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Развитие дружелюбия Палийский оригинал

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240.Anussatikammaṭṭhānānantaraṃ uddiṭṭhesu pana mettā, karuṇā, muditā, upekkhāti imesu catūsu brahmavihāresu mettaṃ bhāvetukāmena tāva ādikammikena yogāvacarena upacchinnapalibodhena gahitakammaṭṭhānena bhattakiccaṃ katvā bhattasammadaṃ paṭivinodetvā vivitte padese supaññatte āsane sukhanisinnena ādito tāva dose ādīnavo, khantiyañca ānisaṃso paccavekkhitabbo. 1.[295] The four divine abidings were mentioned next to the recollections as meditation subjects (III.105). They are loving-kindness, compassion, gladness and equanimity. A meditator, who wants to develop firstly loving-kindness among these, if he is a beginner, should sever the impediments and learn the meditation subject. Then, when he has done the work connected with the meal and got rid of any dizziness due to it, he should seat himself comfortably on a well-prepared seat in a secluded place. To start with, he should review the danger in hate and the advantage in patience.
Kasmā? 2. Why?
Imāya hi bhāvanāya doso pahātabbo, khanti adhigantabbā. Because hate has to be abandoned and patience attained in the development of this meditation subject,
Na ca sakkā kiñci adiṭṭhādīnavaṃ pahātuṃ, aviditānisaṃsaṃ vā adhigantuṃ. and he cannot abandon unseen dangers and attain unknown advantages.
Tasmā "duṭṭho kho, āvuso, dosena abhibhūto pariyādiṇṇacitto pāṇampi hanatī"tiādīnaṃ (a. ni. 3.72) vasena dose ādīnavo daṭṭhabbo. Now, the danger in hate should be seen in accordance with such suttas as this: “Friends, when a man hates, is a prey to hate and his mind is obsessed by hate, he kills living things, and …” (A I 216).
"Khantī paramaṃ tapo titikkhā, nibbānaṃ paramaṃ vadanti buddhā"; (Dī. ni. 2.90; dha. pa. 184); “No higher rule, the Buddhas say, than patience, And no Nibbāna higher than forbearance” (D II 49; Dhp 184);
"Khantibalaṃ balānīkaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ". (dha. pa. 399; su. ni. 628); “Patience in force, in strong array: ’Tis him I call a brahman” (Dhp 399);
"Khantā bhiyyo na vijjatī"tiādīnaṃ (saṃ. ni. 1.250) vasena khantiyaṃ ānisaṃso veditabbo. “No greater thing exists than patience” (S I 222). And the advantage in patience should be understood according to such suttas as these (above).
Athevaṃ diṭṭhādīnavato dosato cittaṃ vivecanatthāya, viditānisaṃsāya ca khantiyā saṃyojanatthāya mettābhāvanā ārabhitabbā. 3.Thereupon he should embark upon the development of loving-kindness for the purpose of secluding the mind from hate seen as a danger and introducing it to patience known as an advantage.
Ārabhantena ca āditova puggalabhedo jānitabbo "imesu puggalesu mettā paṭhamaṃ na bhāvetabbā, imesu neva bhāvetabbā"ti. But when he begins, he must know that some persons are of the wrong sort at the very beginning and that loving-kindness should be developed towards certain kinds of persons and not towards certain other kinds at first.
Ayañhi mettā appiyapuggale, atippiyasahāyake, majjhatte, verīpuggaleti imesu catūsu paṭhamaṃ na bhāvetabbā. 4.For loving-kindness should not be developed at first towards the following four kinds of persons: an antipathetic person, a very dearly loved friend, a neutral person, and a hostile person.
Liṅgavisabhāge odhiso na bhāvetabbā. Also it should not be developed specifically (see §49) towards the opposite sex,
Kālakate na bhāvetabbāva. or towards a dead person.
Kiṃkāraṇā appiyādīsu paṭhamaṃ na bhāvetabbā? 5. What is the reason why it should not be developed at first towards an antipathetic person and the others?
Appiyaṃ hi piyaṭṭhāne ṭhapento kilamati. To put an antipathetic person in a dear one’s place is fatiguing.
Atippiyasahāyakaṃ majjhattaṭṭhāne ṭhapento kilamati, appamattakepi cassa dukkhe uppanne ārodanākārappatto viya hoti. To put a very dearly loved friend in a neutral person’s place is fatiguing; and if the slightest mischance befalls the friend, he feels like weeping.
Majjhattaṃ garuṭṭhāne ca piyaṭṭhāne ca ṭhapento kilamati. To put a neutral person in a respected one’s or a dear one’s place is fatiguing.
Verimanussarato kodho uppajjati, tasmā appiyādīsu paṭhamaṃ na bhāvetabbā. Anger springs up in him if he recollects a hostile person. That is why it should not be developed at first towards an antipathetic person and the rest.
Liṅgavisabhāge pana tameva ārabbha odhiso bhāventassa rāgo uppajjati. 6.Then, if he develops it specifically towards the opposite sex, lust inspired by that person springs up in him.
Aññataro kira amaccaputto kulūpakattheraṃ pucchi "bhante, kassa mettā bhāvetabbā"ti? An elder supported by a family was asked, it seems, by a friend’s son, “Venerable sir, towards whom should loving-kindness be developed?”
Thero "piyapuggale"ti āha. The elder told him, “Towards a person one loves.”
Tassa attano bhariyā piyā hoti. He loved his own wife.
So tassā mettaṃ bhāvento sabbarattiṃ bhittiyuddhamakāsi. Through developing loving-kindness towards her he was fighting against the wall all the night.1 Comm. NT: 1.
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Tasmā liṅgavisabhāge odhiso na bhāvetabbā. That is why it should not be developed specifically towards the opposite sex.
Kālakate pana bhāvento neva appanaṃ, na upacāraṃ pāpuṇāti. 7.But if he develops it towards a dead person, he reaches neither absorption nor access.
Aññataro kira daharabhikkhu ācariyaṃ ārabbha mettaṃ ārabhi. A young bhikkhu, it seems, had started developing loving-kindness inspired by his teacher.
Tassa mettā nappavattati. His loving-kindness made no headway at all.
So mahātherassa santikaṃ gantvā "bhante, paguṇāva me mettājhānasamāpatti, na ca naṃ samāpajjituṃ sakkomi, kiṃ nu kho kāraṇa"nti āha. He went to a senior elder and told him, “Venerable sir, I am quite familiar with attaining jhāna through loving-kindness, and yet I cannot attain it. What is the matter?”
Thero "nimittaṃ, āvuso, gavesāhī"ti āha. The elder said, “Seek the sign, friend, [the object of your meditation].”
So gavesanto ācariyassa matabhāvaṃ ñatvā aññaṃ ārabbha mettāyanto samāpattiṃ appesi. He did so. Finding that his teacher had died, he proceeded with developing loving-kindness inspired by another and attained absorption.
Tasmā kālakate na bhāvetabbāva. That is why it should not be developed towards one who is dead.
241.Sabbapaṭhamaṃ pana "ahaṃ sukhito homi niddukkho"ti vā, "avero abyāpajjo anīgho sukhī attānaṃ pariharāmī"ti vā evaṃ punappunaṃ attaniyeva bhāvetabbā. 8.First of all it should be developed only towards oneself, doing it repeatedly thus: “May I be happy and free from suffering” or “May I keep myself free from enmity, affliction and anxiety and live happily.”
Evaṃ sante yaṃ vibhaṅge (vibha. 643) vuttaṃ – 9.If that is so, does it not conflict with what is said in the texts? For there is no mention of any development of it towards oneself in what is said in the Vibhaṅga:
"Kathañca bhikkhu mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati? “And how does a bhikkhu dwell pervading one direction with his heart filled with loving-kindness?
Seyyathāpi nāma ekaṃ puggalaṃ piyaṃ manāpaṃ disvā mettāyeyya, evameva sabbe satte mettāya pharatī"ti. Just as he would feel loving-kindness on seeing a dearly loved person, so he pervades all beings with loving-kindness” (Vibh 272);
"Yañca paṭisambhidāyaṃ (paṭi. ma. 2.22) – and in the Paṭisambhidā:
"Katamehi pañcahākārehi anodhisopharaṇā mettā cetovimutti bhāvetabbā, sabbe sattā averā hontu" abyāpajjā anīghā sukhī attānaṃ pariharantu. “In what five ways is the mind-deliverance of loving-kindness [practiced] with unspecified pervasion? May all beings be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety and live happily.
Sabbe pāṇā… sabbe bhūtā… sabbe puggalā… sabbe attabhāvapariyāpannā averā abyāpajjā anīghā sukhī attānaṃ pariharantū"tiādi – May all breathing things [297] … all who are born … all persons … all those who have a personality be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety and live happily” (Paṭis II 130);
Vuttaṃ. in what is said (above).
Yañca mettasutte (khu. pā. 9.3; su. ni. 145) – and in the Mettā Sutta:
"Sukhinova khemino hontu, “In joy and safety
Sabbasattā bhavantu sukhitattā"tiādi. – may all beings be joyful at heart” (Sn 145).
Vuttaṃ, taṃ virujjhati. in what is said. Does it not conflict with what is said in the texts?
Na hi tattha attani bhāvanā vuttāti ce. For there is no mention of any development of it towards oneself. [Does it not conflict with those texts?]
Tañca na virujjhati. 10. It does not conflict.
Kasmā? Why not?
Tañhi appanāvasena vuttaṃ. Because that refers to absorption.
Idaṃ sakkhibhāvavasena. But this [initial development towards oneself] refers to [making oneself] an example.
Sacepi hi vassasataṃ vassasahassaṃ vā "ahaṃ sukhito homī"tiādinā nayena attani mettaṃ bhāveti, nevassa appanā uppajjati. For even if he developed loving-kindness for a hundred or a thousand years in this way, “I am happy” and so on, absorption would never arise.
"Ahaṃ sukhito homī"ti bhāvayato pana yathā ahaṃ sukhakāmo dukkhapaṭikkūlo jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo ca, evaṃ aññepi sattāti attānaṃ sakkhiṃ katvā aññasattesu hitasukhakāmatā uppajjati. But if he develops it in this way: “I am happy. Just as I want to be happy and dread pain, as I want to live and not to die, so do other beings, too,” making himself the example, then desire for other beings’ welfare and happiness arises in him.
Bhagavatāpi – And by the Blessed One’s saying:
"Sabbā disā anuparigamma cetasā, I visited all quarters with my mind
Nevajjhagā piyataramattanā kvaci; Nor found I any dearer than myself;
Evaṃ piyo puthu attā paresaṃ, Self is likewise to every other dear;
Tasmā na hiṃse paramattakāmo"ti. (saṃ. ni. 1.119; udā. 41); – Who loves himself will never harm another (S I 75; Ud 47).
Vadatā ayaṃ nayo dassito. this method is indicated (above).
Tasmā sakkhibhāvatthaṃ paṭhamaṃ attānaṃ mettāya pharitvā tadanantaraṃ sukhappavattanatthaṃ yvāyaṃ piyo manāpo garu bhāvanīyo ācariyo vā ācariyamatto vā upajjhāyo vā upajjhāyamatto vā tassa dānapiyavacanādīni piyamanāpattakāraṇāni sīlasutādīni garubhāvanīyattakāraṇāni ca anussaritvā "esa sappuriso sukhī hotu niddukkho"tiādinā nayena mettā bhāvetabbā. 11.So he should first, as example, pervade himself with loving-kindness. Next after that, in order to proceed easily, he can recollect such gifts,2 kind words, etc., as inspire love and endearment, such virtue, learning, etc., as inspire respect and reverence met with in a teacher or his equivalent or a preceptor or his equivalent, developing loving-kindness towards him in the way beginning, “May this good man be happy and free from suffering.” Comm. NT: 2. Reading dāna-piyavacanādīni with Ce (see four saṅgahavatthūni—A II 32).
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Evarūpe ca puggale kāmaṃ appanā sampajjati, iminā pana bhikkhunā tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ anāpajjitvā sīmāsambhedaṃ kattukāmena tadanantaraṃ atippiyasahāyake, atippiyasahāyakato majjhatte, majjhattato verīpuggale mettā bhāvetabbā. With such a person, of course, he attains absorption. 12.But if this bhikkhu does not rest content with just that much and wants to break down the barriers, he should next, after that, develop loving-kindness towards a very dearly loved friend, then towards a neutral person as a very dearly loved friend, then towards a hostile person as neutral.
Bhāventena ca ekekasmiṃ koṭṭhāse muduṃ kammaniyaṃ cittaṃ katvā tadanantare tadanantare upasaṃharitabbaṃ. And while he does so, he should make his mind malleable and wieldy in each instance before passing on to the next.
Yassa pana verīpuggalo vā natthi, mahāpurisajātikattā vā anatthaṃ karontepi pare verīsaññāva nuppajjati, tena "majjhatte me mettacittaṃ kammaniyaṃ jātaṃ, idāni naṃ verimhi upasaṃharāmī"ti byāpārova na kātabbo. 13.But if he has no enemy, or he is of the type of a great man who does not perceive another as an enemy even when the other does him harm, he should not interest himself as follows: “Now that my consciousness of loving-kindness has become wieldy towards a neutral person, I shall apply it to a hostile one.” [298]
Yassa pana atthi, taṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ "majjhattato verīpuggale mettā bhāvetabbā"ti. Rather it was about one who actually has an enemy that it was said above that he should develop loving-kindness towards a hostile person as neutral.
243.Sace panassa verimhi cittamupasaṃharato tena katāparādhānussaraṇena paṭighamuppajjati, athānena purimapuggalesu yattha katthaci punappunaṃ mettaṃ samāpajjitvā vuṭṭhahitvā punappunaṃ taṃ puggalaṃ mettāyantena paṭighaṃ vinodetabbaṃ. 14.If resentment arises in him when he applies his mind to a hostile person because he remembers wrongs done by that person, he should get rid of the resentment by entering repeatedly into loving-kindness [jhāna] towards any of the first-mentioned persons and then, after he has emerged each time, directing loving-kindness towards that person. 14. Если неприязнь возникает в нём когда он думает о враждебном человеке оттого, что он вспоминает о плохих поступках, совершённых этим человеком, то следует избавляться от неприязни входя снова и снова в состояние дружелюбия [джхану] в отношении любого из вышеперечисленных людей. После выхода из состояния поглощённости следует направлять дружелюбие к этому [враждебному] человеку.
Sace evampi vāyamato na nibbāti, atha – 15.But if it does not die out in spite of his efforts, then: 15. Но если неприязнь не утихает, несмотря на все усилия, тогда:
Kakacūpamaovāda-ādīnaṃ anusārato; Let him reflect upon the saw With other figures of such kind, Пусть он размышляет о пиле и других подобных вещах
Paṭighassa pahānāya, ghaṭitabbaṃ punappunaṃ. And strive, and strive repeatedly, To leave resentment far behind. и вновь и вновь старается устранить неприязнь.
Tañca kho iminā ākārena attānaṃ ovadanteneva "are kujjhanapurisa, nanu vuttaṃ bhagavatā – He should admonish himself in this way: “Now, you who get angry, has not the Blessed One said this: Он должен увещевать себя так: "Эй ты, разозлившийся, разве Благословенный не говорил так:
'Ubhatodaṇḍakena cepi, bhikkhave, kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṃ, tatrāpi yo mano padoseyya. ‘Bhikkhus, even if bandits brutally severed limb from limb with a two-handled saw, he who entertained hate in his heart on that account "Монахи, даже если бы мерзавцы-разбойники отпиливали от вашего тела часть за частью двуручной пилой, тот, у кого по этой причине в сердце зародиться злость
Na me so tena sāsanakaro'ti (ma. ni. 1.232) ca, would not be one who carried out my teaching?’” (M I 129). And this: не будет тем, кто следует моему Учению". И следующее:
'Tasseva tena pāpiyo, yo kuddhaṃ paṭikujjhati; ”To repay angry men in kind Is worse than to be angry first; "Тот, кто гневается в ответ на гнев, порочен в той же мере По-моему это просто идиоматический перевод, означающий, что ответ на гнев (действие вторым номером) хуже, чем проявление гнева (действие первым номеро...
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Kuddhamappaṭikujjhanto, saṅgāmaṃ jeti dujjayaṃ. Repay not angry men in kind And win a battle hard to win. Не гневайтесь в ответ на гнев и так в трудном сражении вы победите.
"'Ubhinnamatthaṃ carati, attano ca parassa ca; The weal of both he does promote, His own and then the other’s too, Он способствует благу обоих, себя и другого -
Paraṃ saṅkupitaṃ ñatvā, yo sato upasammatī'ti ca. (saṃ. ni. 1.188); – Who shall another’s anger know And mindfully maintain his peace” (S I 162). тот, кто поняв чужой гнев, с памятованием успокаивается.
"'Sattime, bhikkhave, dhammā sapattakantā sapattakaraṇā kodhanaṃ āgacchanti itthiṃ vā purisaṃ vā. And this: “Bhikkhus, there are seven things gratifying and helpful to an enemy that happen to one who is angry, whether woman or man. И следующее: "Монахи, есть семь вещей ублажающих врага и идущих ему на пользу, которые случаются когда кто-то разозлился, будь то женщина или мужчина.
Katame satta? What seven? Какие семь?
Idha, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa evaṃ icchati aho vatāyaṃ dubbaṇṇo assāti. Here, bhikkhus, an enemy wishes thus for his enemy, ‘Let him be ugly!’ Здесь, монахи, человек желает своему врагу: "Пусть он станет безобразным!"
Taṃ kissahetu? Why is that? И почему так?
Na, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa vaṇṇavatāya nandati. An enemy does not delight in an enemy’s beauty. Человек не рад красоте своего врага.
Kodhanāyaṃ, bhikkhave, purisapuggalo kodhābhibhūto kodhapareto kiñcāpi so hoti sunhāto suvilitto kappitakesamassu odātavatthavasano, atha kho so dubbaṇṇova hoti kodhābhibhūto. Now, this angry person is a prey to anger, ruled by anger; though well bathed, well anointed, with hair and beard trimmed and clothed in white, yet he is ugly, being a prey to anger. И вот этот разозлившийся человек является добычей гнева, ведом гневом и хотя он чисто вымыт, смазан мазями, его волосы и борода ухожены, а одежда белоснежна, всё равно, будучи добычей гнева, он безобразен.
Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, paṭhamo dhammo sapattakanto sapattakaraṇo kodhanaṃ āgacchati itthiṃ vā purisaṃ vā. This is the first thing gratifying and helpful to an enemy that befalls one who is angry, whether woman or man. И это первая вещь ублажающая врага и идущая ему на пользу, которая случается когда кто-то разозлился, будь то женщина или мужчина.
Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa evaṃ icchati ahovatāyaṃ dukkhaṃ sayeyyāti - pe - na pacurattho assāti - pe - na bhogavā assāti - pe - na yasavā assāti - pe - na mittavā assāti - pe - na kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjeyyāti. Furthermore, an enemy wishes thus for his enemy, ‘Let him lie in pain!’ … ‘Let him have no fortune!’ … ‘Let him not be wealthy!’ … ‘Let him not be famous!’ … ’Let him have no friends!’ [299] … ’Let him not on the breakup of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destiny in the heavenly world!’3 Вдобавок человек желает своему врагу следующее: "Пусть он корчится от боли!"... "Пусть ему не будет удачи!"... "Пусть у него не будет богатства!"... "Пусть у него не будет известности!"... "Пусть у него не будет друзей!"... "Пусть после смерти, после разрушения тела он не переродится в счастливом уделе, в небесных мирах!" Comm. NT: 3. The Aṅguttara text has “Let him … reappear in a state of loss” and so on.
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Taṃ kissa hetu? Why is that? И почему так?
Na, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa sugatigamanena nandati. An enemy does not delight in an enemy’s going to a happy destiny. Человек не рад тому, что его враг попадает в счастливый удел.
Kodhanāyaṃ, bhikkhave, purisapuggalo kodhābhibhūto kodhapareto kāyena duccaritaṃ carati, vācāya manasā duccaritaṃ carati. Now, this angry person is a prey to anger, ruled by anger; he misconducts himself in body, speech and mind. И вот этот разозлившийся человек является добычей гнева, ведом гневом; он совершает дурные поступки телом, речью и умом.
So kāyena vācāya manasā duccaritaṃ caritvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati kodhābhibhūto'ti (a. ni. 7.64) ca, Misconducting himself thus in body, speech and mind, on the breakup of the body, after death, he reappears in a state of loss, in an unhappy destiny, in perdition, in hell, being a prey to anger” (A IV 94). Совершая дурные поступки телом, речью и умом, после смерти, после разрушения тела он перерождается в неблагоприятных условиях, в дурном уделе, в низшем мире, в аду, став добычей гнева.
"'Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, chavālātaṃ ubhatopadittaṃ majjhe gūthagataṃ neva gāme kaṭṭhatthaṃ pharati, na araññe kaṭṭhatthaṃ pharati. And this: “As a log from a pyre, burnt at both ends and fouled in the middle, serves neither for timber in the village nor for timber in the forest, И следующее: "Как бревно из погребального костра, обгоревшее с двух концов и покрытое экскрементами посередине не пригодно ни в деревне, ни в лесу,
Tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmī'ti ca, so is such a person as this I say” (A II 95, It 90) точно так же ни на что не годен подобный человек".
"So dāni tvaṃ evaṃ kujjhanto na ceva bhagavato sāsanakaro bhavissasi, paṭikujjhanto ca kuddhapurisatopi pāpiyo hutvā na dujjayaṃ saṅgāmaṃ jessasi, sapattakaraṇe ca dhamme attāva attano karissasi, chavālātūpamo ca bhavissasī"ti. “If you are angry now, you will be one who does not carry out the Blessed One’s teaching; by repaying an angry man in kind you will be worse than the angry man and not win the battle hard to win; you will yourself do to yourself the things that help your enemy; and you will be like a pyre log. ” (Source untraced) Если вы впали в злобу вы стали тем, кого не исполняет Учение Благословенного, разозлившись в ответ на чью-то злобу вы становитесь хуже того, кто разозлился первым и вы не выиграете битву, которую трудно выиграть, вы сами будете помогать вашему врагу и станете подобны бревну из погребального костра.
244.Tassevaṃ ghaṭayato vāyamato sace taṃ paṭighaṃ vūpasammati, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ. 16.If his resentment subsides when he strives and makes effort in this way, it is good. 16. Если путём подобных размышлений неприязнь утихнет, то это хорошо.
No ce vūpasammati, atha yo yo dhammo tassa puggalassa vūpasanto hoti parisuddho, anussariyamāno pasādaṃ āvahati, taṃ taṃ anussaritvā āghāto paṭivinetabbo. If not, then he should remove irritation by remembering some controlled and purified state in that person, which inspires confidence when remembered. Если нет, то человеку следует избавляться от неприязни путём воспоминания какого-либо чистого и сдержанное состояния этого человека, которое при воспоминании вселяет приверженность.
Ekaccassa hi kāyasamācārova upasanto hoti. 17.For one person may be controlled in his bodily behaviour 17. Кто-то может быть сдержан в поведении тела.
Upasantabhāvo cassa bahuṃ vattapaṭipattiṃ karontassa sabbajanena ñāyati. with his control in doing an extensive course of duty known to all, И он со своей сдержанностью исполняет большую работу, о чём знают многие.
Vacīsamācāramanosamācārā pana avūpasantā honti. though his verbal and mental behaviour are not controlled. хотя его речь и ум не сдержаны.
Tassa te acintetvā kāyasamācāravūpasamoyeva anussaritabbo. Then the latter should be ignored and the control in his bodily behaviour remembered. В таком случае на них не следует обращать внимание, полностью сосредоточившись на телесном поведении.
Ekaccassa vacīsamācārova upasanto hoti. 18.Another may be controlled in his verbal behaviour, 18. Другой может быть сдержан в речи.
Upasantabhāvo cassa sabbajanena ñāyati. and his control known to all— И все знают, что он сдержан в речи.
So hi pakatiyā ca paṭisanthārakusalo hoti sakhilo sukhasambhāso sammodako uttānamukho pubbabhāsī madhurena sarena dhammaṃ osāreti, parimaṇḍalehi padabyañjanehi dhammakathaṃ katheti. he may naturally be clever at welcoming kindly, easy to talk with, congenial, open-countenanced, deferential in speech, and he may expound the Dhamma with a sweet voice and give explanations of Dhamma with well- rounded phrases and details— Он может быть способен в доброжелательном приветствии, лёгок в общении, любезен, открыт, почтителен, он может излагать Дхамму приятным голосом и давать разъяснения по ней обтекаемыми фразами, со знанием деталей,
Kāyasamācāramanosamācārā pana avūpasantā honti, tassa te acintetvā vacīsamācāravūpasamoyeva anussaritabbo. though his bodily and mental behaviour are not controlled. Then the latter should be ignored and the control in his verbal behaviour remembered. но он не сдержан в телесном и умственном поведении. В таком случае на них не следует обращать внимание, полностью сосредоточившись на его сдержанности в речи.
Ekaccassa manosamācārova upasanto hoti, upasantabhāvo cassa cetiyavandanādīsu sabbajanassa pākaṭo hoti. 19. Another may be controlled in his mental behaviour, and his control in worshiping at shrines, etc., evident to all. 19. Другой может быть сдержан в умственном поведении и его сдержанность при поклонении памятникам и прочему для всех очевидно.
Yo hi avūpasantacitto hoti, so cetiyaṃ vā bodhiṃ vā there vā vandamāno na sakkaccaṃ vandati, dhammassavanamaṇḍape vikkhittacitto vā pacalāyanto vā nisīdati. For when one who is uncontrolled in mind pays homage at a shrine or at an Enlightenment Tree or to elders, he does not do it carefully, [300] and he sits in the Dhamma-preaching pavilion with mind astray or nodding, Тогда как тот, кто не сдержан в уме, воздавая почести памятнику, дереву Бодхи или старейшинам, делает это невнимательно и также сидя в зале для проповедей Дхаммы его ум блуждает или он клюёт носом.
Upasantacitto pana okappetvā vandati, ohitasoto aṭṭhiṃkatvā kāyena vā vācāya vā cittappasādaṃ karonto dhammaṃ suṇāti. while one whose mind is controlled pays homage carefully and deliberately, listens to the Dhamma attentively, remembering it, and evincing the confidence in his mind through his body or his speech. Но тот, чьё умственное поведение сдержано, сосредоточенно выражает почтение, внимателен в слушании Дхаммы и запоминает услышанное. Телом и речью он порождает приверженность в своём уме.
Iti ekaccassa manosamācārova upasanto hoti, kāyavacīsamācārā avūpasantā honti, tassa te acintetvā manosamācāravūpasamoyeva anussaritabbo. So another may be only controlled in his mental behaviour, though his bodily and verbal behaviour are not controlled. Then the latter should be ignored and the control in his mental behaviour remembered. Другой может быть сдержан только в умственном поведении, хотя его телесное поведение и речь не сдержаны. В таком случае на них не следует обращать внимание, вспоминая только умственное поведение.
Ekaccassa pana imesu tīsu dhammesu ekopi avūpasanto hoti, tasmiṃ puggale "kiñcāpi esa idāni manussaloke carati, atha kho katipāhassa accayena aṭṭhamahānirayasoḷasaussadanirayaparipūrako bhavissatī"ti kāruññaṃ upaṭṭhapetabbaṃ. 20.But there may be another in whom not even one of these three things is controlled. Then compassion for that person should be aroused thus: “Though he is going about in the human world now, nevertheless after a certain number of days he will find himself in [one of] the eight great hells or the sixteen prominent hells.4” 20.Может быть и такой человек, который не сдержан ни в одном из этих аспектов. Тогда следует пробуждать в себе сострадание к этому человеку следующим образом: "Хотя сейчас он разгуливает в мире людей, тем не менее через определённое количество дней он обнаружит себя в [одном из] восьми великих адов или шестнадцати больших адов". Comm. NT: 4.
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Kāruññampi hi paṭicca āghāto vūpasammati. For irritation subsides too through compassion. Таким образом раздражение стихает через сочувствие.
Ekaccassa tayopime dhammā vūpasantā honti, tassa yaṃ yaṃ icchati, taṃ taṃ anussaritabbaṃ. In yet another all three may be controlled. Then he can remember any of the three in that person, whichever he likes; Может быть и такой человек, у которого сдержаны все три аспекта. Тогда он может воспользоваться любым из трёх указанных способов, какой ему нравится,
Tādise hi puggale na dukkarā hoti mettābhāvanāti. for the development of loving-kindness towards such a person is easy. ведь развитие дружелюбия в отношении такого человека не составит труда.
Imassa ca atthassa āvibhāvatthaṃ – "pañcime, āvuso, āghātapaṭivinayā. 21.And in order to make the meaning of this clear “Bhikkhus, there are five ways of dispelling annoyance 21. Чтобы лучше понять сказанное, "Монахи, есть пять путей рассеивания раздражения,
Yattha bhikkhuno uppanno āghāto sabbaso paṭivinodetabbo"ti (a. ni. 5.162) idaṃ pañcakanipāte āghātapaṭivinayasuttaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ. whereby annoyance arisen in a bhikkhu can be entirely dispelled” (A III 186–90) - this following sutta from the Book of Fives should be cited in full. путём которых возникшее в монахе раздражение может быть полностью рассеяно." - эту сутту из Книги Пятёрок следует привести полностью.
245.Sace panassa evampi vāyamato āghāto uppajjatiyeva, athānena evaṃ attā ovaditabbo – 22. But if irritation still arises in him in spite of his efforts, then he should admonish himself thus: 22. И если его раздражение всё равно возникает в нём, несмотря на его усилия, тогда ему следует сделать себе следующее внушение:
"Attano visaye dukkhaṃ, kataṃ te yadi verinā; Suppose an enemy has hurt You now in what is his domain, Вообрази, что враг причинил тебе страдания в том, что ему подвластно.
Kiṃ tassāvisaye dukkhaṃ, sacitte kattumicchasi. Why try yourself as well to hurt Your mind? —That is not his domain. зачем пытаться самому уязвить свой ум - ведь это вне его власти.
"Bahūpakāraṃ hitvāna, ñātivaggaṃ rudammukhaṃ; In tears you left your family. They had been kind and helpful too. Ты оставил свою заплаканную семью, тех, кто был добр и помогал тебе.
Mahānatthakaraṃ kodhaṃ, sapattaṃ na jahāsi kiṃ. So why not leave your enemy, The anger that brings harm to you? Почему же не оставить врага, тот гнев, что вредит тебе.
"Yāni rakkhasi sīlāni, tesaṃ mūlanikantanaṃ; gnawing at the very roots Of all the virtues that you guard— подгрызает у самых корней те благие качества, что ты так стережёшь,
Kodhaṃ nāmupaḷālesi, ko tayā sadiso jaḷo. This anger that you entertain - Who is there such a fool as you? тот гнев, что ты таишь - разве есть ещё такой глупец [как ты]?
"Kataṃ anariyaṃ kammaṃ, parena iti kujjhasi; Another does ignoble deeds, So you are angry—How is this? Другое творит дела дурные - что же ты гневаешься тогда?
Kiṃ nu tvaṃ tādisaṃyeva, yo sayaṃ kattumicchasi. Do you then want to copy too The sort of acts that he commits? Ты разве хочешь повторить те дела, что он творит?
"Dosetukāmo yadi taṃ, amanāpaṃ paro kari; Suppose another, to annoy, Provokes you with some odious act, Вообрази, что некто, желая докучать тебе, провоцирует чем-то неприятным
Dosuppādena tasseva, kiṃ pūresi manorathaṃ. Why suffer anger to spring up, And do as he would have you do? К чему страдать от всплеска гнева и делать то, что он желает?
"Dukkhaṃ tassa ca nāma tvaṃ, kuddho kāhasi vā navā; If you get angry, then maybe You make him suffer, maybe not; Коль разозлишься ты, может он пострадает, может нет
Attānaṃ panidāneva, kodhadukkhena bādhasi. Though with the hurt that anger brings You certainly are punished now. но болью, приносимой гневом, ты наказан уже сейчас.
"Kodhaṃ vā ahitaṃ maggaṃ, ārūḷhā yadi verino; If anger-blinded enemies Set out to tread the path of woe, Если ослеплённые гневом враги пошли страдания дорогой,
Kasmā tuvampi kujjhanto, tesaṃyevānusikkhasi. Do you by getting angry too Intend to follow heel to toe? не последуешь ли ты за ними по пятам, коль разозлишься ты?
"Yaṃ dosaṃ tava nissāya, sattunā appiyaṃ kataṃ; If hurt is done you by a foe Because of anger on your part, Если враг наносит тебе вред из-за твоей злости
Tameva dosaṃ chindassu, kimaṭṭhāne vihaññasi. Then put your anger down, for why Should you be harassed groundlessly? [301] тогда отбрось свой гнев, зачем давать ему вредить тебе без повода?
"Khaṇikattā ca dhammānaṃ, yehi khandhehi te kataṃ; Since states last but a moment’s time Those aggregates, by which was done Поскольку умственные состояния длятся лишь, те совокупности, которыми был совершён
Amanāpaṃ niruddhā te, kassa dānīdha kujjhasi. The odious act, have ceased, so now What is it you are angry with? неприятный поступок, исчезли, на что ты сейчас злишься?
"Dukkhaṃ karoti yo yassa, taṃ vinā kassa so kare; Whom shall he hurt, who seeks to hurt Another, in the other’s absence? Кому он причинит боль, кто стремится причинить боль другому при его отсутствии?
Sayampi dukkhahetutta, miti kiṃ tassa kujjhasī"ti. Your presence is the cause of hurt; Why are you angry, then, with him? Твоё присутствие является причиной боли, зачем ты тогда злишься на него?
246.Sace panassa evaṃ attānaṃ ovadatopi paṭighaṃ neva vūpasammati, athānena attano ca parassa ca kammassakatā paccavekkhitabbā. 23.But if resentment does not subside when he admonishes himself thus, then he should review the fact that he himself and the other are owners of their deeds (kamma). 23. Но если гнев не утихает в результате такого увещевания, он должен напомнить себе тот факт, что и он сам и другие являются хозяевами своих дел (камма).
Tattha attano tāva evaṃ paccavekkhitabbā "ambho tvaṃ tassa kuddho kiṃ karissasi? Herein, he should first review this in himself thus: “Now, what is the point of your getting angry with him? Здесь он должен во-первых вспомнить это в отношении себя: "Итак, в чём смысл того, что ты разозлился на него?
Nanu taveva cetaṃ dosanidānaṃ kammaṃ anatthāya saṃvattissati? Will not this kamma of yours that has anger as its source lead to your own harm? Разве не приведёт этот твой основанный на злости поступок к вредным последствиям для тебя самого?
Kammassako hi tvaṃ kammadāyādo kammayoni kammabandhu kammapaṭisaraṇo, yaṃ kammaṃ karissasi, tassa dāyādo bhavissasi, idañca te kammaṃ neva sammāsambodhiṃ, na paccekabodhiṃ, na sāvakabhūmiṃ, na brahmattasakkattacakkavattipadesarājādisampattīnaṃ aññataraṃ sampattiṃ sādhetuṃ samatthaṃ, atha kho sāsanato cāvetvā vighāsādādibhāvassa ceva nerayikādidukkhavisesānañca te saṃvattanikamidaṃ kammaṃ. For you are the owner of your deeds, heir of your deeds, having deeds as your parent, deeds as your kin, deeds as your refuge; you will become the heir of whatever deeds you do (see A III 186). And this is not the kind of deed to bring you to full enlightenment, to undeclared enlightenment or to the disciple’s grade, or to any such position as the status of Brahmā or Sakka, or the throne of a Wheel-turning Monarch or a regional king, etc.; but rather this is the kind of deed to lead to your fall from the Dispensation, even to the status of the eaters of scraps, etc., and to the manifold suffering in the hells, and so on. Ведь ты хозяин своих поступков, наследник своих поступков, твои поступки являются твоими родителями, твоей роднёй, твоим убежищем; ты унаследуешь все те дела, которые ты совершил. И подобные поступки не приведут тебя к совершенному постижению, к постижению паччекабудды, они не приведут тебя в сферу учеников, не приведут тебя на уровень Брахмы или Сакки, ты не станешь царем-миродержцем или простым государем и т.п., но подобные поступки приведут тебя к падению из системы Будды, возможно даже в состояние поедателей отбросов и т.п. и к многообразному страданию в адах и подобных местах.
So tvaṃ idaṃ karonto ubhohi hatthehi vītaccite vā aṅgāre, gūthaṃ vā gahetvā paraṃ paharitukāmo puriso viya attānameva paṭhamaṃ dahasi ceva duggandhañca karosī"ti. By doing this you are like a man who wants to hit another and picks up a burning ember or excrement in his hand and so first burns himself or makes himself stink.” Делая подобное ты похож на человека, который хочет ударить другого и берёт в руку горящий уголь или экскременты и таким образом сам же первый обжигается или начинает вонять".
Evaṃ attano kammassakataṃ paccavekkhitvā parassapi evaṃ paccavekkhitabbā "esopi tava kujjhitvā kiṃ karissati? 24. Having reviewed ownership of deeds in himself in this way, he should review it in the other also: “And what is the point of his getting angry with you? 24. Вспомнив таким образом о владении собственными поступками, он должен рассматривать их и под таким углом: "Какой смысл ему сердиться на тебя?
Nanu etassevetaṃ anatthāya saṃvattissati? Will it not lead to his own harm? Разве не пойдёт эта злость во вред ему самому?
Kammassako hi ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo - pe - yaṃ kammaṃ karissati, tassa dāyādo bhavissati. For that venerable one is owner of his deeds, heir of his deeds … he will become the heir of whatever deeds he does. Ведь этот почтенный хозяин своих поступков, наследник своих поступков... он будет наследовать именно те поступки, которые совершает.
Idañcassa kammaṃ neva sammāsambodhiṃ, na paccekabodhiṃ, na sāvakabhūmiṃ, na brahmattasakkattacakkavattipadesarājādisampattīnaṃ aññataraṃ sampattiṃ sādhetuṃ samatthaṃ, atha kho sāsanato cāvetvā vighāsādādibhāvassa ceva nerayikādidukkhavisesānañcassa saṃvattanikamidaṃ kammaṃ. And this is not the kind of deed to bring him to full enlightenment, to undeclared enlightenment or to the disciple’s grade, or to any such position as the status of Brahmā or Sakka, or to the throne of a Wheel-turning Monarch or a regional king, etc.; but rather this is the kind of deed to lead to his fall from the Dispensation, even to the status of the eaters of scraps, etc., and to the manifold suffering in the hells, and so on. И это не те дела, которые приведут его к совершенному постижению, постижению паччекабудды, они не приведут его в сферу учеников, не приведут его на уровень Брахмы или Сакки, он не станет царем-миродержцем или простым государем и т.п., но подобные поступки приведут его к падению из системы Будды, возможно даже в состояние пожирателей отбросов и т.п. и к многообразному страданию в адах и подобных местах.
Svāyaṃ idaṃ karonto paṭivāte ṭhatvā paraṃ rajena okiritukāmo puriso viya attānaṃyeva okirati. By doing this he is like a man who wants to throw dust at another against the wind and only covers himself with it.” Совершая подобное он похож на человека, который захотел бросить пыль в другого, находясь при этом с наветренной стороны и оттого сам обсыпал себя пылью".
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā – For this is said by the Blessed One: По этому поводу Благословенным было сказано:
"'Yo appaduṭṭhassa narassa dussati, “When a fool hates a man that has no hate, Тот, то вредит невредящему
Suddhassa posassa anaṅgaṇassa; Is purified and free from every blemish, [302] чистому и невиновному человеку
Tameva bālaṃ pacceti pāpaṃ, Such evil he will find comes back on him, - к тому глупцу вернётся зло
Sukhumo rajo paṭivātaṃva khitto"'ti. (dha. pa. 125; su. ni. 667); As does fine dust thrown up against the wind” (Dhp 125). как тончайшая пыль, брошенная против ветра.
247.Sace panassa evaṃ kammassakatampi paccavekkhato neva vūpasammati, athānena satthu pubbacariyaguṇā anussaritabbā. 25.But if it still does not subside in him when he reviews ownership of deeds in this way, then he should review the special qualities of the Master’s former conduct. 25. Но если взглянув на свои поступки подобным образом человек неприязнь не успокаивается, тогда ему следует вспомнить благие качества, продемонстрированные Учителем в прошлом.
Tatrāyaṃ paccavekkhaṇānayo – ambho pabbajita, nanu te satthā pubbeva sambodhā anabhisambuddho bodhisattopi samāno cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni kappasatasahassañca pāramiyo pūrayamāno tattha tattha vadhakesupi paccatthikesu cittaṃ nappadūsesi. 26.Here is the way of reviewing it: “Now you who have gone forth, is it not a fact that when your Master was a Bodhisatta before discovering full enlightenment, while he was still engaged in fulfilling the perfections during the four incalculable ages and a hundred thousand aeons, he did not allow hate to corrupt his mind even when his enemies tried to murder him on various occasions? 26. Вот каким образом следует вспоминать их: "Ты, который покинул мирскую жизнь, разве ты не знаешь, что когда твой Учитель был Бодхисаттой, ещё не до конца постигшим, он, развивая Совершенства в течении четырёх неисчислимых и сотни тысяч циклов вселенной, не позволял ненависти завладеть своим умом, даже когда враги пытались убить его в самых разных ситуациях?
Seyyathidaṃ, sīlavajātake tāva attano deviyā paduṭṭhena pāpaamaccena ānītassa paṭirañño tiyojanasataṃ rajjaṃ gaṇhantassa nisedhanatthāya uṭṭhitānaṃ amaccānaṃ āvudhampi chupituṃ na adāsi. 27.“For example, in the Sīlavant Birth Story (J-a I 261) when his friends rose to prevent his kingdom of three hundred leagues being seized by an enemy king who had been incited by a wicked minister in whose mind his own queen had sown hate for him, he did not allow them to lift a weapon. 27. К примеру в Силава джатаке (Дж.1.261), когда министры поднялись защитить его королевство размером в три сотни йоджан от захвата враждебным правителем, которого подстрекал злой министр, в чей ум был посеян гнев его супругой, он не позволил им поднять оружие. Переведена полностью тут http://abhidharma.ru/A/Vedalla/Content/Jataka/51%20Mahasilava.htm
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Puna saddhiṃ amaccasahassena āmakasusāne galappamāṇaṃ bhūmiṃ khaṇitvā nikhaññamāno cittappadosamattampi akatvā kuṇapakhādanatthaṃ āgatānaṃ siṅgālānaṃ paṃsuviyūhanaṃ nissāya purisakāraṃ katvā paṭiladdhajīvito yakkhānubhāvena attano sirigabbhaṃ oruyha sirisayane sayitaṃ paccatthikaṃ disvā kopaṃ akatvāva aññamaññaṃ sapathaṃ katvā taṃ mittaṭṭhāne ṭhapayitvā āha – Again when he was buried, along with a thousand companions, up to the neck in a hole dug in the earth in a charnel ground, he had no thought of hate. And when, after saving his life by a heroic effort helped by jackals scraping away soil when they had come to devour the corpses, he went with the aid of a spirit to his own bedroom and saw his enemy lying on his own bed, he was not angry but treated him as a friend, undertaking a mutual pledge, and he then exclaimed: И когда он был закопан по шею вместе с тысячей своих товарищей в яме, выкопанной в кладбищенской земле, у него не было ни одной гневной мысли. И затем, после того как он спасся путём отважного усилия и с помощью шакалов, которые пришли поживиться трупами и отрыли его; он попал благодаря силе яккхи в свою спальню и увидел своего врага, лежащего в постели. Но и при этом он не разозлился, относясь к нему как к другу, они дали совместную клятву, после чего он произнёс:
"Āsīsetheva puriso, na nibbindeyya paṇḍito; “The brave aspire, the wise will not lose heart; "Смельчаки стремятся, мудрые не унывают
Passāmi vohamattānaṃ, yathā icchiṃ tathā ahū"ti. (jā. 1.1.51); I see myself as I had wished to be” (J-a I 267). Я вижу себя таким, каким хотел видеть"
Khantivādījātake dummedhena kāsiraññā "kiṃvādī tvaṃ samaṇā"ti puṭṭho "khantivādī nāmāha"nti vutte sakaṇṭakāhi kasāhi tāḷetvā hatthapādesu chijjamānesu kopamattampi nākāsi. 28. “And in the Khantivādin Birth Story he was asked by the stupid king of Kāsi (Benares), ‘What do you preach, monk? ’ and he replied, ‘I am a preacher of patience’; and when the king had him flogged with scourges of thorns and had his hands and feet cut off, he felt not the slightest anger (see J-a III 39). 28 И в истории Кхантивади, когда глупый касийский король спросил его: "Чему ты учишь, монах?" и тот ответил: "Я учу терпению", и когда король приказал высечь его терновыми розгами, а затем велел отрубить ему руки и ноги, он не испытал ни капли гнева.
Anacchariyañcetaṃ, yaṃ mahallako pabbajjūpagato evaṃ kareyya. 29.“It is perhaps not so wonderful that an adult who had actually gone forth into homelessness should have acted in that way; 29. Возможно подобное поведение не столь удивительно для взрослого человека, оставившего мирскую жизнь,
Cūḷadhammapālajātake pana uttānaseyyakopi samāno – but also as an infant he did so. For in the Cūḷa-Dhammapāla Birth Story: В Чула-Дхаммапала джатаке рассказывается как он делал то же самое будучи младенцем.
"Candanarasānulittā, bāhā chijjanti dhammapālassa; “Oh, Dhammapāla’s arms are severed That had been bathed in sandalwood; "О, руки Дхаммапалы отрезаны и омыты водой сандалового дерева
Dāyādassa pathabyā, pāṇā me deva rujjhantī"ti. (jā. 1.5.49); He was the heir to all the earth: O king, my breath is choking me!” (J-a III 181). [303] Он был наследником всей земли. О, король, у меня ком в горле!"
Evaṃ vippalapamānāya mātuyā pitarā mahāpatāpena nāma raññā vaṃsakaḷīresu viya catūsu hatthapādesu chedāpitesu tāvatāpi santuṭṭhiṃ anāpajjitvā sīsamassa chindathāti āṇatte "ayaṃ dāni te cittapariggaṇhanakālo, idāni ambho dhammapāla, sīsacchedāṇāpake pitari, sīsacchedake purise, paridevamānāya mātari, attani cāti imesu catūsu samacitto hohī"ti daḷhaṃ samādānamadhiṭṭhāya paduṭṭhākāramattampi nākāsi. his hands and feet were ordered to be lopped off like four bamboo shoots by his father, King Mahāpatāpa, and his mother lamented over him thus (as above). Then his father, still not satisfied, commanded that his head be cut off as well. But even then he had not the least trace of hate, since he had firmly resolved thus: ‘Now is the time to restrain your mind; now, good Dhammapāla, be impartial towards these four persons, that is to say, towards your father who is having your head cut off, the man who is beheading you, your lamenting mother, and yourself.’ Его руки и ступни было приказано связать и вырвать, как если бы это были четыре бамбуковых побега и приказ этот был отдан его отцом, королём Махапатапой и его мать рыдала над ним. Но это показалось отцу недостаточным и он приказал отрубить ему голову. Но даже тогда у него не было ни капли гнева и он сделал твёрдое устремление: "Пришло время, дорогой Дхаммапала, обуздать твой ум; будь беспристрастен к этим четырём людям: к твоему отцу, который собирается отрубить тебе голову, к человеку, который обезглавит тебя, к твоей скорбящей матери и к самому себе".
Idañcāpi anacchariyameva, yaṃ manussabhūto evamakāsi. 30.“And it is perhaps not so wonderful that one who had become a human being should have acted in that way; 30. Возможно подобное поведение не удивительно для того, кто родился человеком,
Tiracchānabhūtopi pana chaddanto nāma vāraṇo hutvā visappitena sallena nābhiyaṃ viddhopi tāva anatthakārimhi luddake cittaṃ nappadūsesi. but also as an animal he did so. For while the Bodhisatta was the elephant called Chaddanta he was pierced in the navel by a poisoned shaft. But even then he allowed no hate towards the hunter who had wounded him to corrupt his mind, но и будучи животным он поступал так же. В то время, когда Бодхисатта был слоном по имени Чадданта ему попали в пупок отравленной стрелой. Но даже тогда он не позволил гневу на охотника, нанёсшего эту рану, осквернить свой ум.
Yathāha – according as it is said: Об это сказано:
"Samappito puthusallena nāgo, The elephant, when struck by the stout shaft, Слон, в которого попала толстая стрела,
Aduṭṭhacitto luddakaṃ ajjhabhāsi; Addressed the hunter with no hate in mind: обратился к охотнику без ненависти на сердце
Kimatthayaṃ kissa vā samma hetu, What is your aim? What is the reason why Какова твоя цель, какова причина
Mamaṃ vadhī kassa vāyaṃ payogo"ti. (jā. 1.16.124); You kill me thus? What can your purpose be? (J-a V 51). по которой ты меня убиваешь, каково твоё устремление?
Evaṃ vatvā ca kāsirañño mahesiyā tava dantānamatthāya pesitomhi bhadanteti vutte tassā manorathaṃ pūrento chabbaṇṇarasminiccharaṇasamujjalitacārusobhe attano dante chetvā adāsi. “And when the elephant had spoken thus and was told, ‘Sir, I have been sent by the king of Kāsi’s queen to get your tusks,’ in order to fulfil her wish he cut off his own tusks whose gorgeous radiance glittered with the flashes of the six- coloured rays and gave them to him. "И когда слон сказал это, ему было отвечено: "Господин, я был послан супругой касийского короля чтобы забрать твои бивни", и чтобы исполнить её желание слон отрезал собственные бивни, чьё великолепное сияние озаряли вспышки шести цветов, и отдал их ему.
Mahākapi hutvā attanāyeva pabbatapapātato uddharitena purisena – 31.“And when he was the Great Monkey, the man whom he had pulled out of a rocky chasm thought: 31. И когда он был Великой Обезьяной и человек, которого он вытащил из каменистой пропасти, подумал:
"Bhakkho ayaṃ manussānaṃ, yathevaññe vane migā; ‘Now, this is food for human kind Like other forest animals, "Что ж, это такая же пища для людей, как и другие лесные животные
Yaṃnūnimaṃ vadhitvāna, chāto khādeyya vānaraṃ. So why then should a hungry man Not kill the ape to eat? [I ask.] так почему же голодный человек не может убить обезьяну и съесть? [Я спрашиваю.]
"Āhitova gamissāmi, maṃsamādāya sambalaṃ; I’ll travel independently Taking his meat as a provision; Я буду путешествовать без помех, взяв его мясо в качестве провианта,
Kantāraṃ nittharissāmi, pātheyyaṃ me bhavissatī"ti. (jā. 1.16.205-206); – Thus I shall cross the waste, and that Will furnish my viaticum’ (J-a V 71). я пересеку пустыню и у меня будут запасы"
Evaṃ cintetvā silaṃ ukkhipitvā matthake sampadālite assupuṇṇehi nettehi taṃ purisaṃ udikkhamāno – Then he took up a stone and dashed it on his head. But the monkey looked at him with eyes full of tears and said: Затем он поднял камень и нанёс удар по его голове. Но самец обезьяны посмотрел на него глазами, полными слёз и сказал:
"Mā ayyosi me bhadante, tvaṃ nāmetādisaṃ kari; ‘Oh, act not so, good sir, or else That you would do to me today’ "О, господин, не делай так, таких как тот, ведь то, что ты хочешь сделать мне сегодня".
Tvaṃ khosi nāma dīghāvu, aññaṃ vāretumarahasī"ti. (jā. 1.16.209); – The fate you reap will long deter All others from such deeds as this (J-a V 71). в противном случае твоя судьба будет долго ограждать других от поступков,
Vatvā tasmiṃ purise cittaṃ appadūsetvā attano ca dukkhaṃ acintetvā tameva purisaṃ khemantabhūmiṃ sampāpesi. And with no hate in his mind and regardless of his own pain he saw to it that the man reached his journey’s end in safety. И без ненависти в сознании и несмотря на собственную боль он проследил, чтобы этот человек дошёл до конца пути в безопасности.
Bhūridatto nāma nāgarājā hutvā uposathaṅgāni adhiṭṭhāya vammikamuddhani sayamāno kappuṭṭhānaggisadisena osadhena sakalasarīre siñciyamānopi peḷāya pakkhipitvā sakalajambudīpe kīḷāpiyamānopi tasmiṃ brāhmaṇe manopadosamattampi na akāsi. 32.“And while he was the royal nāga (serpent) Bhūridatta, [304] when he had undertaken the Uposatha precepts and was lying on the top of a termite-mound, though he was [caught and] sprinkled with medicinal charms resembling the fire that ushers in the end of an aeon, and was put into a box and treated as a plaything throughout the whole of Jambudīpa, yet he had no trace of hate for that brahman, 32. И когда он был королевским нагой Бхуридаттой и соблюдал упосатху, лёжа на кургане-термитнике; хоть он и был [схвачен] и обрызган медицинскими жидкостями, обжигающими как пламя, вспыхивающее по окончании цикла вселенной и затем был помещён в ящик, где с ним обращались как с игрушкой, протащив через всю Джамбудипу, всё равно у него не было даже намека на ненависть по отношению к этому брахману.
Yathāha – according as it is said: Об этом сказано:
"Peḷāya pakkhipantepi, maddantepi ca pāṇinā; ‘While being put into the coffer And being crushed down with his hand, "Будучи помещён в ящик и ударяем рукой
Alampāne na kuppāmi, sīlakhaṇḍabhayā mamā"ti. (cariyā. 2.16); I had no hate for Ālambāna Lest I should break my precept vow’ (Cp 85). я не испытывал ненависти к Аламбане чтобы не нарушить правило нравственности."
Campeyyopināgarājā hutvā ahituṇḍikena viheṭhiyamāno manopadosamattampi nuppādesi. 33.“And when he was the royal nāga Campeyya he let no hate spring up in his mind while he was being cruelly treated by a snake charmer, 33. И во время его рождения королевским нагом Чампейей он не позволил злости возникнуть в уме, когда укротитель змей жестоко с ним обращался.
Yathāha – according as it is said: В связи с этим сказано:
"Tadāpi maṃ dhammacāriṃ, upavutthauposathaṃ; “While I was living in the Law Observing the Uposatha Пока я жил согласно Дхамме, соблюдая Упосатху
Ahituṇḍiko gahetvāna, rājadvāramhi kīḷati. A snake charmer took me away To play with at the royal gate. Укротитель змей забрал меня, чтобы играть со мной у королевских врат.
"Yaṃ so vaṇṇaṃ cintayati, nīlaṃ pītaṃ va lohitaṃ; Whatever hue he might conceive, Blue and yellow, and red as well, Какой бы цвет он не задумал - синий, жёлтый, также красный
Tassa cittānuvattanto, homi cintitasannibho. So in accordance with his thought I would become what he had wished; то согласно его замыслу я становился таким как он хотел
"Thalaṃ kareyyaṃ udakaṃ, udakampi thalaṃ kare; I would turn dry land into water, And water into land likewise. я превращал землю в воду и воду в землю
Yadihaṃ tassa kuppeyyaṃ, khaṇena chārikaṃ kare. Now, had I given way to wrath I could have seared him into ash, Если я поддался гневу, то стёр бы его в порошок
"Yadi cittavasī hessaṃ, parihāyissāmi sīlato; Had I relaxed mind-mastery I should have let my virtue lapse; Если бы ослабил власть над умом, моя нравственность была бы нарушена
Sīlena parihīnassa, uttamattho na sijjhatī"ti. (cariyā. 2.21-24); And one who lets his virtue lapse Cannot attain the highest goal” (Cp 85). А тот, кто позволяет себе нарушать принципы нравственности, не может достичь высшей цели."
Saṅkhapālanāgarājā hutvā tikhiṇāhi sattīhi aṭṭhasu ṭhānesu ovijjhitvā pahāramukhehi sakaṇṭakā latāyo pavesetvā nāsāya daḷhaṃ rajjuṃ pakkhipitvā soḷasahi bhojaputtehi kājenādāya vayhamāno dharaṇītale ghaṃsiyamānasarīro mahantaṃ dukkhaṃ paccanubhonto kujjhitvā olokitamatteneva sabbe bhojaputte bhasmaṃ kātuṃ samatthopi samāno cakkhuṃ ummīletvā paduṭṭhākāramattampi na akāsi. 34.“And when he was the royal nāga Saṅkhapāla, while he was being carried along on a carrying pole by the sixteen village boys after they had wounded him in eight places with sharp spears and inserted thorn creepers into the wounds’ orifices, and while, after threading a strong rope through his nose, they were causing him great agony by dragging him along bumping his body on the surface of the ground, though he was capable of turning those village boys to cinders with a mere glance, yet he did not even show the least trace of hate on opening his eyes, 34. И когда он был королевским нагой Санкхапалой и шестнадцать деревенских мальчишек намотали его на коромысло, после того как нанесли ему раны в восьми местах острыми копьями и воткнули в отверстия ран шипы колючей лианы, потом продели ему через нос крепкую веревку и подвергли его смертным мукам, потащив его, ударяя телом по земле; хотя он мог обратить этих деревенских мальчишек в золу одним взглядом, в глазах его не было и капли ненависти. №524, краткий пересказ тут http://www.theravada.su/node/1776
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Yathāha – according as it is said: Об этом сказано:
"Cātuddasiṃ pañcadasiñcaḷāra, ‘On the fourteenth and the fifteenth too, Āḷāra, "О Алара, в 14 и 15 день
Uposathaṃ niccamupāvasāmi; I regularly kept the Holy Day, я постоянно соблюдал Упосатху
Athāgamuṃ soḷasa bhojaputtā, Until there came those sixteen village boys Пока не пришли эти 16 деревенских мальчишек
Rajjuṃ gahetvāna daḷhañca pāsaṃ. Bearing a rope and a stout spear as well. Неся верёвку и толстое копьё
"Bhetvāna nāsaṃ atikassa rajjuṃ, The hunters cleft my nose, and through the slit Охотники пробили мне нос и через щель
Nayiṃsu maṃ samparigayha luddā; They passed a rope and dragged me off like that. Они протянули верёвку и так потащили меня
Etādisaṃ dukkhamahaṃ titikkhaṃ, But though I felt such poignant agony, Хотя я терпел столь сильную боль
Uposathaṃ appaṭikopayanto"ti. (jā. 2.17.180-181); I let no hate disturb my Holy Day” (J-a V 172). [305] Я не нарушил день Упосатхи."
Na kevalañca etāneva, aññānipi mātuposakajātakādīsu anekāni acchariyāni akāsi. 35.“And he performed not only these wonders but also many others too such as those told in the Mātuposaka Birth Story (J-a IV 90). 35. И он являл не только эти чудеса, но и множество других, как это рассказано в Матупосака джатаке. http://www.theravada.su/node/1001
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Tassa te idāni sabbaññutaṃ pattaṃ sadevaloke kenaci appaṭisamakhantiguṇaṃ taṃ bhagavantaṃ satthāraṃ apadisato paṭighacittaṃ nāma uppādetuṃ ativiya ayuttaṃ appatirūpanti. Now, it is in the highest degree improper and unbecoming to you to arouse thoughts of resentment, since you are emulating as your Master that Blessed One who reached omniscience and who has in the special quality of patience no equal in the world with its deities. ” Итак, в высшей степени недостойно и неподходяще для тебя взращивать неприязненные мысли, ведь ты подражаешь Учителю, Благословенному, всеведущему, имеющему непревзойдённое качество терпения, равному которому нет в этом мире с его божествами".
248.Sace panassa evaṃ satthu pubbacaritaguṇaṃ paccavekkhatopi dīgharattaṃ kilesānaṃ dāsabyaṃ upagatassa neva taṃ paṭighaṃ vūpasammati, athānena anamataggiyāni paccavekkhitabbāni. 36.But if, as he reviews the special qualities of the Master’s former conduct, the resentment still does not subside in him, since he has long been used to the slavery of defilement, then he should review the suttas that deal with the beginninglessness [of the round of rebirths]. 36. Однако если и при воспоминании благих качеств, продемонстрированных Учителем в прошлом, неприязнь не утихает в нём, поскольку он долго был рабом своих загрязнений ума, то ему следует вспомнить сутты, в которых говорится о безначальности сансары [круг перерождений].
Tatra hi vuttaṃ – Here is what is said: Вот что об этом сказано:
"Na so, bhikkhave, satto sulabharūpo, yo na mātābhūtapubbo, yo na pitābhūtapubbo, yo na bhātā, yo na bhaginī, yo na putto, yo na dhītābhūtapubbā"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.137-142). “Bhikkhus, it is not easy to find a being who has not formerly been your mother … your father … your brother … your sister … your son … your daughter” (S II 189–90). "Монахи, непросто найти существо, которое не было в прошлом вашей матерью, вашим отцом, вашим братом, вашей сестрой, вашим сыном, вашей дочерью".
Tasmā tasmiṃ puggale evaṃ cittaṃ uppādetabbaṃ, "ayaṃ kira me atīte mātā hutvā dasamāse kucchiyā pariharitvā muttakarīsakheḷasiṅghāṇikādīni haricandanaṃ viya ajigucchamānā apanetvā ure naccāpentī aṅgena pariharamānā posesi, pitā hutvā ajapathasaṅkupathādīni gantvā vāṇijjaṃ payojayamāno mayhamatthāya jīvitampi pariccajitvā ubhatobyūḷhe saṅgāme pavisitvā nāvāya mahāsamuddaṃ pakkhanditvā aññāni ca dukkarāni karitvā 'puttake posessāmī'ti tehi tehi upāyehi dhanaṃ saṃharitvā maṃ posesi. Consequently he should think about that person thus: “This person, it seems, as my mother in the past carried me in her womb for ten months and removed from me without disgust, as if it were yellow sandalwood, my urine, excrement, spittle, snot, etc., and played with me in her lap, and nourished me, carrying me about on her hip. And this person as my father went by goat paths and paths set on piles,5 etc., to pursue the trade of merchant, and he risked his life for me by going into battle in double array, by sailing on the great ocean in ships and doing other difficult things, and he nourished me by bringing back wealth by one means or another thinking to feed his children. Следовательно ему надо думать об этом человеке так: "Этот человек, вполне возможно, в прошлом был моей матерью, которая носила меня десять месяцев в утробе и выпустила меня в мир без отвращения, как если бы моя моча, кал, слюни, сопли и тому подобное были жёлтым сандаловым деревом; играла со мной, усадив на колени, заботилась обо мне, носила на закорках. И этот человек был моим отцом, ходил козьими тропами из корней и камней, будучи купцом рисковал жизнью ради меня, идя на битву в двойной шеренге, плывя по океану на кораблях и делая другие непростые вещи, и он ухаживал за мной, принося благосостояние в дом, постоянно думая о том, как прокормить своих детей. Comm. NT: 5. Saṅku-patha—“set on piles”: Vism-mhṭ (p. 294) says: “Saṅku laggāpetvā te ālambhitvā gamanamaggo saṅkupatho.” This disagrees with PED for ...
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Bhātā, bhaginī, putto, dhītā ca hutvāpi idañcidañcupakāraṃ akāsīti tatra me nappatirūpaṃ manaṃ padūsetu"nti. And as my brother, sister, son, daughter, this person gave me such and such help. So it is unbecoming for me to harbour hate for him in my mind. ” И будучи моим братом, сестрой, сыном, дочерью этот человек оказывал мне всяческую помощь. Так что не пристало мне держать на него зло".
249.Sace pana evampi cittaṃ nibbāpetuṃ na sakkotiyeva, athānena evaṃ mettānisaṃsā paccavekkhitabbā – "ambho pabbajita, nanu vuttaṃ bhagavatā – 37.But if he is still unable to quench that thought in this way, then he should review the advantages of loving-kindness thus: “Now, you who have gone forth into homelessness, has it not been said by the Blessed One as follows: 37. Но если он всё ещё неспособен утихомирить свои мысли подобным образом, тогда ему следует вспомнить о преимуществах дружелюбия так: "Ты, оставивший мирскую жизнь, разве не было Благословенным сказано следующее:
'Mettāya kho, bhikkhave, cetovimuttiyā āsevitāya bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya ekādasānisaṃsā pāṭikaṅkhā. ‘Bhikkhus, when the mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is cultivated, developed, much practiced, made the vehicle, made the foundation, established, consolidated, and properly undertaken, eleven blessings can be expected. "Монахи, когда освобождение разума путём дружелюбия развивается, совершенствуется, много практикуется, делается средством, делается основой, устанавливается, собирается и надлежащим образом предпринимается, можно ожидать одиннадцати преимуществ.
Katame ekādasa? What are the eleven? Какие одиннадцать?
Sukhaṃ supati, sukhaṃ paṭibujjhati, na pāpakaṃ supinaṃ passati, manussānaṃ piyo hoti, amanussānaṃ piyo hoti, devatā rakkhanti, nāssa aggi vā visaṃ vā satthaṃ vā kamati, tuvaṭaṃ cittaṃ samādhiyati, mukhavaṇṇo pasīdati, asammūḷho kālaṅkaroti, uttarimappaṭivijjhanto brahmalokūpago hotī'ti (a. ni. 11.15). A man sleeps in comfort, wakes in comfort, and dreams no evil dreams, he is dear to human beings, he is dear to non-human beings, deities guard him, fire and poison and weapons do not affect him, his mind is easily concentrated, the expression of his face is serene, he dies unconfused, if he penetrates no higher he will be reborn in the Brahmā-world’ (A V 342). Человек хорошо спит и с удовольствием просыпается, его не мучают кошмары, он приятен человеческим существам, он приятен нечеловеческим существам, божества охраняют его, огонь, яд и любые виды оружия не причиняют ему вреда, его ум сосредоточен, выражение лица спокойное, он умирает без страха, если он не достигнет большего, то переродится в мире Брахмы".
"Sace tvaṃ idaṃ cittaṃ na nibbāpessasi, imehi ānisaṃsehi paribāhiro bhavissasī"ti. [306] If you do not stop this thought, you will be denied these advantages. ” Если ты не прекратишь эти мысли, то лишишься этих преимуществ.
250.Evampi nibbāpetuṃ asakkontena pana dhātuvinibbhogo kātabbo. 38.But if he is still unable to stop it in this way, he should try resolution into elements. 38. Но если человек всё ещё не в состоянии прекратить их подобным путём, ему следует попробовать разложение по элементам.
Kathaṃ? How? Как?
"Ambho pabbajita, tvaṃ etassa kujjhamāno kassa kujjhasi? “Now, you who have gone forth into homelessness, when you are angry with him, what is it you are angry with? "Ты, оставивший мирскую жизнь, когда ты злишься на него, на что именно ты злишься?
Kiṃ kesānaṃ kujjhasi, udāhu lomānaṃ, nakhānaṃ - pe - muttassa kujjhasi? Is it head hairs you are angry with? Or body hairs? Or nails? … Or is it urine you are angry with? Ты злишься на его волосы на голове? Или на волосы на теле? Или ногти?... Или его моча является тем, на что ты злишься?
Atha vā pana kesādīsu pathavīdhātuyā kujjhasi, āpodhātuyā, tejodhātuyā, vāyodhātuyā kujjhasi? Or alternatively, is it the earth element in the head hairs, etc., you are angry with? Or the water element? Or the fire element? Or is it the air element you are angry with? Или же ты злишься на элемент твёрдости ("земля") в его волосах и т.д.? Или элемент жидкости ("вода")? Или элемент тепла ("огонь")? Или ты рассердился на элемент вибрации ("воздух")?
Ye vā pañcakkhandhe dvādasāyatanāni aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo upādāya ayamāyasmā itthannāmoti vuccati, tesu kiṃ rūpakkhandhassa kujjhasi, udāhu vedanā saññā saṅkhāraviññāṇakkhandhassa kujjhasi? Or among the five aggregates or the twelve bases or the eighteen elements with respect to which this venerable one is called by such and such a name, which then, is it the materiality aggregate you are angry with? Or the feeling aggregate, the perception aggregate, the formations aggregate, the consciousness aggregate you are angry with? Из пяти совокупностей, или двенадцати сфер, или восемнадцати элементов в соответствии с которыми этот достопочтенный зовётся таким-то именем, на какую именно из его совокупностей ты разозлился: на совокупность тел, ощущений, распознаваний, умственных конструкций, сознания?
Kiṃ vā cakkhāyatanassa kujjhasi, kiṃ rūpāyatanassa kujjhasi - pe - kiṃ manāyatanassa kujjhasi, kiṃ dhammāyatanassa kujjhasi? Or is it the eye base you are angry with? Or the visible-object base you are angry with? … Or the mind base you are angry with? Or the mental-object base you are angry with? Или же ты разозлился на сферу зрения? Или на сферу зрительных образов?... Или вы разозлились на сферу рассудка? Или на сферу абстрактных понятий?
Kiṃ vā cakkhudhātuyā kujjhasi, kiṃ rūpadhātuyā, kiṃ cakkhuviññāṇadhātuyā - pe - kiṃ manodhātuyā, kiṃ dhammadhātuyā, kiṃ manoviññāṇadhātuyā"ti? Or is it the eye element you are angry with? Or the visible-object element? Or the eye-consciousness element? … Or the mind element? Or the mental-object element? Or the mind-consciousness element you are angry with?” Или на элемент глаза? Или на элемент зрительных образов? Или на элемент сознания глаза? ... Или ты разозлился на элемент рассудка? Или на элемент абстрактных понятий? Или ты разозлился на элемент сознания рассудка?"
Evañhi dhātuvinibbhogaṃ karoto āragge sāsapassa viya ākāse cittakammassa viya ca kodhassa patiṭṭhānaṭṭhānaṃ na hoti. For when he tries the resolution into elements, his anger finds no foothold, like a mustard seed on the point of an awl or a painting on the air. Ведь когда практикующий прибегает к разложению по элементам, гнев не находит точку опоры, как не находит опоры горчичное зерно на кончике шила или картина, нарисованная в воздухе. В Дхп в последней главе yassa raago ca doso ca...
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251.Dhātuvinibbhogaṃ pana kātuṃ asakkontena dānasaṃvibhāgo kātabbo. 39.But if he cannot effect the resolution into elements, he should try the giving of a gift. 39. Но если разложение на элементы не удаётся, ему следует попытаться преподнести подарок.
Attano santakaṃ parassa dātabbaṃ, parassa santakaṃ attanā gahetabbaṃ. It can either be given by himself to the other or accepted by himself from the other. Он может быть либо дан им самим другому, либо принят им самим от другого.
Sace pana paro bhinnājīvo hoti aparibhogārahaparikkhāro, attano santakameva dātabbaṃ. But if the other’s livelihood is not purified and his requisites are not proper to be used, it should be given by oneself. Но если образ жизни другого не очищен и то, что принадлежит ему нельзя использовать, тогда подарок следует дать самому.
Tassevaṃ karoto ekanteneva tasmiṃ puggale āghāto vūpasammati. And in the one who does this the annoyance with that person entirely subsides. И у того кто это сделает раздражение полностью утихнет.
Itarassa ca atītajātito paṭṭhāya anubandhopi kodho taṅkhaṇaññeva vūpasammati, cittalapabbatavihāre tikkhattuṃ vuṭṭhāpitasenāsanena piṇḍapātikattherena "ayaṃ, bhante, aṭṭhakahāpaṇagghanako patto mama mātarā upāsikāya dinno dhammiyalābho, mahāupāsikāya puññalābhaṃ karothā"ti vatvā dinnaṃ pattaṃ laddhamahātherassa viya. And in the other even anger that has been dogging him from a past birth subsides at the moment, as happened to the senior elder who received a bowl given to him at the Cittalapabbata Monastery by an almsfood-eater elder who had been three times made to move from his lodging by him, and who presented it with these words: “Venerable sir, this bowl worth eight ducats was given me by my mother who is a lay devotee, and it is rightly obtained; let the good lay devotee acquire merit.” В этот самый момент и у другого злоба утихнет, даже если она преследовала его ещё с прошлых жизней, как это случилось со старейшиной, который получил сосуд для подаяния, данный ему в монастыре Читталапаббата питавшимся подаянием старейшиной, которого он три раза выгонял из жилища. Этот старейшина подарил сосуд со словами: "Достопочтенный, этот сосуд стоит восемь кахапан, он был подарен мне моей матерью-буддисткой, он получен надлежащим способом и пусть эта пожилая (или великая) мирянка получит заслуги".
Evaṃ mahānubhāvametaṃ dānaṃ nāma. So efficacious is this act of giving. Такова сила дарения.
Vuttampi cetaṃ – And this is said: Об этом сказано:
"Adantadamanaṃ dānaṃ, dānaṃ sabbatthasādhakaṃ; A gift for taming the untamed, A gift for every kind of good; "Подарок для укрощения некротких, подарок ради всего хорошего,
Dānena piyavācāya, unnamanti namanti cā"ti. Through giving gifts they do unbend And condescend to kindly speech. Через дарение они распрямляются и склоняются к доброй речи".
252.Tassevaṃ verīpuggale vūpasantapaṭighassa yathā piyātippiyasahāyakamajjhattesu, evaṃ tasmimpi mettāvasena cittaṃ pavattati. 40. When his resentment towards that hostile person has been thus allayed, then he can turn his mind with loving-kindness towards that person too, just as towards the one who is dear, the very dear friend, and the neutral person.
Athānena punappunaṃ mettāyantena attani piyapuggale majjhatte verīpuggaleti catūsu janesu samacittataṃ sampādentena sīmāsambhedo kātabbo. Then he should break down the barriers by practicing loving-kindness over and over again, accomplishing mental impartiality towards the four persons, that is to say, himself, the dear person, the neutral person and the hostile person.
Tassidaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ, sace imasmiṃ puggale piyamajjhattaverīhi saddhiṃ attacatutthe ekasmiṃ padese nisinne corā āgantvā "bhante, ekaṃ bhikkhuṃ amhākaṃ dethā"ti vatvā "kiṃ kāraṇā"ti vutte "taṃ māretvā galalohitaṃ gahetvā balikaraṇatthāyā"ti vadeyyuṃ, tatra ceso bhikkhu "asukaṃ vā asukaṃ vā gaṇhantū"ti cinteyya, akatova hoti sīmāsambhedo. 41.The characteristic of it is this. Suppose this person is sitting in a place with a dear, a neutral, and a hostile person, himself being the fourth; then bandits come to him and say, “Venerable sir, give us a bhikkhu,” and on being asked why, they answer, “So that we may kill him and use the blood of his throat as an offering;” then if that bhikkhu thinks, “Let them take this one, or this one,” he has not broken down the barriers.
Sacepi "maṃ gaṇhantu, mā ime tayo"tipi cinteyya, akatova hoti sīmāsambhedo. And also if he thinks, “Let them take me but not these three,” he has not broken down the barriers either.
Kasmā? Why?
Yassa yassa hi gahaṇamicchati, tassa tassa ahitesī hoti, itaresaṃyeva hitesī hoti. Because he seeks the harm of him whom he wishes to be taken and seeks the welfare of the other only.
Yadā pana catunnaṃ janānamantare ekampi corānaṃ dātabbaṃ na passati, attani ca tesu ca tīsu janesu samameva cittaṃ pavatteti, kato hoti sīmāsambhedo. But it is when he does not see a single one among the four people to be given to the bandits and he directs his mind impartially towards himself and towards those three people that he has broken down the barriers.
Tenāhu porāṇā – Hence the Ancients said:
"Attani hitamajjhatte, ahite ca catubbidhe; 42. The four, that is himself, the dear, The neutral, and the hostile one,
Yadā passati nānattaṃ, hitacittova pāṇinaṃ. When he discriminates between (them). But only “kindly towards beings.”
"Na nikāmalābhī mettāya, kusalīti pavuccati; Then “skilled” is not the name he gets, Nor “having amity at will”.
Yadā catasso sīmāyo, sambhinnā honti bhikkhuno. Now, when a bhikkhu’s barriers Have all the four been broken down,
"Samaṃ pharati mettāya, sabbalokaṃ sadevakaṃ; He treats with equal amity The whole world with its deities;
Mahāviseso purimena, yassa sīmā na ñāyatī"ti. Far more distinguished than the first Is he who knows no barriers.
253.Evaṃ sīmāsambhedasamakālameva ca iminā bhikkhunā nimittañca upacārañca laddhaṃ hoti. 43. Thus the sign and access are obtained by this bhikkhu simultaneously with the breaking down of the barriers.
Sīmāsambhede pana kate tameva nimittaṃ āsevanto bhāvento bahulīkaronto appakasireneva pathavīkasiṇe vuttanayeneva appanaṃ pāpuṇāti. But when breaking down of the barriers has been effected, he reaches absorption in the way described under the earth kasiṇa without trouble by cultivating, developing, and repeatedly practicing that same sign.
Ettāvatānena adhigataṃ hoti pañcaṅgavippahīnaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ paṭhamajjhānaṃ mettāsahagataṃ. At this point he has attained the first jhāna, which abandons five factors, possesses five factors, is good in three ways, is endowed with ten characteristics, and is accompanied by loving-kindness.
Adhigate ca tasmiṃ tadeva nimittaṃ āsevanto bhāvento bahulīkaronto anupubbena catukkanaye dutiyatatiyajjhānāni, pañcakanaye dutiyatatiyacatutthajjhānāni ca pāpuṇāti. And when that has been obtained, then by cultivating, developing, and repeatedly practicing that same sign, he successively reaches the second and third jhānas in the fourfold system, and the second, third and fourth in the fivefold system. [308]
So hi paṭhamajjhānādīnaṃ aññataravasena mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati. 44.Now, it is by means of one of these jhānas beginning with the first that he “Dwells pervading (intent upon) one direction with his heart endued with loving- kindness,
Tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. likewise the second direction, likewise the third direction, likewise the fourth direction,
Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjena pharitvā viharati (vibha. 642; dī. ni. 1.556). and so above, below, and around; everywhere and equally he dwells pervading the entire world with his heart endued with loving- kindness, abundant, exalted, measureless, free from enmity, and free from affliction” (Vibh 272; D I 250).
Paṭhamajjhānādivasena appanāppattacittasseva hi ayaṃ vikubbanā sampajjati. For this versatility comes about only in one whose consciousness has reached absorption in the first jhāna and the rest.
254.Ettha ca mettāsahagatenāti mettāya samannāgatena. 45. And here endued with loving-kindness means possessing loving-kindness.
Cetasāti cittena. With his heart (cetasā): with his mind (cittena).
Ekaṃ disanti ekamekissā disāya paṭhamapariggahitaṃ sattaṃ upādāya ekadisāpariyāpannasattapharaṇavasena vuttaṃ. One direction: this refers to anyone direction in which a being is first discerned and means pervasion of the beings included in that one direction.
Pharitvāti phusitvā ārammaṇaṃ katvā. Pervading: touching, making his object.
Viharatīti brahmavihārādhiṭṭhitaṃ iriyāpathavihāraṃ pavatteti. He dwells (viharati): he causes the occurrence of an abiding (vihāra—dwelling or continuation) in postures that is devoted to the divine abidings (see IV.103).
Tathā dutiyanti yathā puratthimādīsu disāsu yaṃkiñci ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tatheva tadanantaraṃ dutiyaṃ tatiyaṃ catutthañcāti attho. Likewise the second: just as he dwells pervading anyone direction among those beginning with the eastern one, so he does with the next one, and the third and the fourth, is the meaning.
Iti uddhanti eteneva nayena uparimaṃ disanti vuttaṃ hoti. 46. So above: in that same way in the upper direction is what is meant.
Adho tiriyanti adhodisampi tiriyaṃdisampi evameva. Below, around: so too the lower direction and the direction all round.
Tattha ca adhoti heṭṭhā. Herein, below is underneath,
Tiriyanti anudisāsu. and around is in the intermediate directions.
Evaṃ sabbadisāsu assamaṇḍale assamiva mettāsahagataṃ cittaṃ sāretipi paccāsāretipīti. So he sends his heart full of loving-kindness back and forth in all directions like a horse in a circus ground.
Ettāvatā ekaṃ disaṃ pariggahetvā odhiso mettāpharaṇaṃ dassitaṃ. Up to this point specified pervasion with loving-kindness is shown in the discernment of each direction separately.
Sabbadhītiādi pana anodhiso dassanatthaṃ vuttaṃ. 47.Everywhere, etc., is said for the purpose of showing unspecified pervasion.
Tattha sabbadhīti sabbattha. Herein, everywhere means in all places.
Sabbattatāyāti sabbesu hīnamajjhimukkaṭṭhamittasapattamajjhattādippabhedesu attatāya. Equally (sabbattatāya): to all classed as inferior, medium, superior, friendly, hostile, neutral, etc., just as to oneself (attatā);
"Ayaṃ parasatto"ti vibhāgaṃ akatvā attasamatāyāti vuttaṃ hoti. equality with oneself (atta-samatā) without making the distinction, “This is another being,” is what is meant.
Atha vā sabbattatāyāti sabbena cittabhāgena īsakampi bahi avikkhipamānoti vuttaṃ hoti. Or alternatively, equally (sabbattatāya) is with the whole state of the mind; not reserving even a little, is what is meant.
Sabbāvantanti sabbasattavantaṃ, sabbasattayuttanti attho. Entire (sabbāvant): possessing all beings (sabbasattavant); associated with all beings, is the meaning.
Lokanti sattalokaṃ. World is the world of beings.
Vipulenātievamādipariyāyadassanato panettha puna mettāsahagatenāti vuttaṃ. 48. Endued with loving-kindness is said again here in order to introduce the synonyms beginning with abundant.
Yasmā vā ettha odhiso pharaṇe viya puna tathāsaddo itisaddo vā na vutto, tasmā puna mettāsahagatena cetasāti vuttaṃ. Or alternatively, endued with loving-kindness is repeated because the word likewise or the word so is not repeated here as it was in the case of the [preceding] specified pervasion.
Nigamavasena vā etaṃ vuttaṃ. Or alternatively, it is said as a way of concluding.
Vipulenāti ettha ca pharaṇavasena vipulatā daṭṭhabbā. And abundant should be regarded here as abundance in pervading.
Bhūmivasena pana etaṃ mahaggataṃ paguṇavasena ca appamāṇasattārammaṇavasena ca appamāṇaṃ, byāpādapaccatthikappahānena averaṃ, domanassappahānato abyāpajjaṃ, niddukkhanti vuttaṃ hoti. But it is exalted in plane [from the sensual-sphere plane to the fine- material-sphere plane], measureless through familiarity and through having measureless beings as its object, free from enmity through abandonment of ill will and hostility, and free from affliction through abandonment of grief; without suffering, is what is meant.
Ayaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasātiādinā nayena vuttāya vikubbanāya attho. This is the meaning of the versatility described in the way beginning, “With his heart endued with loving-kindness.”
255.Yathā cāyaṃ appanāppattacittasseva vikubbanā sampajjati, tathā yampi paṭisambhidāyaṃ (paṭi. ma. 2.22) "pañcahākārehi anodhisopharaṇā mettācetovimutti, sattahākārehi odhisopharaṇā mettā cetovimutti, dasahākārehi disāpharaṇā mettā cetovimuttī"ti vuttaṃ, tampi appanāppattacittasseva sampajjatīti veditabbaṃ. 49.And just as this versatility is successful only in one whose mind has reached absorption, so too that described in the Paṭisambhidā should be understood to be successful only in one whose mind has reached absorption, that is to say: “The mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with unspecified pervasion in five ways. The mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with specified pervasion in seven ways. The mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with directional pervasion in ten ways” (Paṭis II 130).
Tattha ca sabbe sattā averā abyāpajjā anīghā sukhī attānaṃ pariharantu, sabbe pāṇā, sabbe bhūtā, sabbe puggalā, sabbe attabhāvapariyāpannā averā - pe - pariharantūti imehi pañcahākārehi anodhisopharaṇā mettā cetovimutti veditabbā. 50. And herein, the mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with unspecified pervasion in these five ways: “May all beings be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, and live happily. May all breathing things … all creatures … all persons … all those who have a personality be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, and live happily” (Paṭis II 130).
Sabbā itthiyo averā - pe - attānaṃ pariharantu, sabbe purisā, sabbe ariyā, sabbe anariyā, sabbe devā, sabbe manussā, sabbe vinipātikā averā - pe - pariharantūti imehi sattahākārehi odhisopharaṇā mettā cetovimutti veditabbā. 51. The mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with specified pervasion in these seven ways: “May all women be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety and live happily. May all men … all Noble Ones … all not Noble Ones … all deities … all human beings … all in states of loss be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, and live happily” (Paṭis II 131).
Sabbe puratthimāya disāya sattā averā - pe - attānaṃ pariharantu. 52. “May all beings in the eastern direction be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, and live happily.
Sabbe pacchimāya disāya, sabbe uttarāya disāya, sabbe dakkhiṇāya disāya, sabbe puratthimāya anudisāya, sabbe pacchimāya anudisāya, sabbe uttarāya anudisāya, sabbe dakkhiṇāya anudisāya, sabbe heṭṭhimāya disāya, sabbe uparimāya disāya sattā averā - pe - pariharantu. May all beings in the western direction … northern direction … southern direction [310] … eastern intermediate direction … western intermediate direction … northern intermediate direction … southern intermediate direction … downward direction … upward direction be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, and live happily.
Sabbe puratthimāya disāya pāṇā, bhūtā, puggalā, attabhāvapariyāpannā, averā - pe - pariharantu. May all breathing things in the eastern direction … May all creatures in the eastern direction … May all persons in the eastern direction … May all who have a personality in the eastern direction … [etc.] … in the upward direction be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, and live happily.
Sabbā puratthimāya disāya itthiyo, sabbe purisā, ariyā, anariyā, devā, manussā, vinipātikā averā - pe - pariharantu. May all women in the eastern direction … May all men in the eastern direction … May all Noble Ones in the eastern direction … May all not Noble Ones in the eastern direction … May all deities in the eastern direction … May all human beings in the eastern direction … May all those in states of loss in the eastern direction … [etc.] … be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, and live happily” (Paṭis II 131).
Sabbā pacchimāya disāya, uttarāya, dakkhiṇāya, puratthimāya anudisāya, pacchimāya, uttarāya, dakkhiṇāya anudisāya, heṭṭhimāya disāya, uparimāya disāya itthiyo - pe - vinipātikā averā abyāpajjā anīghā sukhī attānaṃ pariharantūti imehi dasahākārehi disāpharaṇā mettā cetovimutti veditabbā. The mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with directional pervasion in these ten ways (above).
256.Tattha sabbeti anavasesapariyādānametaṃ. 53. Herein, all signifies inclusion without exception.
Sattāti rūpādīsu khandhesu chandarāgena sattā visattāti sattā. Beings (satta): they are held (satta), gripped (visatta) by desire and greed for the aggregates beginning with materiality, thus they are beings (satta).
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā – For this is said by the Blessed One:
"Rūpe kho, rādha, yo chando yo rāgo yā nandī yā taṇhā, tatra satto, tatra visatto, tasmā sattoti vuccati… vedanāya… saññāya… saṅkhāresu… viññāṇe yo chando yo rāgo yā nandī yā taṇhā, tatra satto, tatra visatto, tasmā sattoti vuccatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 3.161). “Any desire for matter, Rādha, any greed for it, any delight in it, any craving for it, has held (satta) it, has gripped (visatta) it, that is why ‘a being’ (satta) is said” (S III 190).
Ruḷhīsaddena pana vītarāgesupi ayaṃ vohāro vattatiyeva, vilīvamayepi bījanivisese tālavaṇṭavohāro viya. But in ordinary speech this term of common usage is applied also to those who are without greed, just as the term of common usage “palm fan” (tālavaṇṭa) is used for different sorts of fans [in general] even if made of split bamboo.
Akkharacintakā pana atthaṃ avicāretvā nāmamattametanti icchanti. However, [in the world] etymologists (akkhara-cintaka) who do not consider meaning have it that it is a mere name,
Yepi atthaṃ vicārenti, te satvayogena sattāti icchanti. while those who do consider meaning have it that a “being” (satta) is so called with reference to the “bright principle” (satta).6 Comm. NT: 6. Satta—“the bright principle”: Skr. sattva; one of the three principles in the Sāṅkhya system, the other two being rajas (Pali: rajo) or t...
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Pāṇanatāya pāṇā, assāsapassāsāyattavuttitāyāti attho. 54.Breathing things (pāṇa): so called because of their state of breathing (pāṇanatā); the meaning is, because their existence depends on in-breaths and out-breaths.
Bhūtattā bhūtā, saṃbhūtattā abhinibbattattāti attho. Creatures (bhūta): so called because of being (bhūtatta = becomeness); the meaning is, because of their being fully become (sambhūtatta), because of their being generated (abhinibbattatta).
Punti vuccati nirayo. “puṃ” is what hell is called;
Tasmiṃ galantīti puggalā, gacchantīti attho. they fall (galanti) into that, is the meaning of persons (puggala).
Attabhāvo vuccati sarīraṃ. Personality (attabhāva) is what the physical body is called;
Khandhapañcakameva vā, tamupādāya paññattimattasambhavato. or it is just the pentad of aggregates, since it is actually only a concept derived from that pentad of aggregates7 Comm. NT: 7.
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Tasmiṃ attabhāve pariyāpannāti attabhāvapariyāpannā. [What is referred to is] included (pariyāpanna) in that personality, thus it “has a personality” (attabhāva- pariyāpanna).
Pariyāpannāti paricchinnā, antogadhāti attho. “Included in” is delimited by; “gone into” is the meaning.
Yathā ca sattāti vacanaṃ, evaṃ sesānipi ruḷhīvasena āropetvā sabbānetāni sabbasattavevacanānīti veditabbāni. 55.And all the remaining [terms] should be understood as synonyms for “all beings” used in accordance with ordinary speech as in the case of the term “beings.”
Kāmañca aññānipi sabbe jantū sabbe jīvātiādīni sabbasattavevacanāni atthi, pākaṭavasena pana imāneva pañca gahetvā "pañcahākārehi anodhisopharaṇā mettā cetovimuttī"ti vuttaṃ. Of course, [311] there are other synonyms too for all “beings,” such as all “folks,” all “souls,” etc.; still it is for clarity’s sake that “The mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is [practiced] with unspecified pervasion in five ways” is said and that only these five are mentioned.
Ye pana sattā pāṇātiādīnaṃ na kevalaṃ vacanamattatova, atha kho atthatopi nānattameva iccheyyuṃ, tesaṃ anodhisopharaṇā virujjhati, tasmā tathā atthaṃ agahetvā imesu pañcasu ākāresu aññataravasena anodhiso mettā pharitabbā. 56. Those who would have it that there is not only a mere verbal difference between “beings,” “breathing things,” etc., but also an actual difference in meaning, are contradicted by the mention of unspecified pervasion. So instead of taking the meaning in that way, the unspecified pervasion with loving- kindness is done in any one of these five ways.
257.Ettha ca sabbe sattā averā hontūti ayamekā appanā. And here, may all beings be free from enmity is one absorption;
Abyāpajjā hontūti ayamekā appanā. free from affliction is one absorption—
Abyāpajjāti byāpādarahitā. free from affliction (abyābajjha) is free from afflictedness (byābādha-rahita);8
Anīghā hontūti ayamekā appanā. free from anxiety is one absorption—
Anīghāti niddukkhā. free from anxiety is free from suffering;
Sukhī attānaṃ pariharantūti ayamekā appanā. may they live happily is one absorption.
Tasmā imesupi padesu yaṃ yaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti, tassa tassa vasena mettā pharitabbā. Consequently he should do his pervading with loving-kindness according to whichever of these phrases is clear to him.
Iti pañcasu ākāresu catunnaṃ appanānaṃ vasena anodhisopharaṇe vīsati appanā honti. So with the four kinds of absorption in each of the five ways, there are twenty kinds of absorption in unspecified pervasion.
Odhisopharaṇe pana sattasu ākāresu catunnaṃ vasena aṭṭhavīsati. 57. In specified pervasion, with the four kinds of absorption in each of the seven ways, there are twenty-eight kinds of absorption.
Ettha ca itthiyo purisāti liṅgavasena vuttaṃ. And here “woman” and “man” are stated according to sex;
Ariyā anariyāti ariyaputhujjanavasena. “Noble Ones” and “not Noble Ones” according to Noble Ones and ordinary people;
Devā manussā vinipātikāti upapattivasena. “deities” and “human beings” and “those in states of loss” according to the kind of rebirth.
Disāpharaṇe pana sabbe puratthimāya disāya sattātiādinā nayena ekamekissā disāya vīsati vīsati katvā dvesatāni, sabbā puratthimāya disāya itthiyotiādinā nayena ekamekissā disāya aṭṭhavīsati aṭṭhavīsati katvā asīti dvesatānīti cattāri satāni asīti ca appanā. 58. In directional pervasion, with twenty kinds of absorption in each of the directions beginning with “all beings in the eastern direction,” there are two hundred kinds of absorption; and with twenty-eight kinds in each of the directions beginning with “all women in the eastern direction” there are two hundred and eighty kinds; so these make four hundred and eighty kinds of absorption.
Iti sabbānipi paṭisambhidāyaṃ vuttāni aṭṭhavīsādhikāni pañca appanāsatānīti. Consequently all the kinds of absorption mentioned in the Paṭisambhidā amount to five hundred and twenty-eight.
Iti etāsu appanāsu yassa kassaci vasena mettaṃ cetovimuttiṃ bhāvetvā ayaṃ yogāvacaro "sukhaṃ supatī"tiādinā nayena vutte ekādasānisaṃse paṭilabhati. 59.So when this meditator develops the mind-deliverance of loving-kindness through any one of these kinds of absorption, he obtains the eleven advantages described in the way beginning, “A man sleeps in comfort” (§37).
258.Tattha sukhaṃ supatīti yathā sesā janā samparivattamānā kākacchamānā dukkhaṃ supanti, evaṃ asupitvā sukhaṃ supati. 60. Herein, sleeps in comfort means that instead of sleeping uncomfortably, turning over and snoring as other people do, he sleeps comfortably,
Niddaṃ okkantopi samāpattiṃ samāpanno viya hoti. he falls asleep as though entering upon an attainment.
Sukhaṃ paṭibujjhatīti yathā aññe nitthunantā vijambhantā samparivattantā dukkhaṃ paṭibujjhanti, evaṃ appaṭibujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukhaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati. 61. He wakes in comfort: instead of waking uncomfortably, groaning and yawning and turning over as others do, he wakes comfortably without contortions, like a lotus opening. [312]
Napāpakaṃ supinaṃ passatīti supinaṃ passantopi bhaddakameva supinaṃ passati, cetiyaṃ vandanto viya pūjaṃ karonto viya dhammaṃ suṇanto viya ca hoti. 62. He dreams no evil dreams: when he sees dreams, he sees only auspicious ones, as though he were worshipping a shrine, as though he were making an offering, as though he were hearing the Dhamma.
Yathā pana aññe attānaṃ corehi samparivāritaṃ viya vāḷehi upaddutaṃ viya papāte patantaṃ viya ca passanti, evaṃ pāpakaṃ supinaṃ na passati. But he does not see evil dreams as others do, as though being surrounded by bandits, as though being threatened by wild beasts, as though falling into chasms (see XIV, n. 45).
Manussānaṃ piyo hotīti ure āmuttamuttāhāro viya sīse piḷandhamālā viya ca manussānaṃ piyo hoti manāpo. 63.He is dear to human beings: he is as dear to and beloved by human beings as a necklace worn to hang on the chest, as a wreath adorning the head.
Amanussānaṃ piyo hotīti yatheva manussānaṃ, evaṃ amanussānampi piyo hoti visākhatthero viya. 64.He is dear to non-human beings: he is just as dear to non-human beings as he is to human beings, as in the Elder Visākha’s case.
So kira pāṭaliputte kuṭumbiyo ahosi. He was a landowner, it seems, at Pāṭaliputta (Patna).
So tattheva vasamāno assosi "tambapaṇṇidīpo kira cetiyamālālaṅkato kāsāvapajjoto icchiticchitaṭṭhāneyeva ettha sakkā nisīdituṃ vā nipajjituṃ vā utusappāyaṃ senāsanasappāyaṃ puggalasappāyaṃ dhammassavanasappāyanti sabbamettha sulabha"nti. While he was living there he heard this: “The Island of Tambapaṇṇi (Sri Lanka), apparently, is adorned with a diadem of shrines and gleams with the yellow cloth, and there a man can sit or lie wherever he likes; there the climate is favourable, the abodes are favourable, the people are favourable, the Dhamma to be heard is favourable, and all these favourable things are easily obtained there.”
So attano bhogakkhandhaṃ puttadārassa niyyādetvā dussante baddhena ekakahāpaṇeneva gharā nikkhamitvā samuddatīre nāvaṃ udikkhamāno ekamāsaṃ vasi. 65.He made over his fortune to his wife and children and left his home with only a single ducat (kahāpaṇa) sewn into the hem of his garment. He stopped for one month on the sea coast in expectation of a ship,
So vohārakusalatāya imasmiṃ ṭhāne bhaṇḍaṃ kiṇitvā asukasmiṃ vikkiṇanto dhammikāya vaṇijjāya tenevantaramāsena sahassaṃ abhisaṃhari. and meanwhile by his skill in trading he made a thousand during the month by buying goods here and selling them there in lawful enterprise.
Anupubbena mahāvihāraṃ āgantvā pabbajjaṃ yāci. 66. Eventually he came to the Great Monastery [(Mahāvihāra) at Anurādha- pura], and there he asked for the going forth into homelessness.
So pabbājanatthāya sīmaṃ nīto taṃ sahassatthavikaṃ ovaṭṭikantarena bhūmiyaṃ pātesi. When he was being conducted to the chapter house (sīmā) for the going-forth ceremony, the purse containing the thousand pieces dropped out from under his belt.
"Kimeta"nti ca vutte "kahāpaṇasahassaṃ, bhante"ti vatvā "upāsaka, pabbajitakālato paṭṭhāya na sakkā vicāretuṃ, idānevetaṃ vicārehī"ti vutte "visākhassa pabbajjaṭṭhānamāgatā mā rittahatthā gamiṃsū"ti muñcitvā sīmāmāḷake vippakiritvā pabbajitvā upasampanno. When asked “What is that?” he replied, “It is a thousand ducats, venerable sirs.” They told him, “Lay follower, it is not possible to distribute them after the going forth. Distribute them now.” Then he said, “Let none who have come to the scene of Visākha’s going forth depart empty-handed,” and opening [the purse] he strewed them over the chapter house yard, after which he received the going forth and the full admission.
So pañcavasso hutvā dvemātikā paguṇā katvā pavāretvā attano sappāyaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā ekekasmiṃ vihāre cattāro māse katvā samappavattavāsaṃ vasamāno cari. 67.When he had acquired five years’ seniority and had become familiar with the two Codes (Pātimokkha; see III.31) he celebrated the Pavāraṇā at the end of the Rains, took a meditation subject that suited him, and set out to wander, living for four months in each monastery and doing the duties on a basis of equality with the residents.
Evaṃ caramāno – While he was wandering in this way:
Vanantare ṭhito thero, visākho gajjamānako; The elder halted in a wood To scan the tenor of his way;
Attano guṇamesanto, imamatthaṃ abhāsatha. He thundered forth this roundelay Proclaiming that he found it good:
"Yāvatā upasampanno, yāvatā idha āgato; So from your full-admission day Till in this place you paused and stood
Etthantare khalitaṃ natthi, aho lābhā te mārisā"ti. No stumbling mars your bhikkhuhood; Be thankful for such grace, I say.
So cittalapabbatavihāraṃ gacchanto dvedhā pathaṃ patvā "ayaṃ nu kho maggo udāhu aya"nti cintayanto aṭṭhāsi. 68.On his way to Cittalapabbata he came to a road fork and stood wondering which turn to take.
Athassa pabbate adhivatthā devatā hatthaṃ pasāretvā "esa maggo"ti vatvā dasseti. Then a deity living in a rock held out a hand pointing out the road to him.
So cittalapabbatavihāraṃ gantvā tattha cattāro māse vasitvā paccūse gamissāmīti cintetvā nipajji. 69. He came to the Cittalapabbata Monastery. After he had stayed there for four months he lay down thinking, “In the morning I depart.”
Caṅkamasīse maṇilarukkhe adhivatthā devatā sopānaphalake nisīditvā parodi. Then a deity living in a maṇila tree at the end of the walk sat down on a step of the stair and burst into tears.
Thero "ko eso"ti āha. The elder asked, “Who is that?”
Ahaṃ, bhante, maṇiliyāti. —“It is I, Maṇiliyā, venerable sir.”
Kissa rodasīti? —“What are you weeping for?”
Tumhākaṃ gamanaṃ paṭiccāti. —“Because you are going away.”
Mayi idha vasante tumhākaṃ ko guṇoti? —“What good does my living here to you?”
Tumhesu, bhante, idha vasantesu amanussā aññamaññaṃ mettaṃ paṭilabhanti, te dāni tumhesu gatesu kalahaṃ karissanti, duṭṭhullampi kathayissantīti. —“Venerable sir, as long as you live here non- human beings treat each other kindly. Now, when you are gone, they will start quarrels and loose talk.”9 Comm. NT: 9. For duṭṭhulla see Ch. IV, note 36. Here the meaning is more likely to be “bad” or “lewd” than “inert.”
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Thero "sace mayi idha vasante tumhākaṃ phāsuvihāro hoti, sundara"nti vatvā aññepi cattāro māse tattheva vasitvā puna tatheva gamanacittaṃ uppādesi. The elder said, “If my living here makes you live at peace, that is good,” and so he stayed there another four months. Then he again thought of leaving,
Devatāpi puna tatheva parodi. but the deity wept as before.
Etenevupāyena thero tattheva vasitvā tattheva parinibbāyīti evaṃ mettāvihārī bhikkhu amanussānaṃ piyo hoti. And so the elder lived on there, and it was there that he attained Nibbāna. This is how a bhikkhu who abides in loving-kindness is dear to non-human beings.
Devatā rakkhantīti puttamiva mātāpitaro devatā rakkhanti. 70. Deities guard him: deities guard him as a mother and father guard their child.
Nāssaaggi vā visaṃ vā satthaṃ vā kamatīti mettāvihārissa kāye uttarāya upāsikāya viya aggi vā, saṃyuttabhāṇakacūḷasivattherasseva visaṃ vā, saṃkiccasāmaṇerasseva satthaṃ vā na kamati, na pavisati. 71.Fire, poison and weapons do not affect him: they do not affect, do not enter into, the body of one who abides in loving-kindness, like the fire in the case of the lay woman devotee Uttarā (see XII.34 and Dhp-a III 310), like the poison in the case of the Saṃyutta reciter the Elder Cūḷa-Siva, like the knife in the case of the novice Saṅkicca (see Dhp-a II 249);
Nāssa kāyaṃ vikopetīti vuttaṃ hoti. they do not disturb the body, is what is meant.
Dhenuvatthumpi cettha kathayanti. 72.And they tell the story of the cow here too.
Ekā kira dhenu vacchakassa khīradhāraṃ muñcamānā aṭṭhāsi. A cow was giving milk to her calf, it seems.
Eko luddako taṃ vijjhissāmīti hatthena samparivattetvā dīghadaṇḍasattiṃ muñci. A hunter, thinking “I shall shoot her,” flourished a long-handled spear in his hand and flung it.
Sā tassā sarīraṃ āhacca tālapaṇṇaṃ viya pavaṭṭamānā gatā, neva upacārabalena, na appanābalena, kevalaṃ vacchake balavapiyacittatāya. It struck her body and bounced off like a palm leaf—and that was owing neither to access nor to absorption, but simply to the strength of her consciousness of love for her calf.
Evaṃ mahānubhāvā mettāti. So mightily powerful is loving- kindness.
Tuvaṭaṃ cittaṃ samādhiyatīti mettāvihārino khippameva cittaṃ samādhiyati, natthi tassa dandhāyitattaṃ. 73.His mind is easily concentrated: the mind of one who abides in loving-kindness is quickly concentrated, there is no sluggishness about it. [314]
Mukhavaṇṇo vippasīdatīti bandhanā pavuttaṃ tālapakkaṃ viya cassa vippasannavaṇṇaṃ mukhaṃ hoti. 74. The expression of his face is serene: his face has a serene expression, like a palmyra fruit loosed from its stem.
Asammūḷho kālaṅkarotīti mettāvihārino sammohamaraṇaṃ nāma natthi, asammūḷhova niddaṃ okkamanto viya kālaṃ karoti. 75.He dies unconfused: there is no dying deluded for one who abides in loving- kindness. He passes away undeluded as if falling asleep.
Uttarimappaṭivijjhantoti mettāsamāpattito uttariṃ arahattaṃ adhigantuṃ asakkonto ito cavitvā suttappabuddho viya brahmalokamupapajjatīti. 76.If he penetrates no higher: if he is unable to reach higher than the attainment of loving-kindness and attain Arahantship, then when he falls from this life, he reappears in the Brahmā-world as one who wakes up from sleep.
Ayaṃ mettābhāvanāyaṃ vitthārakathā. This is the detailed explanation of the development of loving-kindness.