilotikapaliveṭhite maṃse na maṃsaṃ jānāti ahaṃ pilotikāya paliveṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when meat is wrapped in a rag, the meat does not know, “I am wrapped in a rag,”
Napi pilotikā jānāti mayā maṃsaṃ paliveṭhitanti, evameva na vakkahadayāni sakalasarīre ca maṃsaṃ jānāti ahaṃ kilomakena paṭicchannanti. nor does the rag know, “Meat is wrapped in me,” so too, the heart and kidney, and the flesh in the whole body, do not know, “I am concealed by midriff,”
Napi kilomakaṃ jānāti mayā vakkahadayāni sakalasarīre ca maṃsaṃ paṭicchannanti. nor does the midriff know, “Heart and kidney, and flesh in a whole body, are concealed by me.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti kilomakaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called midriff is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
324.Pihakaṃ hadayassa vāmapasse udarapaṭalassa matthakapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitaṃ. 62.Spleen is to be found near the upper side of the belly lining on the left side of the heart.
Tattha yathā koṭṭhamatthakapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitāya gomayapiṇḍiyā na koṭṭhamatthakapassaṃ jānāti gomayapiṇḍi maṃ nissāya ṭhitāti. Herein, just as, when a lump of cow dung is near the upper side of a barn, the upper side of the barn does not know, “A lump of cow dung is near me,”
Napi gomayapiṇḍi jānāti ahaṃ koṭṭhamatthakapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitāti, evameva na udarapaṭalassa matthakapassaṃ jānāti pihakaṃ maṃ nissāya ṭhitanti. nor does the lump of cow dung know, “I am near the upper side of a barn,” so too, the upper side of the belly lining does not know, “Spleen is near me,”
Napi pihakaṃ jānāti ahaṃ udarapaṭalassa matthakapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitanti. nor does the spleen know, “I am near the upper side of a belly lining.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti pihakaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called spleen is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
325.Papphāsaṃsarīrabbhantare dvinnaṃ thanānamantare hadayañca yakanañca upari chādetvā olambantaṃ ṭhitaṃ. 63.Lungs are to be found inside the body between the two breasts, hanging over the heart and liver and concealing them.
Tattha yathā jiṇṇakoṭṭhabbhantare lambamāne sakuṇakulāvake na jiṇṇakoṭṭhabbhantaraṃ jānāti mayi sakuṇakulāvako lambamāno ṭhitoti. Herein, just as when a bird’s nest is hanging inside an old barn, the inside of the old barn does not know, “A bird’s nest is hanging in me,”
Napi sakuṇakulāvako jānāti ahaṃ jiṇṇakoṭṭhabbhantare lambamāno ṭhitoti, evameva na taṃ sarīrabbhantaraṃ jānāti mayi papphāsaṃ lambamānaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the bird’s nest know, “I am hanging inside an old barn,” so too, [358] the inside of the body does not know, “Lungs are hanging in me,”
Napi papphāsaṃ jānāti ahaṃ evarūpe sarīrabbhantare lambamānaṃ ṭhitanti. nor do the lungs know, “We are hanging inside such a body.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti papphāsaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called lungs is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
326.Antaṃ galavāṭakakarīsamaggapariyante sarīrabbhantare ṭhitaṃ. 64.Bowel is to be found inside the body extending from the base of the neck to the excrement passage.
Tattha yathā lohitadoṇikāya obhujitvā ṭhapite chinnasīsadhammanikaḷevare na lohitadoṇi jānāti mayi dhammanikaḷevaraṃ ṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when the carcass of a large beheaded rat snake27 is coiled up and put into a trough of blood, the red trough does not know, “A rat snake’s carcass has been put in me,” Comm. NT: 27. Dhammani—“rat snake”: not in this sense in PED; see A-a 459.
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Napi dhammanikaḷevaraṃ jānāti ahaṃ lohitadoṇiyā ṭhitanti, evameva na sarīrabbhantaraṃ jānāti mayi antaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the rat snake’s carcass know, “I am in a red trough,” so too, the inside of the body does not know, “A bowel is in me,”
Napi antaṃ jānāti ahaṃ sarīrabbhantare ṭhitanti. nor does the bowel know, “I am in a body.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti antaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called the bowel is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
327.Antaguṇaṃ antantare ekavīsatiantabhoge bandhitvā ṭhitaṃ. 65.Entrails are to be found in the interspaces between the twenty-one coils of the bowel, binding them together.
Tattha yathā pādapuñchanarajjumaṇḍalakaṃ sibbetvā ṭhitesu rajjukesu na pādapuñchanarajjumaṇḍalakaṃ jānāti rajjukā maṃ sibbitvā ṭhitāti. Herein, just as, when ropes are found sewing together a rope ring for wiping the feet, the rope ring for wiping the feet does not know, “Ropes are to be found sewing me together,”
Napi rajjukā jānanti mayaṃ pādapuñchanarajjumaṇḍalakaṃ sibbitvā ṭhitāti, evameva na antaṃ jānāti antaguṇaṃ maṃ ābandhitvā ṭhitanti. nor do the ropes know, “We are to be found sewing together a rope ring,” so too, the bowel does not know, “Entrails are to be found binding me together,”
Napi antaguṇaṃ jānāti ahaṃ antaṃ ābandhitvā ṭhitanti. nor do the entrails know, “We are to be found binding a bowel together.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti antaguṇaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called entrails is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
328.Udariyaṃ udare ṭhitaṃ asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ. 66.Gorge is what is eaten, drunk, chewed and tasted that lies in the stomach.
Tattha yathā suvānadoṇiyaṃ ṭhite suvānavamathumhi na suvānadoṇi jānāti mayi suvānavamathu ṭhitoti. Herein, just as, when a dog’s vomit lies in a dog’s bowl, the dog’s bowl does not know, “Dog’s vomit is lying in me,”
Napi suvānavamathu jānāti ahaṃ suvānadoṇiyaṃ ṭhitoti, evameva na udaraṃ jānāti mayi udariyaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the dog’s vomit know, “I am lying in a dog’s bowl,” so too, the stomach does not know, “Gorge is lying in me,”
Napi udariyaṃ jānāti ahaṃ udare ṭhitanti. nor does the gorge know, “I am lying in a stomach.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti udariyaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called gorge is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
329.Karīsaṃ pakkāsayasaṅkhāte aṭṭhaṅgulaveḷupabbasadise antapariyosāne ṭhitaṃ. 67.Dung is to be found at the end of the bowel, which resembles a bamboo joint eight fingerbreadths long and is called the “receptacle for digested food.” [359]
Tattha yathā veḷupabbe omadditvā pakkhittāya saṇhapaṇḍumattikāya na veḷupabbaṃ jānāti mayi paṇḍumattikā ṭhitāti. Herein, just as, when soft brown clay is impacted in a bamboo joint, the bamboo joint does not know, “Brown clay is in me,”
Napi paṇḍumattikā jānāti ahaṃ veḷupabbe ṭhitāti, evameva na pakkāsayo jānāti mayi karīsaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does brown clay know, “I am in a bamboo joint,” so too, the receptacle for digested food does not know, “Dung is in me,”
Napi karīsaṃ jānāti ahaṃ pakkāsaye ṭhitanti. nor does the dung know, “I am in a receptacle for digested food.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti karīsaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called dung is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
330.Matthaluṅgaṃ sīsakaṭāhabbhantare ṭhitaṃ. 68.Brain is to be found in the interior of the skull.
Tattha yathā purāṇalābukaṭāhe pakkhittāya piṭṭhapiṇḍiyā na lābukaṭāhaṃ jānāti mayi piṭṭhapiṇḍi ṭhitāti. Herein, just as, when a lump of dough is put inside an old gourd rind, the gourd rind does not know, “A lump of dough is in me,”
Napi piṭṭhapiṇḍi jānāti ahaṃ lābukaṭāhe ṭhitāti, evameva na sīsakaṭāhabbhantaraṃ jānāti mayi matthaluṅgaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the lump of dough know, “I am inside a gourd rind,” so too, the inside of the skull does not know, “Brain is in me,”
Napi matthaluṅgaṃ jānāti ahaṃ sīsakaṭāhabbhantare ṭhitanti. nor does the brain know, “I am inside a skull.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti matthaluṅgaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto thaddho pathavīdhātūti. So what is called brain is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, rigid earth element.
331.Pittesu abaddhapittaṃ jīvitindriyapaṭibaddhaṃ sakalasarīraṃ byāpetvā ṭhitaṃ. 69.As to bile, the free bile, which is bound up with the life faculty, is to be found soaking the whole body,
Baddhapittaṃ pittakosake ṭhitaṃ. while the local bile is to be found in the bile container (gall-bladder).
Tattha yathā pūvaṃ byāpetvā ṭhite tele na pūvaṃ jānāti telaṃ maṃ byāpetvā ṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when oil has soaked a cake, the cake does not know, “Oil soaks me,”
Napi telaṃ jānāti ahaṃ pūvaṃ byāpetvā ṭhitanti, evameva na sarīraṃ jānāti abaddhapittaṃ maṃ byāpetvā ṭhitanti. nor does the oil know, “I soak a cake,” so too, the body does not know, “Free bile soaks me,”
Napi abaddhapittaṃ jānāti ahaṃ sarīraṃ byāpetvā ṭhitanti. nor does the free bile know, “I soak a body.”
Yathā vassodakena puṇṇe kosātakikosake na kosātakikosako jānāti mayi vassodakaṃ ṭhitanti. And just as, when a kosāṭakī (loofah) creeper bladder is filled with rain water, the kosāṭakī creeper bladder does not know, “Rain water is in me,”
Napi vassodakaṃ jānāti ahaṃ kosātakikosake ṭhitanti, evameva na pittakosako jānāti mayi baddhapittaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the rain water know, “I am in a kosāṭakī creeper bladder,” so too, the bile bladder does not know, “Local bile is in me,”
Napi baddhapittaṃ jānāti ahaṃ pittakosake ṭhitanti. nor does the local bile know, “I am in a bile bladder.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti pittaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called bile is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
332.Semhaṃ ekapatthapūrappamāṇaṃ udarapaṭale ṭhitaṃ. 70.Phlegm is to be found on the surface of the stomach and measures a bowlful.
Tattha yathā upari sañjātapheṇapaṭalāya candanikāya na candanikā jānāti mayi pheṇapaṭalaṃ ṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when a cesspool has a surface of froth, the cesspool does not know, “A surface of froth is on me,”
Napi pheṇapaṭalaṃ jānāti ahaṃ candanikāya ṭhitanti, evameva na udarapaṭalaṃ jānāti mayi semhaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the surface of froth [360] know, “I am on a cesspool,” so too, the surface of the stomach does not know, “Phlegm is on me”
Napi semhaṃ jānāti ahaṃ udarapaṭale ṭhitanti. nor does the phlegm know, “I am on the surface of a stomach.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti semhaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called phlegm is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
333.Pubbo anibaddhokāso yattha yattheva khāṇukaṇṭakappaharaṇaaggijālādīhi abhihate sarīrappadese lohitaṃ saṇṭhahitvā paccati, gaṇḍapīḷakādayo vā uppajjanti, tattha tattha tiṭṭhati. 71. Pus has no fixed location. It is to be found wherever the blood stagnates and goes bad in a part of the body damaged by wounds caused by splinters and thorns, and by burns due to fire, or where boils, carbuncles, etc., appear.
Tattha yathā pharasuppahārādivasena paggharitaniyyāse rukkhe na rukkhassa pahārādippadesā jānanti amhesu niyyāso ṭhitoti, napi niyyāso jānāti ahaṃ rukkhassa pahārādippadesesu ṭhitoti, evameva na sarīrassa khāṇukaṇṭakādīhi abhihatappadesā jānanti amhesu pubbo ṭhitoti. Herein, just as, when a tree oozes gum through being hit by, say, an axe, the parts of the tree that have been hit do not know, “Gum is in us,” nor does the gum know, “I am in a part of a tree that has been hit,” so too, the parts of the body wounded by splinters, thorns, etc., do not know, “Pus is in us,”
Napi pubbo jānāti ahaṃ tesu padesesu ṭhitoti. nor does the pus know, “I am in such places.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti pubbo nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called pus is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
334.Lohitesu saṃsaraṇalohitaṃ pittaṃ viya sakalasarīraṃ byāpetvā ṭhitaṃ. 72.As to blood, the mobile blood is to be found, like the bile, soaking the whole body.
Sannicitalohitaṃ yakanaṭṭhānassa heṭṭhābhāgaṃ pūretvā ekapatthapūramattaṃ vakkahadayayakanapapphāsāni tementaṃ ṭhitaṃ. The stored blood, is to be found filling the lower part of the liver’s site to the extent of a bowlful, wetting the kidney, heart, liver and lungs.
Tattha saṃsaraṇalohite abaddhapittasadisova vinicchayo. Herein, the definition of the mobile blood is similar to that of the free bile.
Itaraṃ pana yathā jajjarakapāle ovaṭṭhe udake heṭṭhā leḍḍukhaṇḍādīni temayamāne na leḍḍukhaṇḍādīni jānanti mayaṃ udakena temiyamānāti. But as to the other, just as, when rain water seeps through an old pot and wets clods and stumps below, the clods and stumps do not know, “We are being wetted with water,”
Napi udakaṃ jānāti ahaṃ leḍḍukhaṇḍādīni tememīti, evameva na yakanassa heṭṭhābhāgaṭṭhānaṃ vakkādīni vā jānanti mayi lohitaṃ ṭhitaṃ amhe vā temayamānaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the water know, “I am wetting clods and stumps,” so too, the lower part of the liver’s site, or the kidneys, etc., respectively do not know, “Blood is in me,” or “We are being wetted,”
Napi lohitaṃ jānāti ahaṃ yakanassa heṭṭhābhāgaṃ pūretvā vakkādīni temayamānaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the blood know, “I fill the lower part of a liver’s site, am wetting a kidney, and so on.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti lohitaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called blood is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
335.Sedo aggisantāpādikālesu kesalomakūpavivarāni pūretvā tiṭṭhati ceva paggharati ca. 73.Sweat is to be found filling the openings of the pores of the head hairs and body hairs when there is heat due to fires, etc., and it trickles out of them.
Tattha yathā udakā abbūḷhamattesu bhisamuḷālakumudanāḷakalāpesu na bhisādikalāpavivarāni jānanti amhehi udakaṃ paggharatīti. Herein, just as, when [361] bunches of lily bud stems and lotus stalks are pulled up out of water, the openings in the bunches of lilies, etc., do not know, “Water trickles from us,”
Napi bhisādikalāpavivarehi paggharantaṃ udakaṃ jānāti ahaṃ bhisādikalāpavivarehi paggharāmīti, evameva na kesalomakūpavivarāni jānanti amhehi sedo paggharatīti. nor does the water trickling from the openings in the bunches of lilies, etc., know, “I am trickling from openings in bunches of lilies, etc.,” so too, the openings of the pores of the head hairs and body hairs do not know, “Sweat trickles from us,”
Napi sedo jānāti ahaṃ kesalomakūpavivarehi paggharāmīti. nor does the sweat know, “I trickle from openings of pores of head hairs and body hairs.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti sedo nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called sweat is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
336.Medo thūlassa sakalasarīraṃ pharitvā kisassa jaṅghamaṃsādīni nissāya ṭhito patthinnasineho. 74.Fat is the thick unguent to be found pervading the whole body of one who is stout, and on the shank flesh, etc., of one who is lean.
Tattha yathā haliddipilotikapaṭicchanne maṃsapuñje na maṃsapuñjo jānāti maṃ nissāya haliddipilotikā ṭhitāti. Herein, just as, when a heap of meat is covered by a yellow rag, the heap of meat does not know, “A yellow rag is next to me,”
Napi haliddipilotikā jānāti ahaṃ maṃsapuñjaṃ nissāya ṭhitāti, evameva na sakalasarīre jaṅghādīsu vā maṃsaṃ jānāti maṃ nissāya medo ṭhitoti. nor does the yellow rag know, “I am next to a heap of meat,” so too, the flesh to be found on the whole body, or on the shanks, etc., does not know, “Fat is next to me,”
Napi medo jānāti ahaṃ sakalasarīre jaṅghādīsu vā maṃsaṃ nissāya ṭhitoti. nor does the fat know,”I am next to flesh on a whole body, or on the shanks, and so on.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti medo nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto patthinnayūso ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called fat is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, thick-liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
337.Assuyadā sañjāyati tadā akkhikūpake pūretvā tiṭṭhati vā paggharati vā. 75.Tears, when produced, are to be found filling the eye sockets or trickling out of them.
Tattha yathā udakapuṇṇesu taruṇatālaṭṭhikūpakesu na taruṇatālaṭṭhikūpakā jānanti amhesu udakaṃ ṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when the sockets of young palm kernels are filled with water, the sockets of the young palm kernels do not know, “Water is in us,”
Napi taruṇatālaṭṭhikūpakesu udakaṃ jānāti ahaṃ taruṇatālaṭṭhikūpakesu ṭhitanti, evameva na akkhikūpakā jānanti amhesu assu ṭhitanti. nor does the water in the sockets of the young palm kernels know, “I am in sockets of young palm kernels,” so too, the eye sockets do not know, “Tears are in us,”
Napi assu jānāti ahaṃ akkhikūpakesu ṭhitanti. nor do the tears know, “We are in eye sockets.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti assu nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called tears is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
338.Vasāaggisantāpādikāle hatthatalahatthapiṭṭhipādatalapādapiṭṭhi nāsāpuṭanalāṭaaṃsakūṭesu ṭhitavilīnasneho. 76.Grease is the melted unguent to be found on the palms and backs of the hands, on the soles and backs of the feet, on the nose and forehead and on the points of the shoulders, when heated by fire, and so on.
Tattha yathā pakkhittatele ācāme na ācāmo jānāti maṃ telaṃ ajjhottharitvā ṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when rice gruel has oil put on it, the rice gruel does not know, “Oil is spread over me,”
Napi telaṃ jānāti ahaṃ ācāmaṃ ajjhottharitvā ṭhitanti, evameva na hatthatalādippadeso jānāti maṃ vasā ajjhottharitvā ṭhitāti. nor does the oil know, “I am spread over rice gruel,” so too, the place consisting of the palm of the hand, etc., [362] does not know, “Grease is spread over me,”
Napi vasā jānāti ahaṃ hatthatalādippadesaṃ ajjhottharitvā ṭhitāti. nor does the grease know, “I am spread over places consisting of the palm of the hand, and so on.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti vasā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called grease is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
339.Kheḷo tathārūpe kheḷuppattipaccaye sati ubhohi kapolapassehi orohitvā jivhātale tiṭṭhati. 77.Spittle is to be found on the surface of the tongue after it has descended from the cheeks on both sides, when there is a condition for the arising of spittle.
Tattha yathā abbocchinnaudakanissande nadītīrakūpake na kūpatalaṃ jānāti mayi udakaṃ santiṭṭhatīti. Herein, just as, when a hollow in a river bank is constantly oozing with water, the surface of the hollow does not know, “Water lies on me,”
Napi udakaṃ jānāti ahaṃ kūpatale santiṭṭhāmīti, evameva na jivhātalaṃ jānāti mayi ubhohi kapolapassehi orohitvā kheḷo ṭhitoti. nor does the water know, “I lie on the surface of a hollow,” so too, the surface of the tongue does not know, “Spittle that has descended from cheeks on both sides is on me,”
Napi kheḷo jānāti ahaṃ ubhohi kapolapassehi orohitvā jivhātale ṭhitoti. nor does the spittle know, “I have descended from cheeks on both sides and am on the surface of a tongue.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti kheḷo nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called spittle is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
340.Siṅghāṇikāyadā sañjāyati, tadā nāsāpuṭe pūretvā tiṭṭhati vā paggharati vā. 78.Snot, when produced, is to be found filling the nostrils or trickling out of them.
Tattha yathā pūtidadhibharitāya sippikāya na sippikā jānāti mayi pūtidadhi ṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when a bag28 is loaded with rotting curd, the bag does not know, “Rotting curd is in me,” Comm. NT: 28. Sippikā—“bag” (?): not in this sense in PED.
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Napi pūtidadhi jānāti ahaṃ sippikāya ṭhitanti, evameva na nāsāpuṭā jānanti amhesu siṅghāṇikā ṭhitāti. nor does the rotting curd know, “I am in a bag,” so too, the nostrils do not know, “Snot is in us,”
Napi siṅghāṇikā jānāti ahaṃ nāsāpuṭesu ṭhitāti. nor does the snot know, “I am in nostrils.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti siṅghāṇikā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called snot is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
341.Lasikā aṭṭhikasandhīnaṃ abbhañjanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā asītisatasandhīsu ṭhitā. 79.Oil of the joints is to be found in the hundred and eighty joints serving the function of lubricating the joints of the bones.
Tattha yathā telabbhañjite akkhe na akkho jānāti maṃ telaṃ abbhañjitvā ṭhitanti. Herein, just as, when an axle is lubricated with oil, the axle does not know, “Oil lubricates me,”
Napi telaṃ jānāti ahaṃ akkhaṃ abbhañjitvā ṭhitanti, evameva na asītisatasandhayo jānanti lasikā amhe abbhañjitvā ṭhitāti. nor does the oil know, “I lubricate an axle,” so too, the hundred and eighty joints do not know, “Oil of the joints lubricates us,”
Napi lasikā jānāti ahaṃ asītisatasandhayo abbhañjitvā ṭhitāti. nor does the oil of the joints know, “I lubricate a hundred and eighty joints.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti lasikā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called oil of the joints is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
342.Muttaṃ vatthissa abbhantare ṭhitaṃ. 80.Urine is to be found inside the bladder.
Tattha yathā candanikāya pakkhitte amukhe ravaṇaghaṭe na ravaṇaghaṭo jānāti mayi candanikāraso ṭhitoti. Herein, just as, when a porous pot is put upside down in a cesspool, the porous pot does not know, “Cesspool filtrate is in me,”
Napi candanikāraso jānāti ahaṃ ravaṇaghaṭe ṭhitoti, evameva na vatthi jānāti mayi muttaṃ ṭhitanti. nor does the cesspool filtrate know, “I am in a porous pot,” so too, the bladder does not know, [363] “Urine is in me,”
Napi muttaṃ jānāti ahaṃ vatthimhi ṭhitanti. nor does the urine know, “I am in a bladder.”
Aññamaññaṃ ābhogapaccavekkhaṇarahitā ete dhammā. These things are devoid of mutual concern and reviewing.
Iti muttaṃ nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto yūsabhūto ābandhanākāro āpodhātūti. So what is called urine is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being, liquid water element in the mode of cohesion.
343.Evaṃ kesādīsu manasikāraṃ pavattetvā yena santappati, ayaṃ imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto paripācanākāro tejodhātūti, yena jīrīyati, yena pariḍayhati, yena asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ sammā pariṇāmaṃ gacchati, ayaṃ imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto paripācanākāro tejodhātūti evaṃ tejokoṭṭhāsesu manasikāro pavattetabbo. 81.When he has given his attention in this way to the body hairs, etc., he should then give his attention to the [four] fire components thus: That whereby one is warmed— this is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being; it is fire element in the mode of maturing (ripening). That whereby one ages … That whereby one burns up … That whereby what is eaten, drunk, chewed and tasted becomes completely digested— this is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being; it is fire element in the mode of maturing (ripening). Направив ум таким образом на волосы тела и прочее он должен направить ум на четыре составляющих тепла следующим образом: "То, посредством чего человек разогревается - это конкретная составляющая тела, без мышления, морально неопределённые, пустые, не живое существо, а лишь элемент тепла в режиме, приводящем к созреванию. То, посредством чего человек стареет... перегревается... съеденное, выпитое, пережёванное и опробованное становится полностью переваренным - это конкретная составляющая тела, без мышления, морально неопределённые, пустые, не живое существо, а лишь элемент тепла в режиме, приводящем к созреванию.
344.Tato uddhaṅgame vāte uddhaṅgamavasena pariggahetvā adhogame adhogamavasena, kucchisaye kucchisayavasena, koṭṭhāsaye koṭṭhāsayavasena, aṅgamaṅgānusārimhi aṅgamaṅgānusārivasena, assāsapassāse assāsapassāsavasena pariggahetvā uddhaṅgamā vātā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto vitthambhanākāro vāyodhātūti, adhogamā vātā nāma, kucchisayā vātā nāma, koṭṭhāsayā vātā nāma, aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātā nāma, assāsapassāsā vātā nāma imasmiṃ sarīre pāṭiyekko koṭṭhāso acetano abyākato suñño nissatto vitthambhanākāro vāyodhātūti evaṃ vāyokoṭṭhāsesu manasikāro pavattetabbo. 82. After that, having discovered the up-going winds (forces) as upgoing, the down-going winds (forces) as down-going, the winds (forces) in the belly as in the belly, the winds (forces) in the bowels as in the bowels, the winds (forces) that course through all the limbs as coursing through all the limbs, and in-breath and out- breath as in-breath and out-breath, he should give his attention to these [six] air components in this way: What is called up-going winds (forces) is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being; it is air element in the mode of distending. What is called down-going winds (forces) … What is called winds (forces) in the belly … What is called winds (forces) in the bowels … What is called winds (forces) that course through all the limbs … What is called in-breath and out-breath is a particular component of this body, without thought, indeterminate, void, not a living being; it is air element in the mode of distending.
Tassevaṃ pavattamanasikārassa dhātuyo pākaṭā honti. 83.As he gives his attention in this way the elements become evident to him. По мере того, как он направляет ум таким образом, первоэлементы становятся для него ясны.
Tā punappunaṃ āvajjato manasikaroto vuttanayeneva upacārasamādhi uppajjati. As he adverts and gives attention to them again and again access concentration arises in him in the way already described. По мере того, как он снова и снова он обращается к ним и направляет ум на них, тогда возникает сосредоточение доступа как уже было описано.
345.Yassa pana evaṃ bhāvayato kammaṭṭhānaṃ na ijjhati, tena salakkhaṇasaṅkhepato bhāvetabbaṃ. [(3) WITH CHARACTERISTICS IN BRIEF] 84.But if his meditation subject is still not successful when he gives his attention to it in this way, then he should develop it with characteristics in brief. Но если достичь успеха с этим объектом медитации всё равно не удаётся при направлении ума на него таким образом, практикующему следует развивать его с характеристиками кратко.
Kathaṃ? How? Каким образом?
Vīsatiyā koṭṭhāsesu thaddhalakkhaṇaṃ pathavīdhātūti vavatthapetabbaṃ. In the twenty components the characteristic of stiffenedness should be defined as the earth element, В 20 составляющих характеристику твёрдости следует определить как элемент твёрдости.
Tattheva ābandhanalakkhaṇaṃ āpodhātūti. and the characteristic of cohesion, which is there too, as the water element, характеристику жидкости, также присутствующую там, как элемент жидкости
Paripācanalakkhaṇaṃ tejodhātūti. and the characteristic of maturing (ripening), which is there too, as the fire element, характеристику созревания, также присутствующую там, как элемент тепла
Vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ vāyodhātūti. and the characteristic of distension, which is there too, as the air element. характеристику раздувания, также присутствующую там, как элемент вибрации.
Dvādasasu koṭṭhāsesu ābandhanalakkhaṇaṃ āpodhātūti vavatthapetabbaṃ. In the twelve components the characteristic of cohesion should be defined as the water
Tattheva paripācanalakkhaṇaṃ tejodhātūti. element, the characteristic of maturing (ripening), which is there too, as the fire element,
Vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ vāyodhātūti. the characteristic of distension, which is there too, as the air element,
Thaddhalakkhaṇaṃ pathavīdhātūti. and the characteristic of stiffenedness, which is there too, as the earth element.
Catūsu koṭṭhāsesu paripācanalakkhaṇaṃ tejodhātūti vavatthapetabbaṃ. In the four components the characteristic of maturing (ripening) should be defined as the fire element,
Tena avinibhuttaṃ vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ vāyodhātūti. the characteristic of distension unresolvable (inseparable) from it as the air element, [364]
Thaddhalakkhaṇaṃ pathavīdhātūti. the characteristic of stiffenedness as the earth element,
Ābandhanalakkhaṇaṃ āpodhātūti. and the characteristic of cohesion as the water element.
Chasu koṭṭhāsesu vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ vāyodhātūti vavatthapetabbaṃ. In the six components the characteristic of distension should be defined as the air element,
Tattheva thaddhalakkhaṇaṃ pathavīdhātūti. the characteristic of stiffenedness there too as the earth element,
Ābandhanalakkhaṇaṃ āpodhātūti. the characteristic of cohesion as the water element,
Paripācanalakkhaṇaṃ tejodhātūti. and the characteristic of maturing (ripening) as the fire element.
Tassevaṃ vavatthāpayato dhātuyo pākaṭā honti. As he defines them in this way the elements become evident to him. По мере того, как он направляет ум таким образом, первоэлементы становятся для него ясны.
Tā punappunaṃ āvajjato manasikaroto vuttanayeneva upacārasamādhi uppajjati. As he adverts to them and gives attention to them again and again access concentration arises in him in the way already stated. По мере того, как он снова и снова он обращается к ним и направляет ум на них, тогда возникает сосредоточение доступа как уже было описано.
346.Yassa pana evampi bhāvayato kammaṭṭhānaṃ na ijjhati, tena salakkhaṇavibhattito bhāvetabbaṃ. [(4) WITH CHARACTERISTICS BY ANALYSIS] 85.However, if he still does not succeed with his meditation subject when he gives his attention to it in this way, then he should develop it with characteristics by analysis. Но если достичь успеха с этим объектом медитации всё равно не удаётся при направлении ума на него таким образом, практикующему следует развивать его с характеристиками путём анализа.
Kathaṃ? How? Как?
Pubbe vuttanayeneva kesādayo pariggahetvā kesamhi thaddhalakkhaṇaṃ pathavīdhātūti vavatthapetabbaṃ. After discerning head hairs, etc., in the way already described, the characteristic of stiffenedness in head hairs should be defined as the earth element, После определения волос головы и прочего уже описанным способом, характеристика твёрдости в волосах головы должна быть определена как элемент твёрдости.
Tattheva ābandhanalakkhaṇaṃ āpodhātūti. the characteristic of cohesion there too as the water element, характеристика жидкости как элемент жидкости
Paripācanalakkhaṇaṃ tejodhātūti. the characteristic of maturing (ripening) as the fire element, характеристика созревания как элемент тепла
Vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ vāyodhātūti. and the characteristic of distension as the air element. характеристика раздувания как элемент вибрации.
Evaṃ sabbakoṭṭhāsesu ekekasmiṃ koṭṭhāse catasso catasso dhātuyo vavatthapetabbā. The four elements should be defined in this way in the case of each component. Четыре элемента должны быть определены таким образом в каждой составной части.
Tassevaṃ vavatthāpayato dhātuyo pākaṭā honti. As he defines them in this way the elements become evident to him. По мере определения элементы становятся для него ясны.
Tā punappunaṃ āvajjato manasikaroto vuttanayeneva upacārasamādhi uppajjati. As he adverts and gives attention to them again and again access concentration arises in him in the way already described. По мере того, как он снова и снова он обращается к ним и направляет ум на них, тогда возникает сосредоточение доступа как уже было описано.
Apica kho pana vacanatthato, kalāpato, cuṇṇato, lakkhaṇādito, samuṭṭhānato, nānattekattato, vinibbhogāvinibbhogato, sabhāgavisabhāgato, ajjhattikabāhiravisesato, saṅgahato, paccayato, asamannāhārato, paccayavibhāgatoti imehipi ākārehi dhātuyo manasikātabbā. 86.In addition, attention should be given to the elements in the following ways: (1) as to word meaning, (2) by groups, (3) by particles, (4) by characteristic, etc., (5) as to how originated, (6) as to variety and unity, (7) as to resolution (separability) and non-resolution (inseparability), (8) as to the similar and the dissimilar, (9) as to distinction between internal and external, (10) as to inclusion, (11) as to condition, (12) as to lack of conscious reaction, (13) as to analysis of conditions. 87.
347.Tattha vacanatthato manasikarontena patthaṭattā pathavī. 1. Herein, one who gives his attention to them as to word meaning should do so separately and generally thus: [separately] it is earth (pathavī) because it is spread out (patthaṭa);
Appoti āpiyati appāyatīti vā āpo. it flows (appoti) or it glides (āpiyati) or it satisfies (appāyati), thus it is water (āpo);
Tejatīti tejo. it heats (tejati), thus it is fire (tejo);
Vāyatīti vāyo. it blows (vāyati), thus it is air (vāyo).
Avisesena pana salakkhaṇadhāraṇato dukkhādānato dukkhādhānato ca dhātūti. But without differentiation they are elements (dhātu) because of bearing (dhāraṇa) their own characteristics, because of grasping (ādāna) suffering, and because of sorting out (ādhāna) suffering (see XV.19).29 Comm. NT: 29. Capitals have been used here and elsewhere though Indian alphabets do not justify it. Appāyati—“to satisfy” is not in PED; se...
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Evaṃ visesasāmaññavasena vacanatthato manasikātabbā. This is how they should be given attention as to word meaning.
348.Kalāpatoti yā ayaṃ kesā lomātiādinā nayena vīsatiyā ākārehi pathavīdhātu, pittaṃ semhanti ca ādinā nayena dvādasahākārehi āpodhātu niddiṭṭhā, tattha yasmā – 88. 2. By groups: there is the earth element described under the twenty aspects (modes) beginning with head hairs, body hairs, and also the water element described under the twelve (modes) aspects beginning with bile, phlegm, etc. Now, as to these:
Vaṇṇo gandho raso ojā, catasso cāpi dhātuyo; Colour, odour, taste, and nutritive Essence, and the four elements—
Aṭṭhadhammasamodhānā, hoti kesāti sammuti; From combination of these eight There comes the common usage head hairs;
Tesaṃyeva vinibbhogā, natthi kesāti sammuti. And separately from these eight30 There is no common usage head hairs. Comm. NT: 30.
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Tasmā kesāpi aṭṭhadhammakalāpamattameva. Consequently, head hairs are only a mere group of eight states.
Tathā lomādayoti. Likewise, body hairs, [365] and the rest.
Yo panettha kammasamuṭṭhāno koṭṭhāso, so jīvitindriyena ca bhāvena ca saddhiṃ dasadhammakalāpopi hoti. A component here that is kamma-originated is a group of ten states, [that is to say, the former eight] together with the life faculty and sex.
Ussadavasena pana pathavīdhātu āpodhātūti saṅkhaṃ gato. But it is on account of respective prominence [of stiffenedness or cohesion] that it comes to be styled “earth element” or “water element.”
Evaṃ kalāpato manasikātabbā. This is how they should be given attention to “by groups.”
349.Cuṇṇatoti imasmiṃ hi sarīre majjhimena pamāṇena pariggayhamānā paramāṇubhedasañcuṇṇā sukhumarajabhūtā pathavīdhātu doṇamattā siyā. 89. 3. By particles: in this body the earth element taken as reduced to fine dust and powdered to the size of the smallest atom31 might amount to an average doṇa measure full; Comm. NT: 31. Paramaṇu—“the smallest atom”; see Vibh-a 343. According to Vibh-a, the size of a paramaṇu works out at 1/581,147,136th part of an aṅgul...
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Sā tato upaḍḍhappamāṇāya āpodhātuyā saṅgahitā, tejodhātuyā anupālitā vāyodhātuyā vitthambhitā na vikiriyati na viddhaṃsiyati, avikiriyamānā aviddhaṃsiyamānā anekavidhaṃ itthipurisaliṅgādibhāvavikappaṃ upagacchati, aṇuthūladīgharassathirakathinādibhāvañca pakāseti. and that is held together32 by the water element measuring half as much. Being maintained33 by the fire element, and distended by the air element, it does not get scattered or dissipated. Instead of getting scattered or dissipated, it arrives at the alternative states of the female and male sex, etc., and manifests smallness, bigness, length, shortness, toughness, rigidity, and so on. Comm. NT: 33.
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Yūsagatā ābandhanākārabhūtā panettha āpodhātu pathavīpatiṭṭhitā tejānupālitā vāyovitthambhitā na paggharati na parissavati, apaggharamānā aparissavamānā pīṇitapīṇitabhāvaṃ dasseti. 90. The liquid water element that is the mode of cohesion, being founded on earth, maintained by fire, and distended by air, does not trickle or run away.34 Instead of trickling or running away it provides continued refreshments.35 Comm. NT: 35.
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Asitapītādipācakā cettha usumākārabhūtā uṇhattalakkhaṇā tejodhātu pathavīpatiṭṭhitā āposaṅgahitā vāyovitthambhitā imaṃ kāyaṃ paripāceti, vaṇṇasampattiñcassa āvahati. 91.And here the fire element that cooks what is eaten, drunk, etc., and is the mode of warming and has the characteristic of heat, being established on earth, held together by water, and distended by air, maintains this body and ensures its proper appearance.
Tāya ca pana paripācito ayaṃ kāyo na pūtibhāvaṃ dasseti. And this body, being maintained by it, shows no putrefaction.
Aṅgamaṅgānusaṭā cettha samudīraṇavitthambhanalakkhaṇā vāyodhātu pathavīpatiṭṭhitā āposaṅgahitā tejānupālitā imaṃ kāyaṃ vitthambheti. 92.The air element that courses through all the limbs and has the characteristic of moving and distending, being founded upon earth, held together by water, and maintained by fire, distends this body.
Tāya ca pana vitthambhito ayaṃ kāyo na paripatati, ujukaṃ saṇṭhāti. And this body, being distended by the latter kind of air, does not collapse, but stands erect,
Aparāya vāyodhātuyā samabbhāhato gamanaṭṭhānanisajjāsayanairiyāpathesu viññattiṃ dasseti, samiñjeti, sampasāreti, hatthapādaṃ lāḷeti. and being propelled36 by the other [motile] air, it shows intimation and it flexes and extends and it wriggles the hands and feet, doing so in the postures comprising of walking, standing, sitting and lying down. Comm. NT: 36. Samabbhāhata—“propelled”: see Ch. IV, note 38.
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Evametaṃ itthipurisādibhāvena bālajanavañcanaṃ māyārūpasadisaṃ dhātuyantaṃ pavattatīti evaṃ cuṇṇato manasikātabbā. So this mechanism of elements carries on like a magic trick, deceiving foolish people with the male and female sex and so on. This is how they should be given attention by particles.
350.Lakkhaṇāditoti pathavīdhātu kiṃ lakkhaṇā, kiṃ rasā, kiṃ paccupaṭṭhānāti evaṃ catassopi dhātuyo āvajjetvā pathavīdhātu kakkhaḷattalakkhaṇā, patiṭṭhānarasā, sampaṭicchanapaccupaṭṭhānā. 93. 4. As to characteristic, etc.: he should advert to the four elements in this way: “The earth element—what are its characteristic, function, manifestation?” [defining them in this way]: The earth element has the characteristic of hardness. Its function is to act as a foundation. It is manifested as receiving.
Āpodhātu paggharaṇalakkhaṇā, brūhanarasā, saṅgahapaccupaṭṭhānā. The water element has the characteristic of trickling. Its function is to intensify. It is manifested as holding together.
Tejodhātu uṇhattalakkhaṇā, paripācanarasā, maddavānuppadānapaccupaṭṭhānā. The fire element has the characteristic of heat. Its function is to mature (maintain). It is manifested as a continued supply of softness.
Vāyodhātu vitthambhanalakkhaṇā, samudīraṇarasā. The air element has the characteristic of distending. Its function is to cause motion. It is manifested as conveying.37 Comm. NT: 37. Abhinīhāra—“conveying”: not in this sense in PED. Elsewhere Vism-mhṭ (p. 359) says of the air element: and ...
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Abhinīhārapaccupaṭṭhānāti evaṃ lakkhaṇādito manasikātabbā. This is how they should be given attention to by characteristic, and so on.
351.Samuṭṭhānatoti ye ime pathavīdhātuādīnaṃ vitthārato dassanavasena kesādayo dvācattālīsa koṭṭhāsā dassitā. 94. 5. As to how originated: among the forty-two components beginning with head hairs shown in the detailed treatment of the earth element, etc.,
Tesu udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pubbo muttanti ime cattāro koṭṭhāsā utusamuṭṭhānāva. the four consisting of gorge, dung, pus, and urine are temperature-originated only;
Assu sedo kheḷo siṅghāṇikāti ime cattāro utucittasamuṭṭhānā. the four consisting of tears, sweat, spittle, and snot are temperature-originated and consciousness-originated only.
Asitādiparipācako tejo kammasamuṭṭhānova. The fire that cooks what is eaten, etc., is kamma- originated only;
Assāsapassāsā cittasamuṭṭhānāva. in-breath and out-breath are consciousness-originated only;
Avasesā sabbepi catusamuṭṭhānāti evaṃ samuṭṭhānato manasikātabbā. all the rest are of fourfold origination. This is how they should be given attention as to how originated.
352.Nānattekattatoti sabbāsampi dhātūnaṃ salakkhaṇādito nānattaṃ. 95. 6. As to variety and unity: there is variety in the specific characteristics, etc., of all the elements;
Aññāneva hi pathavīdhātuyā lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānāni. for the characteristic, function, and manifestation of the earth element is one,
Aññāni āpodhātuādīnaṃ. and those of the water element, etc., are different.
Evaṃ lakkhaṇādivasena pana kammasamuṭṭhānādivasena ca nānattabhūtānampi etāsaṃ rūpamahābhūtadhātudhammaaniccādivasena ekattaṃ hoti. But there is unity in them as materiality, great primary, element, state (dhamma), imperma- nence, etc., notwithstanding the fact that they are various according to [specific] characteristic, etc., and according to origination by kamma and so on.
Sabbāpi hi dhātuyo ruppanalakkhaṇaṃ anatītattā rūpāni. 96.All these elements are “instances of materiality” (rūpāni) because they do not exceed the characteristic of “being molested” (ruppana).
Mahantapātubhāvādīhi kāraṇehi mahābhūtāni. They are “great primaries” (mahābhūta) by reason of “great manifestation,” and so on.
Mahantapātubhāvādīhīti etā hi dhātuyo mahantapātubhāvato, mahābhūtasāmaññato, mahāparihārato, mahāvikārato, mahattā bhūtattā cāti imehi kāraṇehi mahābhūtānīti vuccanti. “By reason of ‘great manifestation,’ and so on” means that these elements are called “great primaries” for the following reasons, namely: (a) manifestation of greatness; (b) likeness to great creatures; (c) great maintenance; (d) great alteration; and (e) because they are great and because they are entities.
Tattha mahantapātubhāvatoti etāni hi anupādinnasantānepi upādinnasantānepi mahantāni pātubhūtāni. 97.Herein, (a) manifestation of greatness: they are manifested as great both in a continuity that is not clung to (acquired through kamma) and in a continuity that is clung to.
Tesaṃ anupādinnasantāne – For their manifestation of greatness in a continuity that is not clung to is given
Duve satasahassāni, cattāri nahutāni ca; Two times a hundred thousand [leagues] And then four nahutas as well:
Ettakaṃ bahalattena, saṅkhātāyaṃ vasundharāti. – This earth, this “bearer of all wealth,” Has that much thickness, as they tell (VII.41).
Ādinā nayena mahantapātubhāvatā buddhānussatiniddese vuttāva. in the description of the recollection of the Buddha in the way beginning (above).
Upādinnasantānepi macchakacchapadevadānavādisarīravasena mahantāneva pātubhūtāni. And they are manifested on a great scale also in a continuity that is clung to, for instance, in the bodies of fishes, turtles, deities, Dānava demons, and so on.
Vuttañhetaṃ "santi, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde yojanasatikāpi attabhāvā"tiādi. For this is said: “Bhikkhus, there are individual creatures of a hundred leagues in the great ocean” (A IV 207), and so on.
Mahābhūtasāmaññatoti etāni hi yathā māyākāro amaṇiṃyeva udakaṃ maṇiṃ katvā dasseti, asuvaṇṇaṃyeva leḍḍuṃ suvaṇṇaṃ katvā dasseti. 98.(b) Likeness to great creatures: just as a magician turns water that is not crystal into crystal, and turns a clod that is not gold into gold, and shows them,
Yathā ca sayaṃ neva yakkho na yakkhī samāno yakkhabhāvampi yakkhibhāvampi dasseti, evameva sayaṃ anīlāneva hutvā nīlaṃ upādārūpaṃ dassenti, apītāni alohitāni anodātāneva hutvā odātaṃ upādārūpaṃ dassentīti māyākāramahābhūtasāmaññato mahābhūtāni. and being himself neither a spirit nor a bird, shows himself as a spirit or a bird, so too, being themselves not blue-black, they turn themselves into blue-black derived materiality, being themselves not yellow … not red … not white, [367] they turn themselves into white derived materiality and show that. In this way they are “great primaries” (mahābhūta) in being like the great creatures (mahābhūta) of a magician.38 Comm. NT: 38.
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Yathā ca yakkhādīni mahābhūtāni yaṃ gaṇhanti, neva nesaṃ tassa anto na bahi ṭhānaṃ upalabbhati, na ca taṃ nissāya na tiṭṭhanti, evameva tānipi neva aññamaññassa anto na bahi ṭhitāni hutvā upalabbhanti, na ca aññamaññaṃ nissāya na tiṭṭhantīti acinteyyaṭṭhānatāya yakkhādimahābhūtasāmaññatopi mahābhūtāni. 99. And just as, whomsoever the great creatures such as the spirits (yakkha) grasp hold of (possess), they have no standing place either inside him or outside him and yet they have no standing independently of him, so too, these elements are not found to stand either inside or outside each other yet they have no standing independently of one another. Thus they are also great primaries (mahābhūta) in being equal to the great creatures (mahābhūta) such as the spirits because they have no thinkable standing place [relative to each other].
Yathā ca yakkhinīsaṅkhātāni mahābhūtāni manāpehi vaṇṇasaṇṭhānavikkhepehi attano bhayānakabhāvaṃ paṭicchādetvā satte vañcenti, evameva etānipi itthipurisasarīrādīsu manāpena chavivaṇṇena manāpena attano aṅgapaccaṅgasaṇṭhānena manāpena ca hatthapādaṅgulibhamukavikkhepena attano kakkhaḷattādibhedaṃ sarasalakkhaṇaṃ paṭicchādetvā bālajanaṃ vañcenti, attano sabhāvaṃ daṭṭhuṃ na dentīti vañcakattena yakkhinīmahābhūtasāmaññatopi mahābhūtāni. 100. And just as the great creatures known as female spirits (yakkhinī) conceal their own fearfulness with a pleasing colour, shape and gesture to deceive beings, so too, these elements conceal each their own characteristic and function classed as hardness, etc., by means of a pleasing skin colour of women’s and men’s bodies, etc., and pleasing shapes of limbs and pleasing gestures of fingers, toes and eyebrows, and they deceive simple people by concealing their own functions and characteristics beginning with hardness and do not allow their individual essences to be seen. Thus they are great primaries (mahābhūta) in being equal to the great creatures (mahābhūta), the female spirits, since they are deceivers.
Mahāparihāratoti mahantehi paccayehi pariharitabbato. 101.(c) Great maintenance: this is because they have to be sustained by the great requisites.
Etāni hi divase divase upanetabbattā mahantehi ghāsacchādanādīhi bhūtāni pavattānīti mahābhūtāni. For these elements are great primaries (mahābhūta) since they have become (bhūta), have occurred, by means of the food, clothing, etc., which are great (mahant) [in importance] because they have to be found every day.
Mahāparihārāni vā bhūtānītipi mahābhūtāni. Or alternatively, they are great primaries (mahābhūta) since they are primaries whose maintenance is great.
Mahāvikāratoti etāni hi anupādinnānipi upādinnānipi mahāvikārāni honti. 102.(d) Great alteration: the unclung-to and the clung-to are the [basis of] great alterations.
Tattha anupādinnānaṃ kappavuṭṭhāne vikāramahattaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti. Herein, the great alteration of the unclung-to evidences itself in the emergence of an aeon (see XIII.34),
Upādinnānaṃ dhātukkhobhakāle. and that of the clung-to in the disturbance of the elements [in the body].
Tathā hi – For accordingly:
Bhūmito vuṭṭhitā yāva, brahmalokā vidhāvati; Out of the ground and races higher And higher, right to the Brahmā heaven,
Acci accimato loke, ḍayhamānamhi tejasā. The conflagration’s flame bursts up When the world is burnt up by fire.
Koṭisatasahassekaṃ, cakkavāḷaṃ vilīyati; A whole world system measuring One hundred thousand millions wide
Kupitena yadā loko, salilena vinassati. Subsides, as with its furious waters The flood dissolves the world beside.
Koṭisatasahassekaṃ, cakkavāḷaṃ vikīrati; One hundred thousand million leagues, A whole world system’s broad extent
Vāyodhātuppakopena, yadā loko vinassati. Is rent and scattered, when the world Succumbs to the air element.
Patthaddho bhavati kāyo, daṭṭho kaṭṭhamukhena vā; The bite of wooden-mouths can make The body stiff; to all intent,
Pathavīdhātuppakopena, hoti kaṭṭhamukheva so. When roused is its earth element, It might be gripped by such a snake.
Pūtiyo bhavati kāyo, daṭṭho pūtimukhena vā; The bite of rotten-mouths can make The body rot; to all intent,
Āpodhātuppakopena, hoti pūtimukheva so. When roused its water element, It might be gripped by such a snake.
Santatto bhavati kāyo, daṭṭho aggimukhena vā; The bite of fiery-mouths can make The body burn; to all intent,
Tejodhātuppakopena, hoti aggimukheva so. When roused is its fire element, It might be gripped by such a snake.
Sañchinno bhavati kāyo, daṭṭho satthamukhena vā; The bite of dagger-mouths can make The body burst; to all intent,
Vāyodhātuppakopena, hoti satthamukheva so. When roused is its air element, It might be gripped by such a snake.
Iti mahāvikārāni bhūtānīti mahābhūtāni. So they are great primaries (mahābhūta) because they have become (bhūta) [the basis of] great (mahant) alteration.
Mahattā bhūtattā cāti etāni hi mahantāni mahatā vāyāmena pariggahetabbattā bhūtāni vijjamānattāti mahattā bhūtattā ca mahābhūtāni. 103.(e) Because they are great and because they are entities: “great” (mahant) because they need great effort to discern them, and “entities” (bhūta = become) because they are existent; thus they are great primaries (mahābhūta) because they are great (mahā) and because they are entities (bhūta).
Evaṃ sabbāpetā dhātuyo mahantapātubhāvādīhi kāraṇehi mahābhūtāni. This is how all these elements are “great primaries” by reason of “great manifestation,” and so on.
Salakkhaṇadhāraṇato pana dukkhādānato ca dukkhādhānato ca sabbāpi dhātulakkhaṇaṃ anatītattā dhātuyo. 104.Again, they are elements (dhātu) because of bearing (dhāraṇa) their own characteristics, because of grasping (ādāna) suffering, and because of sorting out (ādhāna) suffering (see XV.19), and because none of them are exempt from the characteristic of being elements.
Salakkhaṇadhāraṇena ca attano khaṇānurūpadhāraṇena ca dhammā. They are states (dhamma) owing to bearing (dhāraṇa) their own characteristics and owing to their so bearing (dhāraṇa) for the length of the moment appropriate to them.39 Comm. NT: 39. This alludes to the length of duration of a moment of matter’s existence, which is described as seventeen times as long as that of consc...
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Khayaṭṭhena aniccā. They are impermanent in the sense of [liability to] destruction;
Bhayaṭṭhena dukkhā. they are painful in the sense of [causing] terror;
Asārakaṭṭhena anattā. they are not self in the sense of having no core [of permanence, and so on].
Iti sabbāsampi rūpamahābhūtadhātudhammaaniccādivasena ekattanti evaṃ nānattekattato manasikātabbā. Thus there is unity of all since all are materiality, great primaries, elements, states, impermanent, and so on. This is how they should be given attention “as to variety and unity.”
353.Vinibbhogāvinibbhogatoti sahuppannāva etā ekekasmiṃ sabbapariyantime suddhaṭṭhakādikalāpepi padesena avinibbhuttā. 105. 7. As to resolution (separability) and non-resolution (inseparability): they are positionally unresolvable (inseparable) since they always arise together in every single minimal material group consisting of the bare octad and the others;
Lakkhaṇena pana vinibbhuttāti evaṃ vinibbhogāvinibbhogato manasikātabbā. but they are resolvable (separable) by characteristic. This is how they should be given attention “as to resolution (separability) and non-resolution (inseparability).”
354.Sabhāgavisabhāgatoti evaṃ avinibbhuttāsu cāpi etāsu purimā dve garukattā sabhāgā. 106. 8. As to the similar and dissimilar: and although they are unresolved (inseparable) in this way, yet the first two similar in heaviness,
Tathā pacchimā lahukattā. and so are the last two in lightness;
Purimā pana pacchimāhi pacchimā ca purimāhi visabhāgāti evaṃ sabhāgavisabhāgato manasikātabbā. but [for this reason] the first two are dissimilar to the last two and the last two to the first two. This is how they should be given attention “as to the similar and dissimilar.”
355.Ajjhattikabāhiravisesatoti ajjhattikā dhātuyo viññāṇavatthuviññattiindriyānaṃ nissayā honti, sairiyāpathā, catusamuṭṭhānā. 107. 9. As to distinction between internal and external: the internal elements are the [material] support for the physical bases of consciousness, for the kinds of intimation, and for the material faculties. They are associated with postures, and they are of fourfold origination.
Bāhirā vuttaviparītappakārāti evaṃ ajjhattikabāhiravisesato manasikātabbā. The external elements are of the opposite kind. This is how they should be given attention “as to distinction between internal and external.”
356.Saṅgahatoti kammasamuṭṭhānā pathavīdhātu kammasamuṭṭhānāhi itarāhi ekasaṅgahā hoti samuṭṭhānanānattābhāvato. 108. 10. As to inclusion: kamma-originated earth element is included together with the other kamma-originated elements because there is no difference in their origination.
Tathā cittādisamuṭṭhānā cittādisamuṭṭhānāhīti evaṃ saṅgahato manasikātabbā. Likewise the consciousness-originated is included together with other consciousness-originated elements. This is how they should be given attention “as to inclusion.”
357.Paccayatoti pathavīdhātu āposaṅgahitā tejoanupālitā vāyovitthambhitā tiṇṇaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ patiṭṭhā hutvā paccayo hoti. 109. 11. As to condition: the earth element, which is held together by water, maintained by fire and distended by air, is a condition for the other three great primaries by acting as their foundation.
Āpodhātu pathavīpatiṭṭhitā tejoanupālitā vāyovitthambhitā tiṇṇaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ ābandhanaṃ hutvā paccayo hoti. The water element, which is founded on earth, maintained by fire and distended by air, is a condition for the other three great primaries by acting as their cohesion.
Tejodhātu pathavīpatiṭṭhitā āposaṅgahitā vāyovitthambhitā tiṇṇaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ paripācanaṃ hutvā paccayo hoti. The fire element, which is founded on earth, held together by water [369] and distended by air, is a condition for the other three great primaries by acting as their maintaining.
Vāyodhātu pathavīpatiṭṭhitā āposaṅgahitā tejoparipācitā tiṇṇaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ vitthambhanaṃ hutvā paccayo hotīti evaṃ paccayato manasikātabbā. The air element, which is founded on earth, held together by water, and maintained by fire, is a condition for the other three great primaries by acting as their distension. This is how they should be given attention “as to condition.”
358.Asamannāhāratoti pathavīdhātu cettha "ahaṃ pathavīdhātū"ti vā, "tiṇṇaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ patiṭṭhā hutvā paccayo homī"ti vā na jānāti. 110. 12. As to lack of conscious reaction: here too the earth element does not know, “I am the earth element” or “I am a condition by acting as a foundation for three great primaries.” And the other three do not know, “The earth element is a condition for us by acting as a foundation for three great primaries.”
Itarānipi tīṇi "amhākaṃ pathavīdhātu patiṭṭhā hutvā paccayo hotī"ti na jānanti. And the other three do not know, “The earth element is a condition for us by acting as our foundation.”
Esa nayo sabbatthāti evaṃ asamannāhārato manasikātabbā. And similarly in each instance. This is how they should be given attention “as to lack of conscious reaction.”
359.Paccayavibhāgatoti dhātūnaṃ hi kammaṃ, cittaṃ, āhāro, utūti cattāro paccayā. 111. 13. As to analysis of conditions: there are four conditions for the elements, that is to say, kamma, consciousness, nutriment, and temperature.
Tattha kammasamuṭṭhānānaṃ kammameva paccayo hoti, na cittādayo. Herein, kamma only is the condition for the kamma-originated [elements]; consciousness (citta), etc. [i.e. nutriment and temperature] are not.
Cittādisamuṭṭhānānampi cittādayova paccayā honti, na itare. Consciousness, etc., only are the conditions for the consciousness-originated [elements]; the others are not.
Kammasamuṭṭhānānañca kammaṃ janakapaccayo hoti, sesānaṃ pariyāyato upanissayapaccayo hoti. Kamma is the producing condition40 for the kamma-originated elements; for the rest it is indirectly the decisive-supportive condition.41 Comm. NT: 41.
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Cittasamuṭṭhānānaṃ cittaṃ janakapaccayo hoti, sesānaṃ pacchājātapaccayo atthipaccayo avigatapaccayo ca. Consciousness is the producing condition for the consciousness-originated elements; for the rest it is the post-nascence condition, presence condition and non-disappearance condition.
Āhārasamuṭṭhānānaṃ āhāro janakapaccayo hoti, sesānaṃ āhārapaccayo atthipaccayo avigatapaccayo ca. Nutriment is the producing condition for the nutriment-originated elements; for the rest it is the nutriment condition, presence condition and non-disappearance condition.
Utusamuṭṭhānānaṃ utu janakapaccayo hoti, sesānaṃ atthipaccayo avigatapaccayo ca. Temperature is the productive condition for the temperature-originated elements; for the rest it is the presence condition and non-disappearance condition.
Kammasamuṭṭhānaṃ mahābhūtaṃ kammasamuṭṭhānānampi mahābhūtānaṃ paccayo hoti cittādisamuṭṭhānānampi. Herein, the kamma-originated great primary is the condition for the kamma- originated great primaries, and also for the consciousness-originated [great primaries].
Tathā cittasamuṭṭhānaṃ, āhārasamuṭṭhānaṃ. Likewise are the consciousness-originated [great primary] and the nutriment originated [great primary].
Utusamuṭṭhānaṃ mahābhūtaṃ utusamuṭṭhānānampi mahābhūtānaṃ paccayo hoti kammādisamuṭṭhānānampi. The temperature-originated great primary is the condition for the temperature-originated great primaries, and also for the kamma-originated [great primaries], and so on (cf. XX.27f.).
Tattha kammasamuṭṭhānā pathavīdhātu kammasamuṭṭhānānaṃ itarāsaṃ sahajātaaññamaññanissayaatthiavigatavasena ceva patiṭṭhāvasena ca paccayo hoti, na janakavasena. 112. Herein, the kamma-originated earth element is a condition for the other kamma-originated elements both as conascence, mutuality, support, presence, and non-disappearance conditions and as foundation, but not as producing condition.
Itaresaṃ tisantatimahābhūtānaṃ nissayaatthiavigatavasena paccayo hoti, na patiṭṭhāvasena na janakavasena. It is a condition for the other [three] great primaries in a triple continuity (see XX.22) as support, presence and non-disappearance conditions, but not as foundation or producing condition.
Āpodhātu cettha itarāsaṃ tiṇṇaṃ sahajātādivasena ceva ābandhanavasena ca paccayo hoti, na janakavasena. And here the water element is a condition for the remaining three elements both as conascence, etc., conditions and as cohesion, but not as producing condition.
Itaresaṃ tisantatikānaṃ nissayaatthiavigatapaccayavaseneva, na ābandhanavasena na janakavasena. And for the others in a triple continuity it is a condition as support, presence, and non-disappearance conditions too, but not as cohesion or producing condition.
Tejodhātupettha itarāsaṃ tiṇṇaṃ sahajātādivasena ceva paripācanavasena ca paccayo hoti, na janakavasena. And the fire element here is a condition for the other three elements both as conascence, etc., conditions and as maintaining but not as producing condition.
Itaresaṃ tisantatikānaṃ nissayaatthiavigatapaccayavaseneva, na paripācanavasena, na janakavasena. And for the others in a triple continuity it is a condition as support, presence, and non-disappearance conditions too, but not as maintaining or producing condition.
Vāyodhātupettha itarāsaṃ tiṇṇaṃ sahajātādivasena ceva vitthambhanavasena ca paccayo hoti, na janakavasena. And the air element here is a condition for the other three elements [370] both as conascence, etc., conditions and as distension, but not as producing condition.
Itaresaṃ tisantatikānaṃ nissayaatthiavigatapaccayavaseneva, na vitthambhanavasena, na janakavasena. And for the others in a triple continuity it is a condition as support, presence, and non- disappearance conditions too, but not as distension or producing condition.
Cittaāhārautusamuṭṭhānapathavīdhātuādīsupi eseva nayo. The same method applies in the case of the consciousness-originated, the nutriment-originated, and the temperature-originated earth element, and the rest.
Evaṃ sahajātādipaccayavasappavattāsu ca panetāsu dhātūsu – 113. And when these elements have been made to occur through the influence of the conascence, etc., conditions:
Ekaṃ paṭicca tisso, catudhā tisso paṭicca eko ca; With three in four ways to one due, And likewise with one due to three;
Dve dhātuyo paṭicca, dve chaddhā sampavattanti. With two in six ways due to two— Thus their occurrence comes to be.
Pathavīādīsu hi ekekaṃ paṭicca itarā tisso tissoti evaṃ ekaṃ paṭicca tisso catudhā sampavattanti. 114. Taking each one, beginning with earth, there are three others whose occurrence is due to that one, thus with three due to one their occurrence takes place in four ways.
Tathā pathavīdhātuādīsu ekekā itarā tisso tisso paṭiccāti evaṃ tisso paṭicca ekā catudhā sampavattati. Likewise each one, beginning with earth, occurs in dependence on the other three, thus with one due to three their occurrence takes place in four ways.
Purimā pana dve paṭicca pacchimā, pacchimā ca dve paṭicca purimā, paṭhamatatiyā paṭicca dutiyacatutthā, dutiyacatutthā paṭicca paṭhamatatiyā, paṭhamacatutthā paṭicca dutiyatatiyā, dutiyatatiyā paṭicca paṭhamacatutthāti evaṃ dve dhātuyo paṭicca dve chadhā sampavattanti. But with the last two dependent on the first two, with the first two dependent on the last two, with the second and fourth dependent on the first and third, with the first and third dependent on the second and fourth, with the second and third dependent on the first and fourth, and with the first and fourth dependent on the second and third, they occur in six ways with two elements due to two.
Tāsu pathavīdhātu abhikkamapaṭikkamādikāle uppīḷanassa paccayo hoti. 115. At the time of moving forward and moving backward (M I 57), the earth element among these is a condition for pressing.
Sāva āpodhātuyā anugatā patiṭṭhāpanassa. That, seconded by the water element, is a condition for establishing on a foundation.
Pathavīdhātuyā pana anugatā āpodhātu avakkhepanassa. But the water element seconded by the earth element is a condition for lowering down.
Vāyodhātuyā anugatā tejodhātu uddharaṇassa. The fire element seconded by the air element is a condition for lifting up.
Tejodhātuyā anugatā vāyodhātu atiharaṇavītiharaṇānaṃ paccayo hotīti evaṃ paccayavibhāgato manasikātabbā. The air element seconded by the fire element is a condition for shifting forwards and shifting sideways (see XX.62f. and M-a I 160). This is how they should be given attention “as to analysis of conditions.”
Evaṃ vacanatthādivasena manasi karontassāpi hi ekekena mukhena dhātuyo pākaṭā honti. 116. As he gives his attention to them “as to word meaning,” etc., in this way, the elements become evident to him under each heading.
Tā punappunaṃ āvajjato manasikaroto vuttanayeneva upacārasamādhi uppajjati. As he again and again adverts and gives attention to them access concentration arises in the way already described.
Svāyaṃ catunnaṃ dhātūnaṃ vavatthāpakassa ñāṇassānubhāvena uppajjanato catudhātuvavatthānantveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati. And this concentration too is called “definition of the four elements” because it arises in one who defines the four elements owing to the influence of his knowledge.
360.Idañca pana catudhātuvavatthānaṃ anuyutto bhikkhu suññataṃ avagāhati, sattasaññaṃ samugghāteti. 117. This bhikkhu who is devoted to the defining of the four elements immerses himself in voidness and eliminates the perception of living beings.
So sattasaññāya samūhatattā vāḷamigayakkharakkhasādivikappaṃ anāvajjamāno bhayabheravasaho hoti, aratiratisaho, na iṭṭhāniṭṭhesu ugghātanigghātaṃ pāpuṇāti. Since he does not entertain false notions about wild beasts, spirits, ogres, etc., because he has abolished the perception of living beings, he conquers fear and dread and conquers delight and aversion (boredom); he is not exhilarated or depressed42 by agreeable and disagreeable things; Comm. NT: 42. Ugghāta—“exhilarated” and nigghāta—“depressed”: neither word is in PED; Vism- mhṭ glosses with ubbilāvitatta and dīnabhāvappatti respect...
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Mahāpañño ca pana hoti amatapariyosāno vā sugatiparāyano vāti. and as one of great understanding, he either ends in the deathless or he is bound for a happy destiny.
Evaṃ mahānubhāvaṃ, yogivarasahassa kīḷitaṃ etaṃ; The noble meditator lion43 Will make this mighty theme his sport. Comm. NT: 43. Reading yogivarasīhassa kīlitaṃ. Cf. Nettippakaraṇa “Sīha-kīlana.”
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Catudhātuvavatthānaṃ, niccaṃ sevetha medhāvīti. Defining the four elements Is ever the wise man’s resort;
Ayaṃ catudhātuvavatthānassa bhāvanāniddeso. This is the description of the development of the defining of the four elements.
361.Ettāvatā ca yaṃ samādhissa vitthāraṃ bhāvanānayañca dassetuṃ "ko samādhi, kenaṭṭhena samādhī"tiādinā nayena pañhākammaṃ kataṃ, tattha "kathaṃ bhāvetabbo"ti imassa padassa sabbappakārato atthavaṇṇanā samattā hoti. 118.This completes in all its aspects the commentary on the meaning of the clause, “How should it be developed?” in the set of questions beginning with “What is concentration?” which was formulated in order to show the method of development of concentration in detail (see III.1).
Duvidhoyeva hayaṃ idha adhippeto upacārasamādhi ceva appanāsamādhi ca. 119. This concentration as intended here is twofold, that is to say, access concentration and absorption concentration.
Tattha dasasu kammaṭṭhānesu, appanāpubbabhāgacittesu ca ekaggatā upacārasamādhi. Herein, the unification [of mind] in the case of ten meditation subjects and in the consciousness preceding absorption [in the case of the remaining meditation subjects]44 is access concentration. Comm. NT: 44. The sense demands reading with Vism-mhṭ appanāpubba-bhāgacittesu as a single compound.
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Avasesakammaṭṭhānesu cittekaggatā appanāsamādhi. The unification of mind in the case of the remaining meditation subjects is absorption concentration.
So duvidhopi tesaṃ kammaṭṭhānānaṃ bhāvitattā bhāvito hoti. And so it is developed in two forms with the development of these meditation subjects.
Tena vuttaṃ "kathaṃ bhāvetabboti imassa padassa sabbappakārato atthavaṇṇanā samattā"ti. Hence it was said above: “This completes in all its aspects the commentary on the meaning of the clause, ‘How should it be developed?’”
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