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Определение остальных частей Палийский оригинал

пали Nyanamoli thera - english khantibalo - русский Комментарии
182.Evaṃ nimittaṃ gahetvā sabbakoṭṭhāse vaṇṇasaṇṭhānadisokāsaparicchedavasena vavatthapetvā vaṇṇasaṇṭhānagandhaāsayokāsavasena pañcadhā paṭikkūlato vavatthapetabbā. 82.Having apprehended the sign thus and (a) defined all the other parts of the body by colour, shape, direction, location, and delimitation (§58), he should then (b) define repulsiveness in five ways, that is, by colour, shape, odour, habitat, and location. Освоив таким образом представление и определив все остальные части тела по параметрам цвета, формы, направления, места и границ, ему следует затем определить отвратительность пятью способами, а именно цветом, формой, запахом, обитанием и местом.
Tatrāyaṃ sabbakoṭṭhāsesu anupubbakathā. 83.Here is the explanation of all the parts given in successive order.
Kesā tāva pakativaṇṇena kāḷakā addāriṭṭhakavaṇṇā. [Head Hairs] (a) Firstly head hairs are black in their normal colour, the colour of fresh ariṭṭhaka seeds.19 Comm. NT: 19. Ariṭṭhaka as a plant is not in PED; see CPD—Sinh penela uṭa.
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Saṇṭhānato dīghavaṭṭalikā tulādaṇḍasaṇṭhānā. As to shape, they are the shape of long round measuring rods.20 Comm. NT: 20. There are various readings.
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Disato uparimadisāya jātā. As to direction, they lie in the upper direction.
Okāsato ubhosu passesu kaṇṇacūḷikāhi, purato nalāṭantena, pacchato galavāṭakena paricchinnā. As to location, it is bounded on both sides by the roots of the ears, in front by the forehead, and behind by the nape of the neck.21 Comm. NT: 21. “Galavāṭaka,” here rendered by “nape of the neck,” which the context demands. But elsewhere (e.g. IV.47, VIII.110) “base of the neck” se...
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Sīsakaṭāhaveṭhanaṃ allacammaṃ kesānaṃ okāso. their location is the wet inner skin that envelops the skull.
Paricchedato kesā sīsaveṭhanacamme vīhaggamattaṃ pavisitvā patiṭṭhitena heṭṭhā attano mūlatalena, upari ākāsena, tiriyaṃ aññamaññena paricchinnā, dve kesā ekato natthīti ayaṃ sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, they are bounded below by the surface of their own roots, which are fixed by entering to the amount of the tip of a rice grain into the inner skin that envelops the head. They are bounded above by space, and all round by each other. There are no two hairs together. This is their delimitation by the similar.
Kesā na lomā, lomā na kesāti evaṃ avasesaekatiṃsakoṭṭhāsehi amissīkatā kesā nāma pāṭiyekko ekakoṭṭhāsoti ayaṃ visabhāgaparicchedo. Head hairs are not body hairs, and body hairs are not head hairs; being likewise not intermixed with the remaining thirty-one parts, the head hairs are a separate part. This is their delimitation by the dissimilar.
Idaṃ kesānaṃ vaṇṇādito vavatthāpanaṃ. Such is the definition of head hairs as to colour and so on.
183.Idaṃ pana nesaṃ vaṇṇādivasena pañcadhā paṭikkūlato vavatthāpanaṃ. 84.(b) Their definition as to repulsiveness in the five ways, that is, by colour, etc., is as follows.
Kesā nāmete vaṇṇatopi paṭikkūlā. Head hairs are repulsive in colour
Saṇṭhānatopi gandhatopi āsayatopi okāsatopi paṭikkūlā. as well as in shape, odour, habitat, and location.
Manuññepi hi yāgupatte vā bhattapatte vā kesavaṇṇaṃ kiñci disvā kesamissakamidaṃ haratha nanti jigucchanti. 85.For on seeing the colour of a head hair in a bowl of inviting rice gruel or cooked rice, people are disgusted and say, “This has got hairs in it. Take it away.”
Evaṃ kesā vaṇṇato paṭikkūlā. So they are repulsive in colour.
Rattiṃ bhuñjantāpi kesasaṇṭhānaṃ akkavākaṃ vā makacivākaṃ vā chupitvāpi tatheva jigucchanti. Also when people are eating at night, they are likewise disgusted by the mere sensation of a hair-shaped akka-bark or makaci- bark fibre.
Evaṃ saṇṭhānato paṭikkūlā. So they are repulsive in shape.
Telamakkhanapupphadhūpādi saṅkhāravirahitānañca kesānaṃ gandho paramajeguccho hoti. 86. And the odour of head hairs, unless dressed with a smearing of oil, scented with flowers, etc., is most offensive.
Tato jegucchataro aggimhi pakkhittānaṃ. And it is still worse when they are put in the fire.
Kesā hi vaṇṇasaṇṭhānato appaṭikkūlāpi siyuṃ, gandhena pana paṭikkūlāyeva. Even if head hairs are not directly repulsive in colour and shape, still their odour is directly repulsive.
Yathā hi daharassa kumārassa vaccaṃ vaṇṇato haliddivaṇṇaṃ, saṇṭhānatopi haliddipiṇḍasaṇṭhānaṃ. Just as a baby’s excrement, as to its colour, is the colour of turmeric and, as to its shape, is the shape of a piece of turmeric root,
Saṅkāraṭṭhāne chaḍḍitañca uddhumātakakāḷasunakhasarīraṃ vaṇṇato tālapakkavaṇṇaṃ. and just as the bloated carcass of a black dog thrown on a rubbish heap, as to its colour, is the colour of a ripe palmyra fruit and,
Saṇṭhānato vaṭṭetvā vissaṭṭhamudiṅgasaṇṭhānaṃ. as to its shape, is the shape of a [mandolin-shaped] drum left face down,
Dāṭhāpissa sumanamakuḷasadisāti ubhayampi vaṇṇasaṇṭhānato siyā appaṭikkūlaṃ gandhena pana paṭikkūlameva. and its fangs are like jasmine buds, and so even if both these are not directly repulsive in colour and shape, still their odour is directly repulsive,
Evaṃ kesāpi siyuṃ vaṇṇasaṇṭhānato appaṭikkūlā gandhena pana paṭikkūlāyevāti. so too, even if head hairs are not directly repulsive in colour and shape, still their odour is directly repulsive.
Yathā pana asuciṭṭhāne gāmanissandena jātāni sūpeyyapaṇṇāni nāgarikamanussānaṃ jegucchāni honti aparibhogāni, evaṃ kesāpi pubbalohitamuttakarīsapittasemhādinissandena jātattā jegucchāti idaṃ nesaṃ āsayato pāṭikkulyaṃ. 87. But just as pot herbs that grow on village sewage in a filthy place are disgusting to civilized people and unusable, so also head hairs are disgusting since they grow on the sewage of pus, blood, urine, dung, bile, phlegm, and the like. This is the repulsive aspect of the habitat.
Ime ca kesā nāma gūtharāsimhi uṭṭhitakaṇṇikaṃ viya ekatiṃsakoṭṭhāsarāsimhi jātā. 88.And these head hairs grow on the heap of the [other] thirty-one parts as fungi do on a dung-hill.
Te susānasaṅkāraṭṭhānādīsu jātasākaṃ viya parikkhādīsu jātakamalakuvalayādipupphaṃ viya ca asuciṭṭhāne jātattā paramajegucchāti idaṃ nesaṃ okāsato pāṭikkulyaṃ. And owing to the filthy place they grow in they are quite as unappetizing as vegetables growing on a charnel-ground, on a midden, etc., as lotuses or water lilies growing in drains, and so on. This is the repulsive aspect of their location.
Yathā ca kesānaṃ, evaṃ sabbakoṭṭhāsānaṃ vaṇṇasaṇṭhānagandhāsayokāsavasena pañcadhā paṭikkūlatā veditabbā. 89.And as in the case of head hairs, so also the repulsiveness of all the parts should be defined (b) in the same five ways by colour, shape, odour, habitat, and location.
Vaṇṇasaṇṭhānadisokāsaparicchedavasena pana sabbepi visuṃ visuṃ vavatthapetabbā. All, however, must be defined individually (a) by colour, shape, direction, location, and delimitation, as follows.
184.Tattha lomā tāva pakativaṇṇato na kesā viya asambhinnakāḷakā, kāḷapiṅgalā pana honti. [Body Hairs] 90.Herein, firstly, as to natural colour, body, hairs are not pure black like head hairs but blackish brown.
Saṇṭhānato onataggā tālamūlasaṇṭhānā. As to shape, they are the shape of palm roots with the tips bent down.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātā. As to direction, they lie in the two directions.
Okāsato ṭhapetvā kesānaṃ patiṭṭhitokāsañca hatthapādatalāni ca yebhuyyena avasesasarīraveṭhanacamme jātā. As to location, except for the locations where the head hairs are established, and for the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, they grow in most of the rest of the inner skin that envelops the body.
Paricchedato sarīraveṭhanacamme likhāmattaṃ pavisitvā patiṭṭhitena heṭṭhā attano mūlatalena, upari ākāsena, tiriyaṃ aññamaññena paricchinnā, dve lomā ekato natthi, ayaṃ nesaṃ sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, they are bounded below by the surface of their own roots, which are fixed by entering to the extent of a likhā22 into the inner skin that envelops the body, above by space, and all round by each other. There are no two body hairs together. This is the delimitation by the similar. Comm. NT: 22. A measure of length, as much as a “louse’s head.”
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Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva. But their delimitation by the dissimilar is like that for the head hairs. Comm. NT: These two last sentences are repeated verbatim at the end of the description of each part. They are not translated in the remaining thirty p...
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185.Nakhāti vīsatiyā nakhapattānaṃ nāmaṃ. [Nails] 91. “Nails” is the name for the twenty nail plates.
Te sabbepi vaṇṇato setā. They are all white as to colour.
Saṇṭhānato macchasakalikasaṇṭhānā. As to shape, they are the shape of fish scales.
Disato pādanakhā heṭṭhimadisāya, hatthanakhā uparimadisāyāti dvīsu disāsu jātā. As to direction: the toenails are in the lower direction; the fingernails are in the upper direction. So they grow in the two directions.
Okāsato aṅgulīnaṃ aggapiṭṭhesu patiṭṭhitā. As to location, they are fixed on the tips of the backs of the fingers and toes.
Paricchedato dvīsu disāsu aṅgulikoṭimaṃsehi, anto aṅgulipiṭṭhimaṃsena, bahi ceva agge ca ākāsena, tiriyaṃ aññamaññena paricchinnā, dve nakhā ekato natthi, ayaṃ nesaṃ sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, they are bounded in the two directions by the flesh of the ends of the fingers and toes, and inside by the flesh of the backs of the fingers and toes, and externally and at the end by space, and all round by each other. There are no two nails together …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
186.Dantāti paripuṇṇadantassa dvattiṃsa dantaṭṭhikāni. [Teeth] 92.There are thirty-two tooth bones in one whose teeth are complete.
Tepi vaṇṇato setā. They are white in colour.
Saṇṭhānato anekasaṇṭhānā. As to shape, they are of various shapes;
Tesaṃ hi heṭṭhimāya tāva dantapāḷiyā majjhe cattāro dantā mattikāpiṇḍe paṭipāṭiyā ṭhapitaalābubījasaṇṭhānā. for firstly in the lower row, the four middle teeth are the shape of pumpkin seeds set in a row in a lump of clay;
Tesaṃ ubhosu passesu ekeko ekamūlako ekakoṭiko mallikamakuḷasaṇṭhāno. that on each side of them has one root and one point and is the shape of a jasmine bud;
Tato ekeko dvimūlako dvikoṭiko yānakaupatthambhinisaṇṭhāno. each one after that has two roots and two points and is the shape of a wagon prop;
Tato dve dve timūlā tikoṭikā. then two each side with three roots and three points,
Tato dve dve catumūlā catukoṭikāti. then two each side four-rooted and four-pointed.
Uparimapāḷiyāpi eseva nayo. Likewise in the upper row.
Disato uparimadisāya jātā. As to direction, they lie in the upper direction.
Okāsato dvīsu hanukaṭṭhikesu patiṭṭhitā. As to location, they are fixed in the jawbones.
Paricchedato heṭṭhā hanukaṭṭhike patiṭṭhitena attano mūlatalena, upari ākāsena, tiriyaṃ aññamaññena paricchinnā, dve dantā ekato natthi, ayaṃ nesaṃ sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, they are bounded by the surface of their own roots which are fixed in the jawbones; they are bounded above by space, and all round by each other. There are no two teeth together …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
187.Tacoti sakalasarīraṃ veṭhetvā ṭhitacammaṃ. [Skin (Taca)] 93. The inner skin envelops the whole body.
Tassa upari kāḷasāmapītādivaṇṇā chavi nāma yā sakalasarīratopi saṅkaḍḍhiyamānā badaraṭṭhimattā hoti. Outside it is what is called the outer cuticle, which is black, brown or yellow in colour, and when that from the whole of the body is compressed together, it amounts to only as much as a jujube-fruit kernel.
Taco pana vaṇṇato setoyeva. But as to colour, the skin itself is white;
So cassa setabhāvo aggijālābhighātapaharaṇappahārādīhi viddhaṃsitāya chaviyā pākaṭo hoti. and its whiteness becomes evident when the outer cuticle is destroyed by contact with the flame of a fire or the impact of a blow and so on.
Saṇṭhānato sarīrasaṇṭhānova hoti. 94.As to shape, it is the shape of the body
Ayamettha saṅkhepo. in brief.
Vitthārato pana pādaṅgulittaco kosakārakakosasaṇṭhāno. But in detail, the skin of the toes is the shape of silkworms’ cocoons;
Piṭṭhipādattaco puṭabandhaupāhanasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the back of the foot is the shape of shoes with uppers;
Jaṅghattaco bhattapuṭakatālapaṇṇasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the calf is the shape of a palm leaf wrapping cooked rice;
Ūruttaco taṇḍulabharitadīghatthavikasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the thighs is the shape of a long sack full of paddy;
Ānisadattaco udakapūritapaṭaparissāvanasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the buttocks is the shape of a cloth strainer full of water;
Piṭṭhittaco phalakonaddhacammasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the back is the shape of hide streched over a plank;
Kucchittaco vīṇādoṇikonaddhacammasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the belly is the shape of the hide stretched over the body of a lute;
Urattaco yebhuyyena caturassasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the chest is more or less square;
Ubhayabāhuttaco tūṇironaddhacammasaṇṭhāno. the skin of both arms is the shape of the hide stretched over a quiver;
Piṭṭhihatthattaco khurakosasaṇṭhāno, phaṇakatthavikasaṇṭhāno vā. the skin of the backs of the hands is the shape of a razor box, or the shape of a comb case;
Hatthaṅgulittaco kuñcikākosakasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the fingers is the shape of a key box;
Gīvattaco galakañcukasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the neck is the shape of a collar for the throat;
Mukhattaco chiddāvachiddo kīṭakulāvakasaṇṭhāno. the skin of the face is the shape of an insects’ nest full of holes;
Sīsattaco pattatthavikasaṇṭhānoti. the skin of the head is the shape of a bowl bag.
Tacapariggaṇhakena ca yogāvacarena uttaroṭṭhato paṭṭhāya uparimukhaṃ ñāṇaṃ pesetvā paṭhamaṃ tāva mukhaṃ pariyonandhitvā ṭhitacammaṃ vavatthapetabbaṃ. 95.The meditator who is discerning the skin should first define the inner skin that covers the face, working his knowledge over the face beginning with the upper lip.
Tato nalāṭaṭṭhicammaṃ. Next, the inner skin of the frontal bone.
Tato thavikāya pakkhittapattassa ca thavikāya ca antarena hatthamiva sīsaṭṭhikassa ca sīsacammassa ca antarena ñāṇaṃ pesetvā aṭṭhikena saddhiṃ cammassa ekābaddhabhāvaṃ viyojentena sīsacammaṃ vavatthapetabbaṃ. Next, he should define the inner skin of the head, separating, as it were, the inner skin’s connection with the bone by inserting his knowledge in between the cranium bone and the inner skin of the head, as he might his hand in between the bag and the bowl put in the bag.
Tato khandhacammaṃ. Next, the inner skin of the shoulders.
Tato anulomena paṭilomena ca dakkhiṇahatthacammaṃ. Next, the inner skin of the right arm forwards and backwards;
Atha teneva nayena vāmahatthacammaṃ. and then in the same way the inner skin of the left arm.
Tato piṭṭhicammaṃ taṃ vavatthapetvā anulomena paṭilomena ca dakkhiṇapādacammaṃ. Next, after defining the inner skin of the back, he should define the inner skin of the right leg forwards and backwards;
Atha teneva nayena vāmapādacammaṃ. then the inner skin of the left leg in the same way.
Tato anukkameneva vatthiudarahadayagīvacammāni vavatthapetabbāni. Next, the inner skin of the groin, the paunch, the bosom and the neck should be successively defined.
Atha gīvacammānantaraṃ heṭṭhimahanucammaṃ vavatthapetvā adharoṭṭhapariyosānaṃ pāpetvā niṭṭhapetabbaṃ. Then, after defining the inner skin of the lower jaw next after that of the neck, he should finish on arriving at the lower lip.
Evaṃ oḷārikoḷārikaṃ pariggaṇhantassa sukhumampi pākaṭaṃ hoti. When he discerns it in the gross in this way, it becomes evident to him more subtly too.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jāto. 96.As to direction, it lies in both directions.
Okāsato sakalasarīraṃ pariyonandhitvā ṭhito. As to location, it covers the whole body.
Paricchedato heṭṭhā patiṭṭhitatalena, upari ākāsena paricchinno, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded below by its fixed surface, and above by space …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
188.Maṃsanti nava maṃsapesisatāni. [Flesh] 97.There are nine hundred pieces of flesh.
Taṃ sabbampi vaṇṇato rattaṃ kiṃsukapupphasadisaṃ. As to colour, it is all red, like kiṃsuka flowers.
Saṇṭhānato jaṅghapiṇḍikamaṃsaṃ tālapaṇṇapuṭabhattasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, the flesh of the calves is the shape of cooked rice in a palm- leaf bag.
Ūrumaṃsaṃ nisadapotasaṇṭhānaṃ. The flesh of the thighs is the shape of a rolling pin.23 Comm. NT: 23. Nisadapota—“rolling pin”: (= silā-puttaka—Vism-mhṭ 250) What is meant is probably the stone roller, thicker in the middle than at the en...
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Ānisadamaṃsaṃ uddhanakoṭisaṇṭhānaṃ. The flesh of the buttocks is the shape of the end of an oven.
Piṭṭhimaṃsaṃ tālaguḷapaṭalasaṇṭhānaṃ. The flesh of the back is the shape of a slab of palm sugar.
Phāsukadvayamaṃsaṃ koṭṭhalikāya kucchiyaṃ tanumattikālepasaṇṭhānaṃ. The flesh between each two ribs is the shape of clay mortar squeezed thin in a flattened opening.
Thanamaṃsaṃ vaṭṭetvā avakkhittamattikāpiṇḍasaṇṭhānaṃ. The flesh of the breast is the shape of a lump of clay made into a ball and flung down.
Bāhudvayamaṃsaṃ dviguṇaṃ katvā ṭhapitaniccammamahāmūsikasaṇṭhānaṃ. The flesh of the two upper arms is the shape of a large skinned rat and twice the size.
Evaṃ oḷārikoḷārikaṃ pariggaṇhantassa sukhumampi pākaṭaṃ hoti. When he discerns it grossly in this way, it becomes evident to him subtly too.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātaṃ. 98.As to direction, it lies in both directions.
Okāsato vīsādhikāni tīṇi aṭṭhisatāni anulimpitvā ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is plastered over the three hundred and odd bones.
Paricchedato heṭṭhā aṭṭhisaṅghāte patiṭṭhitatalena, upari tacena, tiriyaṃ aññamaññena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded below by its surface, which is fixed on to the collection of bones, and above by the skin, and all round each by each other piece …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
189.Nhārūti nava nhārusatāni. [Sinews] 99.There are nine hundred sinews.
Vaṇṇato sabbepi nhārū setā. As to colour, all the sinews are white.
Saṇṭhānato nānāsaṇṭhānā. As to shape, they have various shapes.
Etesu hi gīvāya uparimabhāgato paṭṭhāya pañca mahānhārū sarīraṃ vinandhamānā purimapassena otiṇṇā. For five of great sinews that bind the body together start out from the upper part of the neck and descend by the front,
Pañca pacchimapassena. and five more by the back,
Pañca dakkhiṇapassena. and then five by the right
Pañca vāmapassena. and five by the left.
Dakkhiṇahatthaṃ vinandhamānāpi hatthassa purimapassena pañca. And of those that bind the right hand, five descend by the front of the hand
Pacchimapassena pañca. and five by the back;
Tathā vāmahatthaṃ vinandhamānā. likewise those that bind the left hand.
Dakkhiṇapādaṃ vinandhamānāpi pādassa purimapassena pañca. And of those that bind the right foot, five descend by the front and five by the back;
Pacchimapassena pañca. likewise those that bind the left foot.
Tathā vāmapādaṃ vinandhamānāpīti evaṃ sarīradhārakā nāma saṭṭhimahānhārū kāyaṃ vinandhamānā otiṇṇā. So there are sixty great sinews called “body supporters” which descend [from the neck] and bind the body together;
Ye kaṇḍarātipi vuccanti. and they are also called “tendons.”
Te sabbepi kandalamakuḷasaṇṭhānā. They are all the shape of yam shoots.
Aññe pana taṃ taṃ padesaṃ ajjhottharitvā ṭhitā. But there are others scattered over various parts of the body,
Tato sukhumatarā suttarajjukasaṇṭhānā. which are finer than the last-named. They are the shape of strings and cords.
Aññe tato sukhumatarā pūtilatāsaṇṭhānā, aññe tato sukhumatarā mahāvīṇātantisaṇṭhānā. There are others still finer, the shape of creepers. Others still finer are the shape of large lute strings.
Aññe thūlasuttakasaṇṭhānā. Yet others are the shape of coarse thread.
Hatthapādapiṭṭhīsu nhārū sakuṇapādasaṇṭhānā. The sinews in the backs of the hands and feet are the shape of a bird’s claw.
Sīse nhārū dārakānaṃ sīsajālakasaṇṭhānā. The sinews in the head are the shape of children’s head nets.
Piṭṭhiyaṃ nhārū ātape pasāritaallajālasaṇṭhānā. The sinews in the back are the shape of a wet net spread out in the sun.
Avasesā taṃtaṃaṅgapaccaṅgānugatā nhārū sarīre paṭimukkajālakañcukasaṇṭhānā. The rest of the sinews, following the various limbs, are the shape of a net jacket fitted to the body.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātā. 100.As to direction, they lie in the two directions.
Okāsato sakalasarīre aṭṭhīni ābandhitvā ṭhitā. As to location, they are to be found binding the bones of the whole body together.
Paricchedato heṭṭhā tiṇṇaṃ aṭṭhisatānaṃ upari patiṭṭhitatalehi, upari maṃsacammāni āhacca ṭhitappadesehi, tiriyaṃ aññamaññena paricchinnā, ayaṃ nesaṃ sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, they are bounded below by their surface, which is fixed on to the three hundred bones, and above by the portions that are in contact with the flesh and the inner skin, and all round by each other …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
190.Aṭṭhīti ṭhapetvā dvattiṃsa dantaṭṭhīni avasesāni catusaṭṭhi hatthaṭṭhīni, catusaṭṭhi pādaṭṭhīni, catusaṭṭhi maṃsanissitāni muduaṭṭhīni, dve paṇhikaṭṭhīni, ekekasmiṃ pāde dve dve gopphakaṭṭhīni, dve jaṅghaṭṭhīni, ekaṃ jaṇṇukaṭṭhi, ekaṃ ūruṭṭhi, dve kaṭiṭṭhīni, aṭṭhārasa piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṭṭhīni, catuvīsati phāsukaṭṭhīni, cuddasa uraṭṭhīni, ekaṃ hadayaṭṭhi, dve akkhakaṭṭhīni, dve koṭṭaṭṭhīni, dve bāhuṭṭhīni, dve dve aggabāhuṭṭhīni, satta gīvaṭṭhīni, dve hanukaṭṭhīni, ekaṃ nāsikaṭṭhi, dve akkhiṭṭhīni, dve kaṇṇaṭṭhīni, ekaṃ nalāṭaṭṭhi. [Bones] 101. Excepting the thirty-two teeth bones, these consist of the remaining sixty- four hand bones, sixty-four foot bones, sixty-four soft bones dependent on the flesh, two heel bones; then in each leg two ankle bones, two shin bones, one knee bone and one thigh bone; then two hip bones, eighteen spine bones, twenty- four rib bones, fourteen breast bones, one heart bone (sternum), two collar bones, two shoulder blade bones,24 two upper-arm bones, two pairs of forearm bones, two neck bones, two jaw bones, one nose bone, two eye bones, two ear bones, one frontal bone, Comm. NT: 24. Koṭṭhaṭṭhīni—“shoulder-blade bones”: for koṭṭha (= flat) cf. koṭṭhalika §97; the meaning is demanded by the context, otherwise no mentio...
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Ekaṃ muddhaṭṭhi, nava sīsakapālaṭṭhīnīti evaṃ timattāni aṭṭhisatāni, tāni sabbānipi vaṇṇato setāni. one occipital bone, nine sincipital bones. So there are exactly three hundred bones. As to colour, they are all white.
Saṇṭhānato nānāsaṇṭhānāni. As to shape, they are of various shapes.
Tattha hi aggapādaṅguliaṭṭhīni katakabījasaṇṭhānāni. 102.Herein, the end bones of the toes are the shape of kataka seeds.
Tadanantarāni majjhapabbaṭṭhīni panasaṭṭhisaṇṭhānāni. Those next to them in the middle sections are the shape of jackfruit seeds.
Mūlapabbaṭṭhīni paṇavasaṇṭhānāni. The bones of the base sections are the shape of small drums.
Piṭṭhipādaṭṭhīni koṭṭitakandalakandarāsisaṇṭhānāni. The bones of the back of the foot are the shape of a bunch of bruised yarns.
Paṇhikaṭṭhi ekaṭṭhitālaphalabījasaṇṭhānaṃ. The heel bone is the shape of the seed of a single-stone palmyra fruit.
Gopphakaṭṭhīni baddhakīḷāgoḷakasaṇṭhānāni. 103. The ankle bones are the shape of [two] play balls bound together.
Jaṅghaṭṭhīnaṃ gopphakaṭṭhīsu patiṭṭhitaṭṭhānaṃ apanītatacasindikaḷīrasaṇṭhānaṃ. The shin bones, in the place where they rest on the ankle bones, are the shape of a sindi shoot without the skin removed.
Khuddakajaṅghaṭṭhikaṃ dhanukadaṇḍasaṇṭhānaṃ. The small shin bone is the shape of a[toy] bow stick.
Mahantaṃ milātasappapiṭṭhisaṇṭhānaṃ. The large one is the shape of a shrivelled snake’s back.
Jaṇṇukaṭṭhi ekato parikkhīṇapheṇakasaṇṭhānaṃ. The knee bone is the shape of a lump of froth melted on one side.
Tattha jaṅghaṭṭhikassa patiṭṭhitaṭṭhānaṃ atikhiṇaggagosiṅgasaṇṭhānaṃ. Herein, the place where the shin bone rests on it is the shape of a blunt cow’s horn.
Ūruṭṭhi duttacchitavāsiparasudaṇḍasaṇṭhānaṃ. The thigh bone is the shape of a badly-pared25 handle for an axe or hatchet. Comm. NT: 25. Duttacchita—“badly pared”: tacchita, pp. of tacchati to pare (e.g. with an adze); not in PED; see M I 31,124; III 166.
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Tassa kaṭiṭṭhimhi patiṭṭhitaṭṭhānaṃ kīḷāgoḷakasaṇṭhānaṃ. The place where it fits into the hip bone is the shape of a play ball.
Tena kaṭiṭṭhino patiṭṭhitaṭṭhānaṃ aggacchinnamahāpunnāgaphalasaṇṭhānaṃ. The place in the hip bone where it is set is the shape of a big punnāga fruit with the end cut off.
Kaṭiṭṭhīni dvepi ekābaddhāni hutvā kumbhakārikauddhanasaṇṭhānāni. 104. The two hip bones, when fastened together,
Pāṭiyekkaṃ kammārakūṭayottakasaṇṭhānāni. are the shape of the ring- fastening of a smith’s hammer.
Koṭiyaṃ ṭhitaṃ ānisadaṭṭhi adhomukhaṃ katvā gahitasappaphaṇasaṇṭhānaṃ, sattaṭṭhaṭṭhānesu chiddāvachiddaṃ. The buttock bone on the end [of them] is the shape of an inverted snake’s hood. It is perforated in seven or eight places.
Piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṭṭhīni abbhantarato uparūpari ṭhapitasīsapaṭṭaveṭhakasaṇṭhānāni. The spine bones are internally the shape of lead-sheet pipes put one on top of the other;
Bāhirato vaṭṭanāvaḷisaṇṭhānāni. externally they are the shape of a string of beads.
Tesaṃ antarantarā kakacadantasadisā dve tayo kaṇṭakā honti. They have two or three rows of projections next to each other like the teeth of a saw.
Catuvīsatiyā phāsukaṭṭhīsu aparipuṇṇāni aparipuṇṇaasisaṇṭhānāni. 105.Of the twenty-four rib bones, the incomplete ones are the shape of incomplete sabres,
Paripuṇṇāni paripuṇṇaasisaṇṭhānāni. and the complete ones are the shape of complete sabres;
Sabbānipi odātakukkuṭassa pasāritapakkhasaṇṭhānāni. all together they are like the outspread wings of a white cock.
Cuddasa uraṭṭhīni jiṇṇasandamānikapañjarasaṇṭhānāni. The fourteen breast bones are the shape of an old chariot frame.26 Comm. NT: 26. Pañjara—“frame”: not quite in this sense in PED.
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Hadayaṭṭhi dabbiphaṇasaṇṭhānaṃ. The heart bone (sternum) is the shape of the bowl of a spoon.
Akkhakaṭṭhīni khuddakalohavāsidaṇḍasaṇṭhānāni. The collar bones are the shape of small metal knife handles.
Koṭṭaṭṭhīni ekato parikkhīṇasīhaḷakuddālasaṇṭhānāni. The shoulder- blade bones are the shape of a Sinhalese hoe worn down on one side.
Bāhuṭṭhīni ādāsadaṇḍakasaṇṭhānāni. 106. The upper-arm bones are the shape of looking glass handles.
Aggabāhuṭṭhīni yamakatālakandasaṇṭhānāni. The forearm bones are the shape of a twin palm’s trunks.
Maṇibandhaṭṭhīni ekato alliyāpetvā ṭhapitasīsakapaṭṭaveṭhakasaṇṭhānāni. The wrist bones are the shape of lead-sheet pipes stuck together.
Piṭṭhihatthaṭṭhīni koṭṭitakandalakandarāsisaṇṭhānāni. The bones of the back of the hand are the shape of a bundle of bruised yams.
Hatthaṅgulīsu mūlapabbaṭṭhīni paṇavasaṇṭhānāni. As to the fingers, the bones of the base sections are the shape of small drums;
Majjhapabbaṭṭhīni aparipuṇṇapanasaṭṭhisaṇṭhānāni. those of the middle sections are the shape of immature jackfruit seeds;
Aggapabbaṭṭhīni katakabījasaṇṭhānāni. those of the end sections are the shape of kataka seeds.
Satta gīvaṭṭhīni daṇḍena vijjhitvā paṭipāṭiyā ṭhapitavaṃsakaḷīracakkalakasaṇṭhānāni. 107. The seven neck bones are the shape of rings of bamboo stem threaded one after the other on a stick.
Heṭṭhimahanukaṭṭhi kammārānaṃ ayokūṭayottakasaṇṭhānaṃ. The lower jawbone is the shape of a smith’s iron hammer ring-fastening.
Uparimaṃ avalekhanasatthakasaṇṭhānaṃ. The upper one is the shape of a knife for scraping [the rind off sugarcanes].
Akkhikūpanāsakūpaṭṭhīni apanītamiñjataruṇatālaṭṭhisaṇṭhānāni. The bones of the eye sockets and nostril sockets are the shape of young palmyra seeds with the kernels removed.
Nalāṭaṭṭhi adhomukhaṭṭhapitasaṅkhathālakakapālasaṇṭhānaṃ. The frontal bone is the shape of an inverted bowl made of a shell.
Kaṇṇacūḷikaṭṭhīni nhāpitakhurakosasaṇṭhānāni. The bones of the ear-holes are the shape of barbers’ razor boxes.
Nalāṭakaṇṇacūḷikānaṃ upari paṭṭabandhanokāse aṭṭhisaṅkuṭitaghaṭapuṇṇapaṭalakhaṇḍasaṇṭhānaṃ. The bone in the place where a cloth is tied [round the head] above the frontal bone and the ear holes is the shape of a piece of curled-up toffee flake.27 Comm. NT: 27. Saṅkuṭitaghaṭapuṇṇapaṭalakhaṇḍa—“a piece of curled-up toffee flake.” The Sinhalese translation suggests the following readings and resol...
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Muddhaṭṭhi mukhacchinnavaṅkanāḷikerasaṇṭhānaṃ. The occipital bone is the shape of a lopsided coconut with a hole cut in the end.
Sīsaṭṭhīni sibbetvā ṭhapitajajjaralābukaṭāhasaṇṭhānāni. The sincipital bones are the shape of a dish made of an old gourd held together with stitches.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātāni. 108.As to direction, they lie in both directions.
Okāsato avisesena sakalasarīre ṭhitāni. As to location, they are to be found indiscriminately throughout the whole body.
Visesena panettha sīsaṭṭhīni givaṭṭhīsu patiṭṭhitāni. But in particular here, the head bones rest on the neck bones,
Gīvaṭṭhīni piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṭṭhīsu. the neck bones on the spine bones,
Piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṭṭhīni kaṭiṭṭhīsu. the spine bones on the hip bones,
Kaṭiṭṭhīni ūruṭṭhīsu. the hip bones on the thigh bones,
Ūruṭṭhīni jaṇṇukaṭṭhīsu. the thigh bones on the knee bones,
Jaṇṇukaṭṭhīni jaṅghaṭṭhīsu. the knee bones on the shin bones,
Jaṅghaṭṭhīni gopphakaṭṭhīsu. the shin bones on the ankle bones,
Gopphakaṭṭhīni piṭṭhipādaṭṭhīsu patiṭṭhitāni. the ankle bones on the bones of the back of the foot.
Paricchedato anto aṭṭhimiñjena, uparito maṃsena, agge mūle ca aññamaññena paricchinnāni, ayaṃ nesaṃ sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, they are bounded inside by the bone marrow, above by the flesh, at the ends and at the roots by each other …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
191.Aṭṭhimiñjanti tesaṃ tesaṃ aṭṭhīnaṃ abbhantaragataṃ miñjaṃ. [Bone Marrow] 109. This is the marrow inside the various bones.
Taṃ vaṇṇato setaṃ. As to colour, it is white.
Saṇṭhānato mahantamahantānaṃ aṭṭhīnaṃ abbhantaragataṃ veḷunāḷiyaṃ pakkhittaseditamahāvettaggasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, that inside each large bone is the shape of a large cane shoot moistened and inserted into a bamboo tube.
Khuddānukhuddakānaṃ abbhantaragataṃ veḷuyaṭṭhipabbesu pakkhittaseditatanuvettaggasaṇṭhānaṃ. That inside each small bone is the shape of a slender cane shoot moistened and inserted in a section of bamboo twig.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātaṃ. As to direction, it lies in both directions.
Okāsato aṭṭhīnaṃ abbhantare patiṭṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is set inside the bones.
Paricchedato aṭṭhīnaṃ abbhantaratalehi paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is delimited by the inner surface of the bones …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
192.Vakkanti ekabandhanā dve maṃsapiṇḍikā. [Kidney] 110. This is two pieces of flesh with a single ligature.
Taṃ vaṇṇato mandarattaṃ pāḷibhaddakaṭṭhivaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is dull red, the colour of pālibhaddaka (coral tree) seeds.
Saṇṭhānato dārakānaṃ yamakakīḷāgoḷakasaṇṭhānaṃ, ekavaṇṭapaṭibaddhaambaphaladvayasaṇṭhānaṃ vā. As to shape, it is the shape of a pair of child’s play balls; or it is the shape of a pair of mango fruits attached to a single stalk.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it lies in the upper direction.
Okāsato galavāṭakā nikkhantena ekamūlena thokaṃ gantvā dvidhā bhinnena thūlanhārunā vinibaddhaṃ hutvā hadayamaṃsaṃ parikkhipitvā ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is to be found on either side of the heart flesh, being fastened by a stout sinew that starts out with one root from the base of the neck and divides into two after going a short way.
Paricchedato vakkaṃ vakkabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, the kidney is bounded by what appertains to kidney …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
193.Hadayanti hadayamaṃsaṃ. [Heart] 111. This is the heart flesh.
Taṃ vaṇṇato rattapadumapattapiṭṭhivaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is the colour of the back of a red-lotus petal.
Saṇṭhānato bāhirapattāni apanetvā adhomukhaṃ ṭhapitapadumamakuḷasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of a lotus bud with the outer petals removed and turned upside down;
Bahi maṭṭhaṃ, anto kosātakīphalassa abbhantarasadisaṃ. it is smooth outside, and inside it is like the interior of a kosātakī (loofah gourd).
Paññavantānaṃ thokaṃ vikasitaṃ, mandapaññānaṃ makuḷitameva. In those who possess understanding it is a little expanded; in those without understanding it is still only a bud.
Anto cassa punnāgaṭṭhipatiṭṭhānamatto āvāṭako hoti, yattha addhapasatamattaṃ lohitaṃ saṇṭhāti, yaṃ nissāya manodhātu ca manoviññāṇadhātu ca vattanti. Inside it there is a hollow the size of a punnāga seed’s bed where half a pasata measure of blood is kept, with which as their support the mind element and mind-consciousness element occur.
Taṃ panetaṃ rāgacaritassa rattaṃ hoti, dosacaritassa kāḷakaṃ, mohacaritassa maṃsadhovanaudakasadisaṃ, vitakkacaritassa kulatthayūsavaṇṇaṃ, saddhācaritassa kaṇikārapupphavaṇṇaṃ, paññācaritassa acchaṃ vippasannaṃ anāvilaṃ paṇḍaraṃ parisuddhaṃ niddhotajātimaṇi viya jutimantaṃ khāyati. 112. That in one of greedy temperament is red; that in one of hating temperament is black; that in one of deluded temperament is like water that meat has been washed in; that in one of speculative temperament is like lentil soup in colour; that in one of faithful temperament is the colour of [yellow] kanikāra flowers; that in one of understanding temperament is limpid, clear, unturbid, bright, pure, like a washed gem of pure water, and it seems to shine.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. 113.As to direction, it lies in the upper direction.
Okāsato sarīrabbhantare dvinnaṃ thanānaṃ majjhe patiṭṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is to be found in the middle between the two breasts, inside the body.
Paricchedato hadayaṃ hadayabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to heart …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
194.Yakananti yamakamaṃsapaṭalaṃ. [Liver] 114. This is a twin slab of flesh.
Taṃ vaṇṇato rattaṃ paṇḍukadhātukaṃ nātirattakumudassa pattapiṭṭhivaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is a brownish shade of red, the colour of the not-too-red backs of white water-lily petals.
Saṇṭhānato mūle ekaṃ agge yamakaṃ koviḷārapattasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, with its single root and twin ends, it is the shape of a koviḷāra leaf.
Tañca dandhānaṃ ekameva hoti mahantaṃ, paññavantānaṃ dve vā tīṇi vā khuddakāni. In sluggish people it is single and large; in those possessed of understanding there are two or three small ones.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ, okāsato dvinnaṃ thanānaṃ abbhantare dakkhiṇapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitaṃ. As to direction, it lies in the upper direction. As to location, it is to be found on the right side, inside from the two breasts.
Paricchedato yakanaṃ yakanabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to liver …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
195.Kilomakanti paṭicchannāpaṭicchannabhedato duvidhaṃ pariyonahanamaṃsaṃ. [Midriff]28 115.This is the covering of the flesh, which is of two kinds, namely, the concealed and the unconcealed. Comm. NT: 28. Kilomaka—“midriff”: the rendering is obviously quite inadequate for what is described here, but there is no appropriate English word.
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Taṃ duvidhampi vaṇṇato setaṃ dukūlapilotikavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, both kinds are white, the colour of dukūla (muslin) rags.
Saṇṭhānato attano okāsasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato paṭicchannakilomakaṃ uparimāya disāya. As to direction, the concealed midriff lies in the upper direction,
Itaraṃ dvīsu disāsu jātaṃ. the other in both directions.
Okāsato paṭicchannakilomakaṃ hadayañca vakkañca paṭicchādetvā, appaṭicchannakilomakaṃ sakalasarīre cammassa heṭṭhato maṃsaṃ pariyonandhitvā ṭhitaṃ. As to location, the concealed midriff is to be found concealing the heart and kidney; the unconcealed is to be found covering the flesh under the inner skin throughout the whole body.
Paricchedato heṭṭhā maṃsena, upari cammena, tiriyaṃ kilomakabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded below by the flesh, above by the inner skin, and all round by what appertains to midriff …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
196.Pihakanti udarajivhāmaṃsaṃ. [Spleen] 116. This is the flesh of the belly’s “tongue.”
Taṃ vaṇṇato nīlaṃ nigguṇḍipupphavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is blue, the colour of nigguṇḍi flowers.
Saṇṭhānato sattaṅgulappamāṇaṃ abandhanaṃ kāḷavacchakajivhāsaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is seven fingers in size, without attachments, and the shape of a black calf’s tongue.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it lies in the upper direction.
Okāsato hadayassa vāmapasse udarapaṭalassa matthakapassaṃ nissāya ṭhitaṃ, yasmiṃ paharaṇappahārena bahinikkhante sattānaṃ jīvitakkhayo hoti. As to location, it is to be found near the upper side of the belly to the left of the heart. When it comes out through a wound a being’s life is terminated.
Paricchedato pihakabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to spleen …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
197.Papphāsanti dvattiṃsamaṃsakhaṇḍappabhedaṃ papphāsamaṃsaṃ. [Lungs] 117. The flesh of the lungs is divided up into two or three pieces of flesh.
Taṃ vaṇṇato rattaṃ nātipakkaudumbaraphalavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is red, the colour of not very ripe udumbara fig fruits.
Saṇṭhānato visamacchinnabahalapūvakhaṇḍasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of an unevenly cut thick slice of cake.
Abbhantare asitapītānaṃ abhāve uggatena kammajatejusmānā abbhāhatattā saṃkhāditapalālapiṇḍamiva nirasaṃ nirojaṃ. Inside, it is insipid and lacks nutritive essence, like a lump of chewed straw, because it is affected by the heat of the kamma-born fire [element] that springs up when there is need of something to eat and drink.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it lies in the upper direction.
Okāsato sarīrabbhantare dvinnaṃ thanānaṃ antare hadayañca yakanañca upari chādetvā olambantaṃ ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is to be found inside the body between the two breasts, hanging above the heart and liver and concealing them.
Paricchedato papphāsabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to lungs …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
198.Antanti purisassa dvattiṃsahatthā itthiyā aṭṭhavīsatihatthā ekavīsatiyā ṭhānesu obhaggā antavaṭṭi. [Bowel] 118. This is the bowel tube; it is looped29 in twenty-one places, and in a man it is thirty-two hands long, and in a woman, twenty-eight hands. Comm. NT: 29. Obhagga—“looped”: not in this sense in PED; see obhañjati (XI.64 and PED).
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Tadetaṃ vaṇṇato setaṃ sakkharasudhāvaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is white, the colour of lime [mixed] with sand.
Saṇṭhānato lohitadoṇiyaṃ ābhujitvā ṭhapitasīsacchinnasappasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of a beheaded snake coiled up and put in a trough of blood.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātaṃ. As to direction, it lies in the two directions.
Okāsato upari galavāṭake heṭṭhā ca karīsamagge vinibandhattā galavāṭakakarīsamaggapariyante sarīrabbhantare ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is fastened above at the gullet and below to the excrement passage (rectum), so it is to be found inside the body between the limits of the gullet and the excrement passage.
Paricchedato antabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what pertains to bowel …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
199.Antaguṇanti antabhogaṭṭhānesu bandhanaṃ. [Entrails (Mesentery)] 119. This is the fastening in the places where the bowel is coiled.
Taṃ vaṇṇato setaṃ dakasītalikamūlavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is white, the colour of dakasītalika30 (white edible water lily) roots. Comm. NT: 30. Dakasītalika: not in PED; rendered in Sinhalese translation by helmaeli (white edible water lily).
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Saṇṭhānato dakasītalikamūlasaṇṭhānameva. As to shape, it is the shape of those roots too.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātaṃ. As to direction, it lies in the two directions.
Okāsato kuddālapharasukammādīni karontānaṃ yantākaḍḍhanakāle yantasuttakamiva yantaphalakāni antabhoge ekato agaḷante ābandhitvā pādapuñchanarajjumaṇḍalakassa antarā saṃsibbitvā ṭhitarajjukā viya ekavīsatiyā antabhogānaṃ antarā ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is to be found inside the twenty-one coils of the bowel, like the strings to be found inside rope-rings for wiping the feet on, sewing them together, and it fastens the bowel’s coils together so that they do not slip down in those working with hoes, axes, etc., as the marionette-strings do the marionette’s wooden [limbs] at the time of the marionette’s being pulled along.
Paricchedato antaguṇabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to entrails …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
200.Udariyanti udare bhavaṃ asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ. [Gorge] 120. This is what has been eaten, drunk, chewed and tasted, and is present in the stomach.
Taṃ vaṇṇato ajjhohaṭāhāravaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is the colour of swallowed food.
Saṇṭhānato parissāvane sithilabaddhataṇḍulasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of rice loosely tied in a cloth strainer.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it is in the upper direction.
Okāsato udare ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is in the stomach.
Udaraṃ nāma ubhato nippīḷiyamānassa allasāṭakassa majjhe sañjātaphoṭakasadisaṃ antapaṭalaṃ, bahi maṭṭhaṃ, anto maṃsakasambupaliveṭhanakiliṭṭhapāvārakapupphakasadisaṃ, kuthitapanasatacassa abbhantarasadisantipi vattuṃ vaṭṭati, yattha takkoṭakā gaṇḍuppādakā tālahīrakā sūcimukhakā paṭatantasuttakā iccevamādidvattiṃsakulappabhedā kimayo ākulabyākulā saṇḍasaṇḍacārino hutvā nivasanti, ye pānabhojanādimhi avijjamāne ullaṅghitvā viravantā hadayamaṃsaṃ abhihananti, pānabhojanādiajjhoharaṇavelāyañca uddhaṃmukhā hutvā paṭhamajjhohaṭe dve tayo ālope turitaturitā viluppanti, yaṃ tesaṃ kimīnaṃ sūtigharaṃ vaccakuṭi gilānasālā susānañca hoti. 121. What is called the “stomach” is [a part of] the bowel-membrane, which is like the swelling [of air] produced in the middle of a length of wet cloth when it is being [twisted and] wrung out from the two ends. It is smooth outside. Inside, it is like a balloon of cloth31 soiled by wrapping up meat refuse; or it can be said to be like the inside of the skin of a rotten jack fruit. It is the place where worms dwell seething in tangles: the thirty-two families of worms, such as round worms, boil-producing worms, “palm-splinter” worms, needle-mouthed worms, tape- worms, thread worms, and the rest.32 When there is no food and drink, etc., present, they leap up shrieking and pounce upon the heart’s flesh; and when food and drink, etc., are swallowed, they wait with uplifted mouths and scramble to snatch the first two or three lumps swallowed. It is these worms’ maternity home, privy, hospital and charnel ground. Comm. NT: 31. Maṃsaka-sambupali-veṭhana-kiliṭṭha-pāvāra-pupphaka-sadisa: this is rendered into Sinhalese by kuṇu mas kasaḷa velu porõnā kaḍek pup (“an...
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Yattha seyyathāpi nāma caṇḍālagāmadvāre candanikāya nidāghasamaye thūlaphusitake deve vassante udakena vuyhamānaṃ muttakarīsacammaaṭṭhinhārukhaṇḍakheḷasiṅghāṇikālohitappabhutinānākuṇapajātaṃ nipatitvā kaddamodakāluḷitaṃ dvīhatīhaccayena sañjātakimikulaṃ sūriyātapasantāpavegakuthitaṃ upari pheṇapupphuḷake muñcantaṃ abhinīlavaṇṇaṃ paramaduggandhajegucchaṃ neva upagantuṃ, na daṭṭhuṃ araharūpataṃ āpajjitvā tiṭṭhati, pageva ghāyituṃ vā sāyituṃ vā, evameva nānappakāraṃ pānabhojanādidantamusalasañcuṇṇitaṃ jivhāhatthaparivattitakheḷalālāpalibuddhaṃ taṅkhaṇavigatavaṇṇagandharasādisampadaṃ tantavāyakhalisuvānavamathusadisaṃ nipatitvā pittasemhavātapaliveṭhitaṃ hutvā udaraggisantāpavegakuthitaṃ kimikulākulaṃ uparūpari pheṇapupphuḷakāni muñcantaṃ paramakasambuduggandhajegucchabhāvaṃ āpajjitvā tiṭṭhati. Just as when it has rained heavily in a time of drought and what has been carried by the water into the cesspit at the gate of an outcaste village—the various kinds of ordure33 such as urine, excrement, bits of hide and bones and sinews, as well as spittle, snot, blood, etc.—gets mixed up with the mud and water already collected there; and after two or three days the families of worms appear, and it ferments, warmed by the energy of the sun’s heat, frothing and bubbling on the top, quite black in colour, and so utterly stinking and loathsome that one can scarcely go near it or look at it, much less smell or taste it, so too, [the stomach is where] the assortment of food, drink, etc., falls after being pounded up by the tongue and stuck together with spittle and saliva, losing at that moment its virtues of colour, smell, taste, etc., and taking on the appearance of weavers’ paste and dogs’ vomit, then to get soused in the bile and phlegm and wind that have collected there, where it ferments with the energy of the stomach-fire’s heat, seethes with the families of worms, frothing and bubbling on the top, till it turns into utterly stinking nauseating muck, Comm. NT: 33. Kuṇapa—“ordure”; PED only gives the meaning “corpse,” which does not fit the meaning either here or, e.g., at XI.21, where the sense of ...
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Yaṃ sutvāpi pānabhojanādīsu amanuññatā saṇṭhāti, pageva paññācakkhunā avaloketvā. even to hear about which takes away any appetite for food, drink, etc., let alone to see it with the eye of understanding.
Yattha ca patitaṃ pānabhojanādi pañcadhā vivekaṃ gacchati, ekaṃ bhāgaṃ pāṇakā khādanti, ekaṃ bhāgaṃ udaraggi jhāpeti, eko bhāgo muttaṃ hoti, eko bhāgo karīsaṃ, eko bhāgo rasabhāvaṃ āpajjitvā soṇitamaṃsādīni upabrūhayati. And when the food, drink, etc., fall into it, they get divided into five parts: the worms eat one part, the stomach-fire bums up another part, another part becomes urine, another part becomes excrement, and one part is turned into nourishment and sustains the blood, flesh and so on.
Paricchedato udarapaṭalena ceva udariyabhāgena ca paricchinnaṃ. 122. As to delimitation, it is bounded by the stomach lining and by what appertains to gorge …
Ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo.
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
201.Karīsanti vaccaṃ. [Dung] 123. This is excrement.
Taṃ vaṇṇato yebhuyyena ajjhohaṭāhāravaṇṇameva hoti. As to colour, it is mostly the colour of eaten food.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato heṭṭhimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it is in the lower direction.
Okāsato pakkāsaye ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is to be found in the receptacle for digested food (rectum).
Pakkāsayo nāma heṭṭhānābhi-piṭṭhikaṇṭakamūlānaṃ antare antāvasāne ubbedhena aṭṭhaṅgulamatto veḷunāḷikasadiso, yattha seyyathāpi nāma upari bhūmibhāge patitaṃ vassodakaṃ ogaḷitvā heṭṭhā bhūmibhāgaṃ pūretvā tiṭṭhati, evameva yaṃkiñci āmāsaye patitaṃ pānabhojanādikaṃ udaragginā pheṇuddehakaṃ pakkaṃ pakkaṃ nisadāya pisitamiva saṇhabhāvaṃ āpajjitvā antabilena ogaḷitvā ogaḷitvā omadditvā veḷupabbe pakkhipamānapaṇḍumattikā viya sannicitaṃ hutvā tiṭṭhati. 124. The receptacle for digested food is the lowest part at the end of the bowel, between the navel and the root of the spine. It measures eight fingerbreadths in height and resembles a bamboo tube. Just as when rain water falls on a higher level it runs down to fill a lower level and stays there, so too, the receptacle for digested food is where any food, drink, etc., that have fallen into the receptacle for undigested food, have been continuously cooked and simmered by the stomach-fire, and have got as soft as though ground up on a stone, run down to through the cavities of the bowels, and it is pressed down there till it becomes impacted like brown clay pushed into a bamboo joint, and there it stays.
Paricchedato pakkāsayapaṭalena ceva karīsabhāgena ca paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. 125.As to delimitation, it is bounded by the receptacle for digested food and by what appertains to dung …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
202.Matthaluṅganti sīsakaṭāhabbhantare ṭhitamiñjarāsi. [Brain] 126. This is the lumps of marrow to be found inside the skull.
Taṃ vaṇṇato setaṃ ahicchattakapiṇḍavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is white, the colour of the flesh of a toadstool;
Dadhibhāvaṃ asampattaṃ duṭṭhakhīravaṇṇantipi vattuṃ vaṭṭati. it can also be said that it is the colour of turned milk that has not yet become curd.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it belongs to the upper direction.
Okāsato sīsakaṭāhabbhantare cattāro sibbinimagge nissāya samodhānetvā ṭhapitā cattāro piṭṭhapiṇḍā viya samohitaṃ tiṭṭhati. As to location, it is to be found inside the skull, like four lumps of dough put together to correspond with the [skull’s] four sutured sections.
Paricchedato sīsakaṭāhassa abbhantaratalehi ceva matthaluṅgabhāgena ca paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by the skull’s inner surface and by what appertains to brain …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
203.Pittanti dve pittāni baddhapittañca abaddhapittañca. [Bile] 127. There are two kinds of bile: local bile and free bile.
Tattha baddhapittaṃ vaṇṇato bahalamadhukatelavaṇṇaṃ. Herein as to colour, the local bile is the colour of thick madhuka oil;
Abaddhapittaṃ milātaākulipupphavaṇṇaṃ. the free bile is the colour of faded ākulī flowers.
Saṇṭhānato ubhayampi okāsasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, both are the shape of their location.
Disato baddhapittaṃ uparimāya disāya jātaṃ, itaraṃ dvīsu disāsu jātaṃ. As to direction, the local bile belongs to the upper direction; the other belongs to both directions.
Okāsato abaddhapittaṃ ṭhapetvā kesalomadantanakhānaṃ maṃsavinimuttaṭṭhānañceva thaddhasukkhacammañca udakamiva telabindu avasesasarīraṃ byāpetvā ṭhitaṃ, yamhi kupite akkhīni pītakāni honti, bhamanti, gattaṃ kampati, kaṇḍūyati. As to location, the free bile spreads, like a drop of oil on water, all over the body except for the fleshless parts of the head hairs, body hairs, teeth, nails, and the hard dry skin. When it is disturbed, the eyes become yellow and twitch, and there is shivering and itching34 of the body. Comm. NT: 34. Kaṇḍūyati—“to itch”: the verb is not in PED; see kaṇḍu.
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Baddhapittaṃ hadayapapphāsānaṃ antare yakanamaṃsaṃ nissāya patiṭṭhite mahākosātakīkosakasadise pittakosake ṭhitaṃ, yamhi kupite sattā ummattakā honti, vipallatthacittā hirottappaṃ chaḍḍetvā akātabbaṃ karonti, abhāsitabbaṃ bhāsanti, acintitabbaṃ cintenti. The local bile is situated near the flesh of the liver between the heart and the lungs. It is to be found in the bile container (gall bladder), which is like a large kosātakī (loofah) gourd pip. When it is disturbed, beings go crazy and become demented, they throw off conscience and shame and do the undoable, speak the unspeakable, and think the unthinkable.
Paricchedato pittabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to bile …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
204.Semhanti sarīrabbhantare ekapatthapūrappamāṇaṃ semhaṃ. [Phlegm] 128. The phlegm is inside the body and it measures a bowlful.
Taṃ vaṇṇato setaṃ nāgabalāpaṇṇarasavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is white, the colour of the juice of nāgabalā leaves.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it belongs to the upper direction.
Okāsato udarapaṭale ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is to be found on the stomach’s surface.
Yaṃ pānabhojanādiajjhoharaṇakāle seyyathāpi nāma udake sevālapaṇakaṃ kaṭṭhe vā kathale vā patante chijjitvā dvidhā hutvā puna ajjhottharitvā tiṭṭhati, evameva pānabhojanādimhi nipatante chijjitvā dvidhā hutvā puna ajjhottharitvā tiṭṭhati, yamhi ca mandībhūte pakkagaṇḍo viya pūtikukkuṭaṇḍamiva ca udaraṃ paramajegucchaṃ kuṇapagandhaṃ hoti, tato uggatena ca gandhena uddekopi mukhampi duggandhaṃ pūtikuṇapasadisaṃ hoti. Just as duckweed and green scum on the surface of water divide when a stick or a potsherd is dropped into the water and then spread together again, so too, at the time of eating and drinking, etc., when the food, drink, etc., fall into the stomach, the phlegm divides and then spreads together again. And if it gets weak the stomach becomes utterly disgusting with a smell of ordure, like a ripe boil or a rotten hen’s egg, and then the belchings and the mouth reek with a stench like rotting ordure rising from the stomach,
So ca puriso apehi duggandhaṃ vāyasīti vattabbataṃ āpajjati, yañca vaḍḍhitvā bahalattamāpannaṃ pidhānaphalakamiva vaccakuṭiyaṃ udarapaṭalassa abbhantareyeva kuṇapagandhaṃ sannirumbhitvā tiṭṭhati. so that the man has to be told, “Go away, your breath smells.” But when it grows plentiful it holds the stench of ordure beneath the surface of the stomach, acting like the wooden lid of a privy.
Paricchedato semhabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to phlegm …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
205.Pubboti pūtilohitavasena pavattapubbaṃ. [Pus] 129. Pus is produced by decaying blood.
Taṃ vaṇṇato paṇḍupalāsavaṇṇo. As to colour, it is the colour of bleached leaves;
Matasarīre pana pūtibahalācāmavaṇṇo hoti. but in a dead body it is the colour of stale thickened gruel.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhāno. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato dvīsu disāsu hoti. As to direction, it belongs to both directions.
Okāsato pana pubbassa okāso nāma nibaddho natthi, yattha so sannicito tiṭṭheyya, yatra yatra khāṇukaṇṭakapaharaṇaggijālādīhi abhihate sarīrappadese lohitaṃ saṇṭhahitvā paccati, gaṇḍapīḷakādayo vā uppajjanti, tatra tatra tiṭṭhati. As to location, however, there is no fixed location for pus where it could be found stored up. Wherever blood stagnates and goes bad in some part of the body damaged by wounds with stumps and thorns, by burns with fire, etc., or where boils, carbuncles, etc., appear, it can be found there.
Paricchedato pubbabhāgena paricchinno, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to pus …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
206.Lohitanti dve lohitāni sannicitalohitañca saṃsaraṇalohitañca. [Blood] 130.There are two kinds of blood: stored blood and mobile blood.
Tattha sannicitalohitaṃ vaṇṇato nipakkabahalalākhārasavaṇṇaṃ. Herein, as to colour, stored blood is the colour of cooked and thickened lac solution;
Saṃsaraṇalohitaṃ acchalākhārasavaṇṇaṃ. mobile blood is the colour of clear lac solution.
Saṇṭhānato ubhayampi okāsasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, both are the shape of their locations.
Disato sannicitalohitaṃ uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, the stored blood belongs to the upper direction;
Itaraṃ dvisu disāsu jātaṃ. the other belongs to both directions.
Okāsato saṃsaraṇalohitaṃ ṭhapetvā kesalomadantanakhānaṃ maṃsavinimuttaṭṭhānañceva thaddhasukkhacammañca dhamanijālānusārena sabbaṃ upādiṇṇasarīraṃ pharitvā ṭhitaṃ. As to location, except for the fleshless parts of the head hairs, body hairs, teeth, nails, and the hard dry skin, the mobile blood permeates the whole of the clung-to (kammically-acquired)35 body by following the network of veins. Comm. NT: 35. Upādiṇṇa—“clung-to”: see Ch. XIV, note 23.
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Sannicitalohitaṃ yakanaṭṭhānassa heṭṭhābhāgaṃ pūretvā ekapatthapūramattaṃ hadayavakkapapphāsānaṃ upari thokaṃ thokaṃ paggharantaṃ vakkahadayayakanapapphāse temayamānaṃ ṭhitaṃ. The stored blood fills the lower part of the liver’s site to the extent of a bowlful, and by its splashing little by little over the heart, kidney and lungs, it keeps the kidney, heart, liver and lungs moist.
Tasmiṃ hi vakkahadayādīni atemente sattā pipāsitā honti. For it is when it fails to moisten the kidney, heart, etc., that beings become thirsty.
Paricchedato lohitabhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to blood …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
207.Sedoti lomakūpādīhi paggharaṇakaāpodhātu. [Sweat] 131. This is the water element that trickles from the pores of the body hairs, and so on.
So vaṇṇato vippasannatilatelavaṇṇo. As to colour, it is the colour of clear sesame oil.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhāno. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jāto. As to direction, it belongs to both directions.
Okāsato sedassokāso nāma nibaddho natthi, yattha so lohitaṃ viya sadā tiṭṭheyya. As to location, there is no fixed location for sweat where it could always be found like blood.
Yadā pana aggisantāpasūriyasantāpautuvikārādīhi sarīraṃ santapati, tadā udakato abbūḷhamattavisamacchinnabhisamuḷālakumudanāḷakalāpo viya sabbakesalomakūpavivarehi paggharati, tasmā tassa saṇṭhānampi kesalomakūpavivarānaññeva vasena veditabbaṃ. But if the body is heated by the heat of a fire, by the sun’s heat, by a change of temperature, etc., then it trickles from all the pore openings of the head hairs and body hairs, as water does from a bunch of unevenly cut lily-bud stems and lotus stalks pulled up from the water. So its shape should also be understood to correspond to the pore-openings of the head hairs and body hairs.
Sedapariggaṇhakena ca yoginā kesalomakūpavivare pūretvā ṭhitavaseneva sedo manasi kātabbo. And the meditator who discerns sweat should only give his attention to it as it is to be found filling the pore-openings of the head hairs and body hairs.
Paricchedato sedabhāgena paricchinno, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to sweat …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
Medoti thinasineho. [Fat] 132. This is a thick unguent.
So vaṇṇato phālitahaliddivaṇṇo. As to colour, it is the colour of sliced turmeric.
Saṇṭhānato thūlasarīrassa tāva cammamaṃsantare ṭhapitahaliddivaṇṇadukūlapilotikasaṇṭhāno hoti. As to shape, firstly in the body of a stout man it is the shape of turmeric-coloured dukūla (muslin) rags placed between the inner skin and the flesh.
Kisasarīrassa jaṅghamaṃsaṃ ūrumaṃsaṃ piṭṭhikaṇṭakanissitaṃ piṭṭhimaṃsaṃ udaravaṭṭimaṃsanti etāni nissāya diguṇatiguṇaṃ katvā ṭhapitahaliddivaṇṇadukūlapilotikasaṇṭhāno. In the body of a lean man it is the shape of turmeric-coloured dukūla (muslin) rags placed in two or three thicknesses on the shank flesh, thigh flesh, back flesh near the spine, and belly-covering flesh.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jāto. As to direction, it belongs to both directions.
Okāsato thūlassa sakalasarīraṃ pharitvā kisassa jaṅghamaṃsādīni nissāya ṭhito, yaṃ sinehasaṅkhaṃ gatampi paramajegucchattā neva muddhani telatthāya, na nāsatelādīnamatthāya gaṇhanti. As to location, it permeates the whole of a stout man’s body; it is to be found on a lean man’s shank flesh, and so on. And though it was described as “unguent” above, still it is neither used as oil on the head nor as oil for the nose, etc., because of its utter disgustingness.
Paricchedato heṭṭhā maṃsena, upari cammena, tiriyaṃ medabhāgena paricchinno, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded below by the flesh, above by the inner skin, and all round by what appertains to fat …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
208.Assūti akkhīhi paggharaṇakaāpodhātu. [Tears] 133. These are the water element that trickles from the eye.
Taṃ vaṇṇato vippasannatilatelavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, they are the colour of clear sesame oil.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, they are the shape of their location.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, they belong to the upper direction.
Okāsato akkhikūpakesu ṭhitaṃ. As to location, they are to be found in the eye sockets.
Na cetaṃ pittakosake pittamiva akkhikūpakesu sadā sannicitaṃ tiṭṭhati. But they are not stored in the eye sockets all the while as the bile is in the bile container.
Yadā pana sattā somanassajātā mahāhasitaṃ hasanti, domanassajātā rodanti paridevanti, tathārūpaṃ vā visamāhāraṃ āhārenti, yadā ca nesaṃ akkhīni dhūmarajapaṃsukādīhi abhihaññanti. But when beings feel joy and laugh uproariously, or feel grief and weep and lament, or eat particular kinds of wrong food, or when their eyes are affected by smoke, dust, dirt, etc.,
Tadā etehi somanassadomanassavisabhāgāhārautūhi samuṭṭhahitvā akkhikūpake pūretvā tiṭṭhati vā paggharati vā. then being originated by the joy, grief, wrong food, or temperature, they fill up the eye sockets or trickle out.
Assupariggaṇhakena ca yoginā akkhikūpake pūretvā ṭhitavaseneva pariggaṇhitabbaṃ. And the meditator who discerns tears should discern them only as they are to be found filling the eye sockets.
Paricchedato assubhāgena paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, they are bounded by what appertains to tears …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
209.Vasāti vilīnasineho. [Grease] 134. This is a melted unguent.
Sā vaṇṇato nāḷikeratelavaṇṇā. As to colour, it is the colour of coconut oil.
Ācāme āsittatelavaṇṇātipi vattuṃ vaṭṭati. Also it can be said to be the colour of oil sprinkled on gruel.
Saṇṭhānato nhānakāle pasannaudakassa upari paribbhamantasinehabinduvisaṭasaṇṭhānā. As to shape, it is a film the shape of a drop of unguent spread out over still water at the time of bathing.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātā. As to direction, it belongs to both directions.
Okāsato yebhuyyena hatthatalahatthapiṭṭhipādatalapādapiṭṭhināsapuṭanalāṭaaṃsakūṭesu ṭhitā. As to location, it is to be found mostly on the palms of the hands, backs of the hands, soles of the feet, backs of the feet, tip of the nose, forehead, and points of the shoulders.
Na cesā etesu okāsesu sadā vilīnāva hutvā tiṭṭhati. And it is not always to be found in the melted state in these locations,
Yadā pana aggisantāpasūriyasantāpautuvisabhāgadhātuvisabhāgehi te padesā usmājātā honti, tadā tattha nhānakāle pasannaudakūpari sinehabinduvisaṭo viya ito cito ca sañcarati. but when these parts get hot with the heat of a fire, the sun’s heat, upset of temperature or upset of elements, then it spreads here and there in those places like the film from the drop of unguent on the still water at the time of bathing.
Paricchedato vasābhāgena paricchinnā, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to grease …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisoyeva.
210.Kheḷoti antomukhe pheṇamissā āpodhātu. [Spittle] 135. This is water element mixed with froth inside the mouth.
So vaṇṇato seto pheṇavaṇṇo. As to colour, it is white, the colour of the froth.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhāno. As to shape, it is the shape of its location,
Pheṇasaṇṭhānotipi vattuṃ vaṭṭati. or it can be called “the shape of froth.”
Disato uparimāya disāya jāto. As to direction, it belongs to the upper direction.
Okāsato ubhohi kapolapassehi oruyha jivhāya ṭhito. As to location, it is to be found on the tongue after it has descended from the cheeks on both sides.
Na cesa ettha sadā sannicito hutvā tiṭṭhati. And it is not always to be found stored there;
Yadā pana sattā tathārūpamāhāraṃ passanti vā saranti vā, uṇhatittakaṭukaloṇambilānaṃ vā kiñci mukhe ṭhapenti, yadā vā nesaṃ hadayaṃ āgilāyati, kismiñci deva vā jigucchā uppajjati, tadā kheḷo uppajjitvā ubhohi kapolapassehi oruyha jivhāya saṇṭhāti. but when beings see particular kinds of food, or remember them, or put something hot or bitter or sharp or salty or sour into their mouths, or when their hearts are faint, or nausea arises on some account, then spittle appears and runs down from the cheeks on both sides to settle on the tongue.
Aggajivhāya cesa tanuko hoti, mūlajivhāya bahalo, mukhe pakkhittañca puthukaṃ vā taṇḍulaṃ vā aññaṃ vā kiñci khādanīyaṃ nadīpuline khatakūpakasalilaṃ viya parikkhayaṃ agacchantova temetuṃ samattho hoti. It is thin at the tip of the tongue, and thick at the root of the tongue. It is capable, without getting used up, of wetting unhusked rice or husked rice or anything else chewable that is put into the mouth, like the water in a pit scooped out in a river sand bank.
Paricchedato kheḷabhāgena paricchinno, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to spittle …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisova.
211.Siṅghāṇikāti matthaluṅgato paggharaṇakaasuci. [Snot] 136. This is impurity that trickles out from the brain. Из мозга... хи!
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Sā vaṇṇato taruṇatālaṭṭhimiñjavaṇṇā. As to colour, it is the colour of a young palmyra kernel.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhānā. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato uparimāya disāya jātā. As to direction, it belongs to the upper direction.
Okāsato nāsāpuṭe pūretvā ṭhitā. As to location, it is to be found filling the nostril cavities.
Na cesā ettha sadā sannicitā hutvā tiṭṭhati, atha kho yathā nāma puriso paduminipatte dadhiṃ bandhitvā heṭṭhā kaṇṭakena vijjheyya, athānena chiddena dadhimuttaṃ gaḷitvā bahi pateyya, evameva yadā sattā rodanti, visabhāgāhārautuvasena vā sañjātadhātukhobhā honti, tadā anto sīsato pūtisemhabhāvamāpannaṃ matthaluṅgaṃ gaḷitvā tālumatthakavivarena otaritvā nāsāpuṭe pūretvā tiṭṭhati vā paggharati vā. And it is not always to be found stored there; but rather, just as though a man tied up curd in a lotus leaf, which he then pricked with a thorn underneath, and whey oozed out and dripped, so too, when beings weep or suffer a disturbance of elements produced by wrong food or temperature, then the brain inside the head turns into stale phlegm, and it oozes out and comes down by an opening in the palate, and it fills the nostrils and stays there or trickles out.
Siṅghāṇikā pariggaṇhakena ca yoginā nāsāpuṭe pūretvā ṭhitavaseneva pariggaṇhitabbā. And the meditator who discerns snot should discern it only as it is to be found filling the nostril cavities.
Paricchedato siṅghāṇikābhāgena paricchinnā, ayamassā sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to snot …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisova.
212.Lasikāti sarīrasandhīnaṃ abbhantare picchilakuṇapaṃ. [Oil of the Joints] 137. This is the slimy ordure inside the joints in the body.
Sā vaṇṇato kaṇikāraniyyāsavaṇṇā. As to colour, it is the colour of kaṇikāra gum.
Saṇṭhānato okāsasaṇṭhānā. As to shape, it is the shape of its location.
Disato dvīsu disāsu jātā. As to direction, it belongs to both directions.
Okāsato aṭṭhisandhīnaṃ abbhañjanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā asītisatasandhīnaṃ abbhantare ṭhitā. As to location, it is to be found inside the hundred and eighty joints, serving the function of lubricating the bones’ joints.
Yassa cesā mandā hoti, tassa uṭṭhahantassa nisīdantassa abhikkamantassa paṭikkamantassa samiñjantassa pasārentassa aṭṭhikāni kaṭakaṭāyanti, accharāsaddaṃ karonto viya sañcarati. If it is weak, when a man gets up or sits down, moves forward or backward, bends or stretches, then his bones creak, and he goes about making a noise like the snapping of fingers,
Ekayojanadviyojanamattaṃ addhānaṃ gatassa vāyodhātu kuppati, gattāni dukkhanti. and when he has walked only one or two leagues’ distance, his air element gets upset and his limbs pain him.
Yassa pana bahukā honti, tassa uṭṭhānanisajjādīsu na aṭṭhīni kaṭakaṭāyanti, dīghampi addhānaṃ gatassa na vāyodhātu kuppati, na gattāni dukkhanti. But if a man has plenty of it, his bones do not creak when he gets up, sits down, etc., and even when he has walked a long distance, his air element does not get upset and his limbs do not pain him.
Paricchedato lasikābhāgena paricchinnā, ayamassā sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is bounded by what appertains to oil of the joints …
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisova.
213.Muttanti muttarasaṃ. [Urine] 138. This is the urine solution.
Taṃ vaṇṇato māsakhārodakavaṇṇaṃ. As to colour, it is the colour of bean brine.
Saṇṭhānato adhomukhaṭṭhapitaudakakumbhaabbhantaragataudakasaṇṭhānaṃ. As to shape, it is the shape of water inside a water pot placed upside down.
Disato heṭṭhimāya disāya jātaṃ. As to direction, it belongs to the lower direction.
Okāsato vatthissa abbhantare ṭhitaṃ. As to location, it is to be found inside the bladder.
Vatthi nāma vatthi puṭo vuccati. For the bladder sack is called the bladder.
Yattha seyyathāpi candanikāya pakkhitte amukhe ravaṇaghaṭe candanikāraso pavisati, na cassa pavisanamaggo paññāyati, evameva sarīrato muttaṃ pavisati, na cassa pavisanamaggo paññāyati, nikkhamanamaggo pana pākaṭo hoti. Just as when a porous pot with no mouth is put into a cesspool, then the solution from the cesspool gets into the porous pot with no mouth even though no way of entry is evident, so too, while the urinary secretion from the body enters the bladder its way of entry is not evident. Its way of exit, however, is evident.
Yamhi ca muttassa bharite passāvaṃ karomāti sattānaṃ āyūhanaṃ hoti. And when the bladder is full of urine, beings feel the need to make water.
Paricchedato vatthiabbhantarena ceva muttabhāgena ca paricchinnaṃ, ayamassa sabhāgaparicchedo. As to delimitation, it is delimited by the inside of the bladder and by what is similar to urine. This is the delimitation by the similar.
Visabhāgaparicchedo pana kesasadisova. But its delimitation by the dissimilar is like that for the head hairs (see note at end of §90).
214.Evañhi kesādike koṭṭhāse vaṇṇasaṇṭhānadisokāsaparicchedavasena vavatthapetvā anupubbato nātisīghatotiādinā nayena vaṇṇasaṇṭhānagandhāsayokāsavasena pañcadhā paṭikkūlā paṭikkūlāti manasikaroto paṇṇattisamatikkamāvasāne seyyathāpi cakkhumato purisassa dvattiṃsavaṇṇānaṃ kusumānaṃ ekasuttakaganthitaṃ mālaṃ olokentassa sabbapupphāni apubbāpariyamiva pākaṭāni honti, evameva atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesāti imaṃ kāyaṃ olokentassa sabbe te dhammā apubbāpariyāva pākaṭā honti. [The Arising of Absorption] 139. When the meditator has defined the parts beginning with the head hairs in this way by colour, shape, direction, location and delimitation (§58), and he gives his attention in the ways beginning with “following the order, not too quickly” (§61) to their repulsiveness in the five aspects of colour, shape, smell, habitat, and location (§84f.), then at last he surmounts the concept (§66). Then just as when a man with good sight is observing a garland of flowers of thirty- two colours knotted on a single string and all the flowers become evident to him simultaneously, so too, when the meditator observes this body thus, “There are in this body head hairs,” then all these things become evident to him, as it were, simultaneously. Когда практикующий определил части тела начиная с волос головы таким образом по параметрам цвета, формы, направления, места и границ, и он направляет внимание тем способом, начинающимся с "следуя порядку, не слишком быстро" к их отвратительности в пяти аспектах (цвет, форма, запах, обитание и место), то он наконец выходит за пределы концепции. Затем как человек с хорошим зрением наблюдает гирлянду цветов из 32 цветов, нанизанных на одну нить и все цветы становятся видны ему одновременно, так и когда практикующий наблюдает это тело таким образом "в этом теле волосы тела", то все эти вещи становятся очевидны ему как они есть одновременно.
Tena vuttaṃ manasikārakosallakathāyaṃ "ādikammikassa hi kesāti manasikaroto manasikāro gantvā muttanti imaṃ pariyosānakoṭṭhāsameva āhacca tiṭṭhatī"ti. Hence it was said above in the explanation of skill in giving attention: “For when a beginner gives his attention to head hairs, his attention carries on till it arrives at the last part, that is, urine, and stops there” (§67). Поэтому выше в навыке направления внимания было сказано: "Потому что когда начинающий направляет внимание на волосы головы, его внимание затем продолжается до момента, когда оно останавливается на последней части, т.е. моче".
Sace pana bahiddhāpi manasikāraṃ upasaṃharati, athassa evaṃ sabbakoṭṭhāsesu pākaṭībhūtesu āhiṇḍantā manussatiracchānādayo sattākāraṃ vijahitvā koṭṭhāsarāsivaseneva upaṭṭhahanti, tehi ca ajjhohariyamānaṃ pānabhojanādi koṭṭhāsarāsimhi pakkhipamānamiva upaṭṭhāti. 140. If he applies his attention externally as well when all the parts have become evident in this way, then human beings, animals, etc., as they go about are divested of their aspect of beings and appear as just assemblages of parts. And when drink, food, etc., is being swallowed by them, it appears as though it were being put in among the assemblage of parts. Если он направляет внимание также и вовне, когда все части стали таким образом очевидны, то с проходящих поблизости людей, животных и проч. срывается пелена аспекта существ и они выглядят просто как собрание частей. А когда они поглощают напитки, еду и прочее, оно выглядит как будто это всё помещают в собрание частей.
Athassa anupubbamuñcanādivasena paṭikkūlā paṭikkūlāti punappunaṃ manasikaroto anukkamena appanā uppajjati. 141. Then, as he gives his attention to them again and again as “Repulsive, repulsive,” employing the process of “successive leaving,” etc. (§67), eventually absorption arises in him. Затем, по мере того как он снова и снова направляет на них внимание мыслями "отвратительные, отвратительные", с использованием процесса "последовательного оставления", со временем в нём возникает поглощённость.
Tattha kesādīnaṃ vaṇṇasaṇṭhānadisokāsaparicchedavasena upaṭṭhānaṃ uggahanimittaṃ. Herein, the appearance of the head hairs, etc., as to colour, shape, direction, location, and delimitation is the learning sign; Здесь вид волос головы и прочее в части цвета, формы, направления, места и границ является представлением обучения,
Sabbākārato paṭikkūlavasena upaṭṭhānaṃ paṭibhāganimittaṃ. their appearance as repulsive in all aspects is the counterpart sign. а их представление как отвратительных во всех аспектах является представлением-двойником.
Taṃ āsevato bhāvayato vuttanayena asubhakammaṭṭhānesu viya paṭhamajjhānavaseneva appanā uppajjati. As he cultivates and develops that counterpart sign, absorption arises in him, but only of the first jhāna, in the same way as described under foulness as a meditation subject (VI.64f.). По мере развития и совершенствования представления-двойника в нём развивается поглощённость, но только первой джханы, таким же образом как описывается в 6 главе, где рассматривается непривлекательность в качестве предмета медитации.
Sā yassa ekova koṭṭhāso pākaṭo hoti, ekasmiṃ vā koṭṭhāse appanaṃ patvā puna aññasmiṃ yogaṃ na karoti, tassa ekāva uppajjati. And it arises singly in one to whom only one part has become evident, or who has reached absorption in one part and makes no further effort about another. И он появляется однократно у того, у кого только одна часть тела стала очевидной или у того, кто достиг поглощённости на одной части тела и не прилагает усилий на других.
Yassa pana aneke koṭṭhāsā pākaṭā honti, ekasmiṃ vā jhānaṃ patvā puna aññasmiṃpi yogaṃ karoti, tassa mallakattherassa viya koṭṭhāsagaṇanāya paṭhamajjhānāni nibbattanti. 142. But several first jhānas, according to the number of parts, are produced in one to whom several parts have become evident, or who has reached jhāna in one and also makes further effort about another. As in the case of the Elder Mallaka. Но несколько первых уровней поглощённости в соответствии с количеством частей тела, возникают у тех, у кого стали очевидными несколько частей или кто достиг поглощённости в одной и также прилагает дополнительные усилия в отношении другой. Как было в случае монаха Маллаки.
So kirāyasmā dīghabhāṇakaabhayattheraṃ hatthe gahetvā "āvuso abhaya, imaṃ tāva pañhaṃ uggaṇhāhī"ti vatvā āha – "mallakatthero dvattiṃsakoṭṭhāsesu dvattiṃsāya paṭhamajjhānānaṃ lābhī. The elder, it seems, took the Elder Abhaya, the Dīgha reciter, by the hand,36 and after saying “Friend Abhaya, first learn this matter,” he went on: “The Elder Mallaka is an obtainer of thirty-two jhānas in the thirty-two parts. Этот монах взял за руку монаха Абхаю, который был одним из декламаторов Дигха Никаи, и сказав "Друг Абхая, сначала изучите этот вопрос", он продолжил: "Монах Маллака - обладатель 32 поглощённостей в 32 частях тела. Comm. NT: 36. Reference is sometimes made to the “hand-grasping question” (hattha-gahaka pañhā). It may be to this; but there is another mentioned at ...
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Sace rattiṃ ekaṃ, divā ekaṃ samāpajjati, atirekaddhamāsena puna sampajjati, sace pana devasikaṃ ekaṃ samāpajjati, atirekamāsena puna sampajjatī"ti. If he enters upon one by night and one by day, he goes on entering upon them for over a fortnight; but if he enters upon one each day, he goes on entering upon them for over a month.” Если он входит в одну поглощённость ночью и в одну днём, он продолжает входить в них в течение двух недель, но если он входит в одну из них каждый день, он продолжает входить в них в течение месяца."
Evaṃ paṭhamajjhānavasena ijjhamānampi cetaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ vaṇṇasaṇṭhānādīsu satibalena ijjhanato kāyagatāsatīti vuccati. 143. And although this meditation is successful in this way with the first jhāna, it is nevertheless called “mindfulness occupied with the body” because it is successful through the influence of the mindfulness of the colour, shape, and so on. И хотя эта медитация успешна таким образом с первой поглощённостью, она всё равно называется "памятованием, направленным на тело", потому что она успешна благодаря влиянию памятования о цвете, форме и прочем.
Imañca kāyagatāsatimanuyutto bhikkhu aratiratisaho hoti, na ca naṃ arati sahati, uppannaṃ aratiṃ abhibhuyya abhibhuyya viharati. 144. And the bhikkhu who is devoted to this mindfulness occupied with the body “is a conqueror of boredom and delight, and boredom does not conquer him; he dwells transcending boredom as it arises. А монах, приверженный этому памятованию, направленному на тело, является "победителем скуки и наслаждения и скука не одолевает его. Он живёт преодолевая скуку когда она возникает.
Bhayabheravasaho hoti, na ca naṃ bhayabheravaṃ sahati, uppannaṃ bhayabheravaṃ abhibhuyya abhibhuyya viharati. He is a conqueror of fear and dread, and fear and dread do not conquer him; he dwells transcending fear and dread as they arise. Он победитель страха и ужаса, а страх и ужас не одолевают его. Он живёт, преодолевая страх и ужас, когда они возникают.
Khamo hoti sītassa uṇhassa - pe - pāṇaharānaṃ adhivāsakajātiko hoti (ma. ni. 3.159). He is one who bears cold and heat … who endures … arisen bodily feelings that are … menacing to life” (M III 97); Он из тех, кто терпит холод и жару... кто переносит... возникшие телесные ощущения, которые... опасны для жизни. Comm. NT: 37. The allusion seems to be to the bases of mastery (abhibhāyatana—or better, bases for transcendence); see M II l3 and M-a III 257f.; but ...
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Kesādīnaṃ vaṇṇabhedaṃ nissāya catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ lābhī hoti. he becomes an obtainer of the four jhānas based on the colour aspect of the head hairs,37 etc.; Он становится обладателем четырёх поглощённостей, основанных на аспекте цвета волос головы,
Cha abhiññā paṭivijjhati (ma. ni. 3.159). and he comes to penetrate the six kinds of direct-knowledge (see MN 6). и он осуществляет шесть видов сверхзнания"
Tasmā have appamatto, anuyuñjetha paṇḍito; So let a man, if he is wise, Untiringly devote his days И пусть тот муж, коли он мудр Безустанно дни свои проводит
Evaṃ anekānisaṃsaṃ, imaṃ kāyagatāsatinti. To mindfulness of body which Rewards him in so many ways. Памятованию о теле посвящая Что награждает его многообразно.
Idaṃ kāyagatāsatiyaṃ vitthārakathāmukhaṃ. This is the section dealing with mindfulness occupied with the body in the detailed treatise.
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