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3. Suppabuddhakuṭṭhisuttavaṇṇanā Палийский оригинал

пали Peter Masefield - english khantibalo - русский Комментарии
43.Tatiye rājagahe suppabuddho nāma kuṭṭhī ahosīti suppabuddhanāmako eko puriso rājagahe ahosi.
So ca kuṭṭhī kuṭṭharogena bāḷhavidūsitagatto.
Manussadaliddoti yattakā rājagahe manussā tesu sabbaduggato.
So hi saṅkārakūṭavatiādīsu manussehi chaḍḍitapilotikakhaṇḍāni sibbitvā paridahati, kapālaṃ gahetvā gharā gharaṃ gantvā laddhaācāmaucchiṭṭhabhattāni nissāya jīvati, tampi pubbe katakammapaccayā na yāvadatthaṃ labhati.
Tena vuttaṃ "manussadaliddo"ti.
Manussakapaṇoti manussesu paramakapaṇataṃ patto.
Manussavarākoti manussānaṃ hīḷitaparibhūtatāya ativiya dīno.
Mahatiyā parisāyāti mahatiyā bhikkhuparisāya ceva upāsakaparisāya ca.
Ekadivasaṃ kira bhagavā mahābhikkhusaṅghaparivāro rājagahaṃ piṇḍāya pavisitvā bhikkhūnaṃ sulabhapiṇḍapātaṃ katvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātappaṭikkanto katipayabhikkhuparivāro nikkhanto yehi dānaṃ dinnaṃ, tesaṃ upāsakānaṃ avasesabhikkhūnañca āgamanaṃ āgamayamāno antonagareyeva aññatarasmiṃ ramaṇīye padese aṭṭhāsi.
Tāvadeva bhikkhū tato tato āgantvā bhagavantaṃ parivāresuṃ, upāsakāpi "anumodanaṃ sutvā vanditvā nivattissāmā"ti bhagavantaṃ upasaṅkamiṃsu, mahāsannipāto ahosi.
Bhagavā nisīdanākāraṃ dassesi.
Tāvadeva buddhārahaṃ āsanaṃ paññāpesuṃ.
Atha bhagavā asītianubyañjanappaṭimaṇḍitehi dvattiṃsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi virocamānāya byāmappabhāparikkhepasamujjalāya nīlapītalohitodātamañjeṭṭhapabhassarānaṃ vasena chabbaṇṇabuddharaṃsiyo vissajjentiyā anupamāya rūpakāyasiriyā sakalameva taṃ padesaṃ obhāsento tārāgaṇaparivuto viya puṇṇacando bhikkhugaṇaparivuto paññattavarabuddhāsane nisīditvā manosilātale kesarasīho viya sīhanādaṃ nadanto karavīkarutamañjunā brahmassarena dhammaṃ deseti.
Bhikkhūpi kho appicchā santuṭṭhā pavivittā asaṃsaṭṭhā āraddhavīriyā pahitattā codakā pāpagarahino vattāro vacanakkhamā sīlasampannā samādhisampannā paññāsampannā vimuttisampannā vimuttiñāṇadassanasampannā meghavaṇṇaṃ paṃsukūlacīvaraṃ pārupitvā suvammitā viya gandhahatthino bhagavantaṃ parivāretvā ohitasotā dhammaṃ suṇanti.
Upāsakāpi suddhavatthanivatthā suddhuttarāsaṅgā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ mahādānāni pavattetvā gandhamālādīhi bhagavantaṃ pūjetvā vanditvā bhikkhusaṅghassa nipaccakāraṃ dassetvā bhagavantaṃ bhikkhusaṅghañca parivāretvā saṃyatahatthapādā ohitasotā sakkaccaṃ dhammaṃ suṇanti.
Tena vuttaṃ – "tena kho pana samayena bhagavā mahatiyā parisāya parivuto dhammaṃ desento nisinno hotī"ti.
Suppabuddho pana jighacchādubbalyapareto ghāsapariyesanaṃ caramāno antaravīthiṃ otiṇṇo dūratova taṃ mahājanasannipātaṃ disvā, "kiṃ nu kho ayaṃ mahājanakāyo sannipatito, addhā ettha bhojanaṃ dīyati maññe, appeva nāmettha gatena kiñci khādanīyaṃ vā bhojanīyaṃ vā laddhuṃ sakkā"ti sañjātābhilāso tattha gantvā addasa bhagavantaṃ pāsādikaṃ dassanīyaṃ pasādanīyaṃ uttamadamathasamathamanuppattaṃ dantaṃ guttaṃ santindriyaṃ susamāhitaṃ tāya parisāya parivutaṃ dhammaṃ desentaṃ, disvāna purimajātisambhatāya paripakkāya upanissayasampattiyā codiyamāno "yaṃnūnāhampi dhammaṃ suṇeyya"nti parisapariyante nisīdi.
Taṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ – "addasā kho suppabuddho kuṭṭhī - pe - tattheva ekamantaṃ nisīdi'ahampi dhammaṃ sossāmī"'ti.
Sabbāvantanti sabbāvatiṃ hīnādisabbapuggalavataṃ, tattha kiñcipi anavasesetvāti attho.
"Sabbavanta"ntipi paṭhanti.
Cetasāti buddhacakkhusampayuttacittena.
Cittasīsena hi ñāṇaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ, tasmā āsayānusayañāṇena indriyaparopariyattañāṇena cāti attho.
Ceto paricca manasākāsīti tassā parisāya cittaṃ paccekaṃ paricchinditvā manasi akāsi te volokesi.
Bhabbo dhammaṃ viññātunti maggaphaladhammaṃ adhigantuṃ samattho, upanissayasampannoti attho.
Etadahosīti ayaṃ suppabuddho kiñcāpi tagarasikhimhi paccekabuddhe aparajjhitvā īdiso jāto, maggaphalūpanissayo panassa paṃsupaṭicchannasuvaṇṇanikkhaṃ viya antohadayeyeva vijjotati, tasmā suviññāpiyoti idaṃ ahosi.
Tenāha – "ayaṃ kho idha bhabbo dhammaṃ viññātu"nti.
Anupubbiṃ kathanti dānānantaraṃ sīlaṃ, sīlānantaraṃ saggaṃ, saggānantaraṃ magganti evaṃ anupaṭipāṭikathaṃ.
Bhagavā hi paṭhamaṃ hetunā saddhiṃ assādaṃ dassetvā tato satte vivecetuṃ nānānayehi ādīnavaṃ pakāsetvā ādīnavasavanena saṃviggahadayānaṃ nekkhammaguṇavibhāvanamukhena ca vivaṭṭaṃ dasseti.
Dānakathanti idaṃ nāma sukhānaṃ nidānaṃ, sampattīnaṃ mūlaṃ, bhogānaṃ patiṭṭhā, visamagatassa tāṇaṃ leṇaṃ gati parāyaṇaṃ, idhalokaparalokesu dānasadiso avassayo patiṭṭhā ālambanaṃ tāṇaṃ leṇaṃ gati parāyaṇaṃ natthi.
Idañhi avassayaṭṭhena ratanamayasīhāsanasadisaṃ, patiṭṭhānaṭṭhena mahāpathavisadisaṃ, ālambanaṭṭhena ālambanarajjusadisaṃ, dukkhanittharaṇaṭṭhena nāvāsadisaṃ, samassāsanaṭṭhena saṅgāmasūro, bhayaparittāṇaṭṭhena suparikhāparikkhittanagaraṃ, maccheramalādīhi anupalittaṭṭhena padumaṃ, tesaṃ nidahanaṭṭhena jātavedo, durāsadaṭṭhena āsīviso, asantāsaṭṭhena sīho, balavantaṭṭhena hatthī, abhimaṅgalasammataṭṭhena setausabho, khemantabhūmisampāpanaṭṭhena valāhako assarājā.
Dānañhi loke rajjasiriṃ deti, cakkavattisampattiṃ sakkasampattiṃ mārasampattiṃ brahmasampattiṃ sāvakapāramīñāṇaṃ paccekabodhiñāṇaṃ sammāsambodhiñāṇaṃ detīti evamādidānaguṇappaṭisaṃyuttakathaṃ.
Yasmā pana dānaṃ dento sīlaṃ samādātuṃ sakkoti, tasmā dānakathānantaraṃ sīlakathaṃ kathesi.
Sīlakathanti sīlaṃ nāmetaṃ sattānaṃ avassayo patiṭṭhā ālambanaṃ tāṇaṃ leṇaṃ gati parāyaṇaṃ.
Idhalokaparalokasampattīnañhi sīlasadiso avassayo patiṭṭhā ālambanaṃ tāṇaṃ leṇaṃ gati parāyaṇaṃ natthi, sīlālaṅkārasadiso alaṅkāro, sīlapupphasadisaṃ pupphaṃ, sīlagandhasadiso gandho natthi, sīlālaṅkārena hi alaṅkataṃ sīlakusumapiḷandhitaṃ sīlagandhānulittaṃ sadevako loko olokento tittiṃ na gacchatīti evamādīhi sīlaguṇappaṭisaṃyuttakathaṃ.
Idaṃ pana sīlaṃ nissāya ayaṃ saggo labbhatīti dassetuṃ sīlānantaraṃ saggakathaṃ kathesi.
Saggakathanti saggo nāma iṭṭho kanto manāpo, niccamettha kīḷā niccasampattiyo labbhanti, cātumahārājikā devā navutivassasatasahassāni dibbasukhaṃ dibbasampattiṃ paṭilabhanti, tāvatiṃsā tisso vassakoṭiyo saṭṭhi ca vassasatasahassānīti evamādisaggaguṇappaṭisaṃyuttakathaṃ.
Saggasampattiṃ kathentānañhi buddhānaṃ mukhaṃ nappahoti.
Vuttampi cetaṃ "anekapariyāyena kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, saggakathaṃ katheyya"ntiādi.
Evaṃ hetunā saddhiṃ saggakathāya palobhetvā puna hatthiṃ alaṅkaritvā tassa soṇḍaṃ chindanto viya "ayampi saggo anicco adhuvo, na ettha chandarāgo kātabbo"ti dassanatthaṃ "appassādā kāmā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo"tiādinā (ma. ni. 1.177; 2.42) nayena kāmānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ kathesi.
Tattha ādīnavanti dosaṃ.
Okāranti lāmakasabhāvaṃ, aseṭṭhehi sevitabbaṃ seṭṭhehi na sevitabbaṃ nihīnasabhāvanti attho.
Saṃkilesanti tehi sattānaṃ saṃsāre saṃkilissanaṃ.
Tenāha – "kilissanti vata bho sattā"ti (ma. ni. 2.351).
Evaṃ kāmādīnavena tajjetvā nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ pakāsesi pabbajjāya jhānādīsu ca guṇaṃ dīpesi vaṇṇesi.
Kallacittantiādīsu kallacittanti kammaniyacittaṃ, heṭṭhā pavattitadesanāya assaddhiyādīnaṃ cittadosānaṃ vigatattā uparidesanāya bhājanabhāvūpagamanena kammaniyacittaṃ, kammakkhamacittanti attho.
Diṭṭhimānādisaṃkilesavigamena muducittaṃ.
Kāmacchandādivigamena vinīvaraṇacittaṃ.
Sammāpaṭipattiyaṃ uḷārapītipāmojjayogena udaggacittaṃ.
Tattha saddhāsampattiyā pasannacittaṃ, yadā bhagavā aññāsīti sambandho.
Atha vā kallacittanti kāmacchandavigamena arogacittaṃ.
Muducittanti byāpādavigamena mettāvasena akathinacittaṃ.
Vinīvaraṇacittanti uddhaccakukkuccavigamena avikkhipanato na pihitacittaṃ.
Udaggacittanti thinamiddhavigamena sampaggahavasena alīnacittaṃ.
Pasannacittanti vicikicchāvigamena sammāpaṭipattiyā adhimuttacittaṃ.
Athāti pacchā.
Sāmukkaṃsikāti sāmaṃ ukkaṃsikā attanāva uddharitvā gahitā, sayambhūñāṇena sāmaṃ diṭṭhā, aññesaṃ asādhāraṇāti attho.
Kā ca pana sāti?
Ariyasaccadesanā.
Tenevāha – "dukkhaṃ samudayaṃ nirodhaṃ magga"nti.
Idañhi saccānaṃ sarūpadassanaṃ, tasmā imasmiṃ ṭhāne ariyasaccāni kathetabbāni, tāni sabbākārato vitthārena visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 2.529) vuttānīti tattha vuttanayena veditabbāni.
Seyyathāpītiādinā upamāvasena suppabuddhassa kilesappahānaṃ ariyamagguppādañca dasseti.
Apagatakāḷakanti vigatakāḷakaṃ.
Sammadevāti suṭṭhuyeva.
Rajananti nīlapītalohitamañjeṭṭhādiraṅgajātaṃ.
Paṭiggaṇheyyāti gaṇheyya, pabhassaraṃ bhaveyya.
Tasmiṃyeva āsaneti tassaṃyeva nisajjāyaṃ.
Etenassa lahuvipassanakatā tikkhapaññatā sukhāpaṭipadā khippābhiññatā ca dassitā honti.
Virajaṃ vītamalanti apāyagamanīyarāgarajādīnaṃ abhāvena virajaṃ, anavasesadiṭṭhivicikicchāmalāpagamena vītamalaṃ.
Paṭhamamaggavajjhakilesarajābhāvena vā virajaṃ, pañcavidhadussīlamalāpagamena vītamalaṃ.
Dhammacakkhunti sotāpattimaggo adhippeto.
Tassa uppattiākāradassanatthaṃ "yaṃkiñci samudayadhammaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhamma"nti vuttaṃ.
Tañhi nirodhaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā kiccavasena eva saṅkhatadhamme paṭivijjhantaṃ uppajjati.
Tatridaṃ upamāsaṃsandanaṃ – vatthaṃ viya cittaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ, vatthassa āgantukamalehi kiliṭṭhabhāvo viya cittassa rāgādimalehi saṃkiliṭṭhabhāvo, dhovanaphalakaṃ viya anupubbikathā, udakaṃ viya saddhā, udakena temetvā temetvā gomayakhārehi kāḷake sammadditvā vatthassa dhovanappayogo viya saddhāsalilena temetvā satisamādhipaññāhi dose sithile katvā saddhādividhinā cittassa sodhane vīriyārambho, tena payogena vatthe kāḷakāpagamo viya vīriyārambhena kilesavikkhambhanaṃ, raṅgajātaṃ viya ariyamaggo, tena suddhassa vatthassa pabhassarabhāvo viya vikkhambhitakilesassa cittassa maggena pariyodāpananti.
Evaṃ pana suppabuddho parisapariyante nisinno dhammadesanaṃ sutvā sotāpattiphalaṃ patvā attanā paṭiladdhaguṇaṃ satthu ārocetukāmo parisamajjhaṃ ogāhituṃ avisahanto mahājanassa satthāraṃ vanditvā anugantvā nivattakāle bhagavati vihāraṃ gate sayampi vihāraṃ agamāsi.
Tasmiṃ khaṇe sakko devarājā "ayaṃ suppabuddho kuṭṭhī attanā satthu sāsane paṭiladdhaguṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ kātukāmo"ti ñatvā "vīmaṃsissāmi na"nti gantvā ākāse ṭhito etadavoca – "suppabuddha tvaṃ manussadaliddo manussakapaṇo manussavarāko, ahaṃ te aparimitaṃ dhanaṃ dassāmi, 'buddho na buddho, dhammo na dhammo, saṅgho na saṅgho, alaṃ me buddhena, alaṃ me dhammena, alaṃ me saṅghenā'ti vadehī"ti.
Atha naṃ so āha "kosi tva"nti?
"Ahaṃ sakko devarājā"ti.
"Andhabāla ahirika, tvaṃ mayā saddhiṃ kathetuṃ na yuttarūpo, yo tvaṃ evaṃ avattabbaṃ vadesi, apica maṃ tvaṃ 'duggato daliddo kapaṇo'ti kasmā vadesi, nanu ahaṃ lokanāthassa orasaputto, nevāhaṃ duggato na daliddo na kapaṇo, atha kho sukhappatto paramena sukhena apāhamasmi mahaddhano"ti vatvā āha –
"Saddhādhanaṃ sīladhanaṃ, hiriottappiyaṃ dhanaṃ;
Sutadhanañca cāgo ca, paññā ve sattamaṃ dhanaṃ.
"Yassa ete dhanā atthi, itthiyā purisassa vā;
'Adaliddo'ti taṃ āhu, amoghaṃ tassa jīvita"nti. (a. ni. 7.5) –
Tassimāni me satta ariyadhanāni santi.
Yesañhi imāni dhanāni santi, na tveva te buddhehi vā paccekabuddhehi vā 'daliddā'ti vuccantī"ti.
Sakko tassa kathaṃ sutvā taṃ antarāmagge ohāya satthu santikaṃ gantvā sabbaṃ taṃ vacanaṃ paṭivacanañca ārocesi.
Atha naṃ bhagavā āha – "na kho sakka sakkā tādisānaṃ satenapi sahassenapi suppabuddhaṃ kuṭṭhiṃ 'buddho na buddho, dhammo na dhammo, saṅgho na saṅgho'ti kathāpetu"nti.
Suppabuddhopi kho kuṭṭhī satthu santikaṃ gantvā satthārā katapaṭisanthāro attanā paṭiladdhaguṇaṃ ārocesi.
Tena vuttaṃ – "atha kho suppabuddho kuṭṭhī diṭṭhadhammo"tiādi.
Tattha diṭṭhadhammoti diṭṭho ariyasaccadhammo etenāti diṭṭhadhammo.
Sesapadesupi eseva nayo.
Tattha "diṭṭhadhammo"ti cettha sāmaññavacano dhammasaddo.
Dassanaṃ nāma ñāṇadassanato aññampi atthīti taṃ nivattanatthaṃ "pattadhammo"ti vuttaṃ.
Patti ca ñāṇasampattito aññāpi vijjatīti tato visesanatthaṃ "viditadhammo"ti vuttaṃ.
Sā panāyaṃ viditadhammatā dhammesu ekadesenāpi hotīti nippadesato viditabhāvaṃ dassetuṃ "pariyogāḷhadhammo"ti vuttaṃ.
Tenassa yathāvuttaṃ saccābhisambodhaṃyeva dīpeti.
Maggañāṇañhi ekābhisamayavasena pariññādikiccaṃ sādhentaṃ nippadesenapi pariññeyyadhammaṃ samantato ogāḷhaṃ nāma hoti, na tadaññañāṇaṃ.
Tena vuttaṃ – "diṭṭho ariyasaccadhammo etenāti diṭṭhadhammo"ti.
Tenevāha "tiṇṇavicikiccho"tiādi.
Tattha paṭibhayakantārasadisā soḷasavatthukā ca aṭṭhavatthukā ca tiṇṇā vicikicchā etenāti tiṇṇavicikiccho.
Tato eva pavattiādīsu "evaṃ nu kho, na nu kho"ti evaṃ pavattitā vigatā samucchinnā kathaṃkathā etassāti vigatakathaṃkatho.
Sārajjakarānaṃ pāpadhammānaṃ pahīnattā tappaṭipakkhesu ca sīlādiguṇesu suppatiṭṭhitattā vesārajjaṃ visāradabhāvaṃ veyyattiyaṃ pattoti vesārajjappatto.
Nāssa paro paccayo, na parassa saddhāya ettha vattatīti aparappaccayo.
Katthāti āha "satthusāsane"ti.
Abhikkantantiādīsu kiñcāpi ayaṃ abhikkantasaddo khayasundarābhirūpabbhanumodanādīsu anekesu atthesu dissati, idha pana abbhanumodane daṭṭhabbo.
Teneva so pasādavasena pasaṃsāvasena ca dvikkhattuṃ vutto, sādhu sādhu, bhanteti vuttaṃ hoti.
Abhikkantanti vā atikantaṃ atiiṭṭhaṃ atimanāpaṃ, atisundaranti attho.
Tattha ekena abhikkantasaddena bhagavato desanaṃ thometi, ekena attano pasādaṃ.
Ayañhettha adhippāyo – abhikkantaṃ, bhante, yadidaṃ bhagavato dhammadesanā, abhikkantaṃ, bhante, yadidaṃ bhagavato dhammadesanaṃ āgamma mama pasādoti.
Bhagavato eva vā vacanaṃ abhikkantaṃ dosanāsanato, abhikkantaṃ guṇādhigamanato, tathā saddhāvaḍḍhanato, paññājananato, sātthato, sabyañjanato, uttānapadato, gambhīratthato, kaṇṇasukhato, hadayaṅgamato, anattukkaṃsanato, aparavambhanato, karuṇāsītalato, paññāvadātato, āpātharamaṇīyato, vimaddakkhamato, suyyamānasukhato, vīmaṃsiyamānahitatoti evamādinayehi thomento padadvayaṃ āha.
Tato parampi catūhi upamāhi desanaṃyeva thometi.
Tattha nikkujjitanti adhomukhaṭṭhapitaṃ, heṭṭhāmukhajātaṃ vā.
Ukkujjeyyāti upari mukhaṃ kareyya.
Paṭicchannanti tiṇapaṇṇādinā chāditaṃ.
Vivareyyāti ugghāṭeyya.
Mūḷhassāti disāmūḷhassa.
Maggaṃ ācikkheyyāti hatthe gahetvā "esa maggo"ti maggaṃ upadiseyya.
Andhakāreti caturaṅgasamannāgate.
Ayaṃ tāva padattho.
Ayaṃ pana adhippāyayojanā – yathā koci nikkujjitaṃ ukkujjeyya, evaṃ saddhammavimukhaṃ asaddhamme patiṭṭhitaṃ maṃ asaddhammā vuṭṭhāpentena, yathā paṭicchannaṃ vivareyya, evaṃ kassapassa bhagavato sāsanantaradhānato paṭṭhāya micchādiṭṭhigahanapaṭicchannaṃ sāsanaṃ vivarantena, yathā mūḷhassa maggaṃ ācikkheyya, evaṃ kummaggamicchāmaggappaṭipannassa me saggamokkhamaggaṃ āvikarontena, yathā andhakāre telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya, evaṃ mohandhakāre nimuggassa me buddhādiratanarūpāni apassato tappaṭicchādakamohandhakāraviddhaṃsanadesanāpajjotadhāraṇena bhagavatā nānānayehi pakāsitattā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito.
Evaṃ desanaṃ thometvā tāya desanāya ratanattaye pasannacitto pasannākāraṃ karonto "esāha"ntiādimāha.
Tattha esāhanti eso ahaṃ.
Bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmīti bhagavā me saraṇaṃ parāyaṇaṃ aghassa ghātā, hitassa vidhātāti iminā adhippāyena bhagavantaṃ gacchāmi bhajāmi, evaṃ vā jānāmi bujjhāmīti.
Yesañhi dhātūnaṃ gatiattho, buddhipi tesaṃ atthoti.
Dhammanti adhigatamagge sacchikatanirodhe yathānusiṭṭhaṃ paṭipajjamāne catūsu apāyesu apatamāne dhāretīti dhammo.
So atthato ariyamaggo ceva nibbānañca.
Vuttañhetaṃ –
"Yāvatā, bhikkhave, dhammā saṅkhatā, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo tesaṃ aggamakkhāyatī"ti (a. ni. 4.34; itivu. 90).
"Yāvatā, bhikkhave, dhammā saṅkhatā vā asaṅkhatā vā, virāgo tesaṃ aggamakkhāyatī"ti (itivu. 90) ca –
Na kevalaṃ ariyamaggo ceva nibbānañca, apica kho ariyaphalehi saddhiṃ pariyattidhammopi.
Vuttañhetaṃ –
"Rāgavirāgamanejamasokaṃ, dhammamasaṅkhatamappaṭikūlaṃ;
Madhuramimaṃ paguṇaṃ suvibhattaṃ, dhammamimaṃ saraṇatthamupehī"ti. (vi. va. 887);
Ettha hi rāgavirāganti maggo vutto.
Anejamasokanti phalaṃ.
Asaṅkhatanti nibbānaṃ.
Appaṭikūlaṃ madhuramimaṃ paguṇaṃ suvibhattanti pariyattidhammo vuttoti.
Bhikkhusaṅghanti diṭṭhisīlasāmaññena saṃhataṃ aṭṭhaariyapuggalasamūhaṃ. To the order of monks (bhikkhusaṅgha): to the collection of the eight ariyapuggalas compact247 through their equality as regards (right) view and morality248. "Монашеский орден": совокупность благородных личностей, единых в своём равенстве (надлежащих) взглядов и нравственности.
Ettāvatā suppabuddho tīṇi saraṇagamanāni paṭivedesi. To this extent, Suppabuddha announces the three refuge-goings, viz.
Upāsakaṃ maṃ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gatanti ajjataggeti ajjataṃ ādiṃ katvā. "May the Lord accept me as a layfollower such that 'Beginning with today, whilst furnished with life's breath, I be one gone (thereto) as refuge' "249,
"Ajjadagge"tipi pāṭho, tattha dakāro padasandhikaro, ajja agge ajja ādiṃ katvāti attho. Beginning with today (ajjatagge)250: making today (ajjatam) the starting point (adim). Aija-d-agge is also a reading, wherein the syllable da provides a euphonic link between the words, meaning beginning with today (ajja-agge), making today the starting point (ajja-ādim) 251.
Pāṇupetanti pāṇehi upetaṃ, yāva me jīvitaṃ pavattati, tāva upetaṃ anaññasatthukaṃ tīhi saraṇagamanehi saraṇaṃ gataṃ ratanattayassa upāsanato upāsakaṃ kappiyakārakaṃ maṃ bhagavā upadhāretu jānātūti attho. Whilst furnished with life's breath : pāṇupetaṃ, pāṇehi upetaṃ (resolution of compound); may the Lord accept me as—meaning may he know me as—one abiding by the rules, one who is a layfollower (upasakam) on account of close association (upasanato252) with the Three jewels who be gone (thereto) as refuge by way of the three refuge-goings, one having no other teacher, so long as I be furnished (therewith), as life continues for me.
Imassa ca saraṇagamanaṃ ariyamaggādhigameneva nipphannaṃ, ajjhāsayaṃ pana āvikaronto evamāha. And this one's refuge-going had already been accomplished through attainment of the ariyan path, even though he speaks thus disclosing such to be his intention253.
Bhagavatobhāsitaṃ abhinanditvā anumoditvāti bhagavato vacanaṃ cittena abhinanditvā tameva abhinanditabhāvaṃ pakāsento vuttanayena vācāya anumoditvā.
Abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmīti taṃ bhagavantaṃ pañcapatiṭṭhitena vanditvā tikkhattuṃ padakkhiṇaṃ katvā satthu guṇaninnacitto yāva dassanavisayasamatikkamā bhagavantaṃyeva pekkhamāno pañjaliko namassamāno pakkāmi.
Pakkanto ca kuṭṭharogābhibhavena chinnahatthapādaṅguli ukkāragatto samantato vissandamānāsavo kaṇḍūtipatipīḷito asuci duggandho jegucchatamo paramakāruññataṃ patto "nāyaṃ kāyo imassa accantasantassa paṇītatamassa ariyadhammassa ādhāro bhavituṃ yutto"ti uppannābhisandhinā viya saggasaṃvattaniyena puññakammena okāse kate appāyukasaṃvattaniyena upacchedakena pāpakammena katūpacitena codiyamāno taruṇavacchāya dhenuyā āpatitvā mārito.
Tena vuttaṃ – "atha kho acirapakkantaṃ suppabuddhaṃ kuṭṭhiṃ gāvī taruṇavacchā adhipatitvā jīvitā voropesī"ti.
So kira atīte eko seṭṭhiputto hutvā attano sahāyehi tīhi seṭṭhiputtehi saddhiṃ kīḷanto ekaṃ nagarasobhiniṃ gaṇikaṃ uyyānaṃ netvā divasaṃ sampattiṃ anubhavitvā atthaṅgate sūriye sahāye etadavoca – "imissā hatthe kahāpaṇasahassaṃ bahukañca suvaṇṇaṃ mahagghāni ca pasādhanāni saṃvijjanti, imasmiṃ vane añño koci natthi, ratti ca jātā, handa imaṃ mayaṃ māretvā sabbaṃ dhanaṃ gahetvā gacchāmā"ti.
Te cattāropi janā ekajjhāsayā hutvā taṃ māretuṃ upakkamiṃsu.
Sā tehi māriyamānā "ime nillajjā nikkaruṇā mayā saddhiṃ kilesasanthavaṃ katvā niraparādhaṃ maṃ kevalaṃ dhanalobhena mārenti, ekavāraṃ tāva maṃ ime mārentu, ahaṃ pana yakkhinī hutvā anekavāraṃ ime māretuṃ samatthā bhaveyya"nti patthanaṃ katvā kālamakāsi.
Tesu kira eko pakkusāti kulaputto ahosi, eko bāhiyo dārucīriyo, eko tambadāṭhiko coraghātako, eko suppabuddho kuṭṭhī, iti imesaṃ catunnaṃ janānaṃ anekasate attabhāve sā yakkhayoniyaṃ nibbattā gāvī hutvā jīvitā voropesi.
Te tassa kammassa nissandena tattha tattha antarāmaraṇaṃ pāpuṇiṃsu.
Evaṃ suppabuddhassa kuṭṭhissa sahasā maraṇaṃ jātaṃ, tena vuttaṃ – "atha kho acirapakkantaṃ - pe - voropesī"ti.
Atha sambahulā bhikkhū tassa kālakiriyaṃ bhagavato ārocetvā abhisamparāyaṃ pucchiṃsu.
Bhagavā byākāsi.
Tena vuttaṃ – "atha kho sambahulā bhikkhū"tiādi.
Tattha tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayāti sakkāyadiṭṭhi vicikicchā sīlabbataparāmāsoti imesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ bhavabandhanānaṃ samucchedavasena pahānā.
Sotāpannoti sotasaṅkhātaṃ ariyamaggaṃ ādito panno.
Vuttañhetaṃ –
"Soto sototi idaṃ, āvuso sāriputta, vuccati.
Katamo nu kho, āvuso, sototi?
Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo"tiādi (saṃ. ni. 5.1001).
Avinipātadhammoti vinipatanaṃ vinipāto, nāssa vinipāto dhammoti avinipātadhammo, catūsu apāyesu upapajjanavasena apatanasabhāvoti attho.
Niyatoti dhammaniyāmena sammattaniyāmena niyato.
Sambodhiparāyaṇoti uparimaggattayasaṅkhātā sambodhi paraṃ ayanaṃ assa gati paṭisaraṇaṃ avassaṃ pattabbanti sambodhiparāyaṇo.
Etena "tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo"ti pucchāya bhaddikā eva suppabuddhassa gati, na pāpikāti ayamattho dassito.
Na pana tena sampattā gati, taṃ pana pucchānusandhivasena pakāsetukāmo dhammarājā ettakameva abhāsi.
Passati hi bhagavā "mayā ettake kathite imissaṃyeva parisati anusandhikusalo eko bhikkhu suppabuddhassa kuṭṭhibhāvadāliddiyakapaṇabhāvānaṃ kāraṇaṃ pucchissati, athāhaṃ tassa taṃ kāraṇaṃ tena pucchānusandhinā pakāsetvā desanaṃ niṭṭhāpessāmī"ti.
Tenevāha – "evaṃ vutte aññataro bhikkhū"tiādi.
Tattha hetūti asādhāraṇakāraṇaṃ, sādhāraṇakāraṇaṃ pana paccayoti, ayametesaṃ viseso.
Yenāti yena hetunā yena paccayena ca.
Bhūtapubbanti jātapubbaṃ.
Atīte kāle nibbattaṃ taṃ dassetuṃ "suppabuddho"tiādi vuttaṃ.
Kadā pana bhūtanti?
Atīte kira anuppanne tathāgate bārāṇasiyā sāmantā ekasmiṃ gāme ekā kuladhītā khettaṃ rakkhati.
Sā ekaṃ paccekabuddhaṃ disvā pasannacittā tassa pañcahi lājāsatehi saddhiṃ ekaṃ padumapupphaṃ datvā pañca puttasatāni patthesi.
Tasmiṃyeva khaṇe pañcasatā migaluddakā paccekabuddhassa madhuramaṃsaṃ datvā "etissā puttā bhaveyyāma, tumhehi pattavisesaṃ labheyyāmā"ti ca patthayiṃsu.
Sā yāvatāyukaṃ ṭhatvā devaloke nibbattā.
Tato cutā ekasmiṃ jātassare padumagabbhe nibbatti.
Tameko tāpaso disvā paṭijaggi.
Tassā vicarantiyā pāduddhāre pāduddhāre bhūmito padumāni uṭṭhahanti.
Eko vanacarako disvā bārāṇasirañño ārocesi.
Rājā taṃ ānetvā aggamahesiṃ akāsi.
Tassā kucchiyaṃ gabbho saṇṭhāsi.
Mahāpadumakumāro tassā kucchiyaṃ vasi, sesā gabbhamalaṃ nissāya nibbattā, te vayappattā uyyāne padumasare kīḷantā ekekasmiṃ padume nisīditvā paripakkañāṇā saṅkhāresu khayavayaṃ paṭṭhapetvā paccekabodhiṃ pāpuṇiṃsu.
Tesaṃ byākaraṇagāthā ahosi –
"Saroruhaṃ padumapalāsapatrajaṃ,
Supupphitaṃ bhamaragaṇānukiṇṇaṃ;
Aniccataṃ khayavayataṃ viditvā,
Eko care khaggavisāṇakappo"ti.
Evaṃ paccekabodhiṃ abhisambuddhesu tesu pañcasu paccekabuddhasatesu abbhantaro tagarasikhī nāma paccekasambuddho gandhamādanapabbate nandamūlapabbhāre sattāhaṃ nirodhasamāpattiṃ samāpajjitvā sattāhassa accayena nirodhā vuṭṭhito ākāsena āgantvā isigilipabbate otaritvā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya rājagahaṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi.
Tasmiñca samaye rājagahe eko seṭṭhiputto mahatā parivārena uyyānakīḷanatthaṃ nagarato nikkhamanto tagarasikhipaccekabuddhaṃ disvā "ko ayaṃ bhaṇḍukāsāvavasano, kuṭṭhī bhavissati, tathā hi kuṭṭhicīvarena sarīraṃ pārupitvā gacchatī"ti niṭṭhubhitvā apasabyaṃ katvā pakkāmi.
Taṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ – "suppabuddho kuṭṭhī imasmiṃyeva rājagahe - pe - pakkāmī"ti.
Tattha kvāyanti ko ayaṃ.
Khuṃsanavasena vadati.
"Kovāya"ntipi pāḷi.
Kuṭṭhīti akuṭṭhiṃyeva taṃ seṭṭhi kuṭṭharogaṃ akkosavatthuṃ pāpento vadati.
Kuṭṭhicīvarenāti kuṭṭhīnaṃ cīvarena.
Yebhuyyena hi kuṭṭhino ḍaṃsamakasasarīsapapaṭibāhanatthaṃ rogapaṭicchādanatthañca yaṃ vā taṃ vā pilotikakhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā pārupati, evamayampīti dasseti.
Paṃsukūlacīvaradharattā vā aggaḷānaṃ anekavaṇṇabhāvena kuṭṭhasarīrasadisoti hīḷento "kuṭṭhicīvarenā"ti āha.
Niṭṭhubhitvāti kheḷaṃ pātetvā.
Apasabyato karitvāti paṇḍitā tādisaṃ paccekabuddhaṃ disvā vanditvā padakkhiṇaṃ karonti, ayaṃ pana aviññutāya paribhavena taṃ apasabyaṃ katvā attano apasabyaṃ apadakkhiṇaṃ katvā gato.
"Apasabyāmato"tipi pāṭho.
Tassa kammassāti tagarasikhimhi paccekabuddhe "kvāyaṃ kuṭṭhī"ti hīḷetvā niṭṭhubhanaapasabyakaraṇavasena pavattapāpakammassa.
Niraye paccitthāti niraye nirayagginā dayhittha.
"Paccitvā nirayagginā"tipi paṭhanti.
Tasseva kammassa vipākāvasesenāti yena kammena so niraye paṭisandhiṃ gaṇhi, na taṃ kammaṃ manussaloke vipākaṃ deti.
Yā panassa nānakkhaṇikā cetanā tadā paccekabuddhe vippaṭipajjanavasena pavattā aparāpariyavedanīyabhūtā, sā aparāpariyavedanīyeneva puññakammena manussesu tihetukapaṭisandhiyā dinnāya pavattiyaṃ kuṭṭhibhāvaṃ dāliddiyaṃ paramakāruññataṃ āpādesi.
Taṃ sandhāya kammasabhāgatāvasena "tasseva kammassa vipākavasesenā"ti vuttaṃ.
Sadisepi hi loke tabbohāro diṭṭho yathā taṃ "sā eva tittirī, tāniyeva osadhānī"ti.
Ettāvatā "ko nu kho, bhante, hetū"ti tena bhikkhunā puṭṭhapañhaṃ vissajjetvā idāni yo "tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo"ti pubbe bhikkhūhi puṭṭhapañho, taṃ vissajjetuṃ "so tathāgatappavedita"ntiādi vuttaṃ.
Tattha tathāgatappaveditanti tathāgatena bhagavatā desitaṃ akkhātaṃ pakāsitanti tathāgatappaveditaṃ.
Āgammāti adhigantvā, nissāya ñatvā vā.
"Tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye"tipi pāṭho.
Saddhaṃ samādiyīti sammāsambuddho bhagavā, svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo, suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅghoti ratanattayasannissayaṃ pubbabhāgasaddhañceva lokuttarasaddhañcāti duvidhampi saddhaṃ sammā ādiyi.
Yathā na puna ādātabbā hoti, evaṃ yāva bhavakkhayā gaṇhi, attano cittasantāne uppādesīti attho.
Sīlaṃ samādiyītiādīsupi eseva nayo.
Sīlanti pubbabhāgasīlena saddhiṃ maggasīlaṃ phalasīlañca.
Sutanti pariyattibāhusaccaṃ paṭivedhabāhusaccañcāti duvidhampi sutaṃ.
Pariyattidhammāpi hi tena dhammassavanakāle saccappaṭivedhāya sāvakehi yathāladdhappakāraṃ sutā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā cāti.
Cāganti paṭhamamaggavajjhakilesābhisaṅkhārānaṃ vossaggasaṅkhātaṃ cāgaṃ, yena ariyasāvakā deyyadhammesu muttacāgā ca honti payatapāṇī vossaggaratā.
Paññanti saddhiṃ vipassanāpaññāya maggapaññañceva phalapaññañca.
Kāyassa bhedāti upādinnakkhandhapariccāgā.
Paraṃ maraṇāti tadanantaraṃ abhinibbattakkhandhagahaṇā.
Atha vā kāyassa bhedāti jīvitindriyassa upacchedā.
Paraṃ maraṇāti cutito uddhaṃ.
Sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokanti padattayenāpi devalokameva vadati.
So hi sampattīnaṃ sobhanattā sundarā gatīti sugati, rūpādīhi visesehi suṭṭhu aggoti saggo, sabbakālaṃ sukhamevettha lokiyati, lujjatīti vā lokoti vuccati.
Upapannoti paṭisandhiggahaṇavasena upagato.
Sahabyatanti sahabhāvaṃ.
Vacanattho pana saha byati pavattati, vasatīti vā sahabyo, sahaṭhāyī sahavāyī vā.
Tassa bhāvo sahabyatā.
Atirocatīti atikkamma abhibhavitvā rocati virocati.
Vaṇṇenāti rūpasampattiyā.
Yasasāti parivārena.
So hi asucimakkhitaṃ jajjaraṃ mattikābhājanaṃ chaḍḍetvā anekaratanavicittaṃ pabhassararaṃsijālavinaddhasuddhajambunadabhājanaṃ gaṇhanto viya vuttappakāraṃ kaḷevaraṃ idha nikkhipitvā ekacittakkhaṇena yathāvuttaṃ dibbattabhāvaṃ mahatā parivārena saddhiṃ paṭilabhīti.
Etamatthaṃ viditvāti etaṃ pāpānaṃ aparivajjane ādīnavaṃ, parivajjane ca ānisaṃsaṃ sabbākārato viditvā tadatthavibhāvanaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.
Tassāyaṃ saṅkhepattho – yathā cakkhumā puriso parakkame kāyikavīriye vijjamāne sarīre vahante visamāni papātādiṭṭhānāni caṇḍabhāvena vā visamāni hatthiassaahikukkuragorūpādīni parivajjaye, evaṃ jīvalokasmiṃ imasmiṃ sattaloke paṇḍito sappañño puriso tāya sappaññatāya attano hitaṃ jānanto pāpāni lāmakāni duccaritāni parivajjeyya.
Evañhi yathāyaṃ suppabuddho tagarasikhimhi paccekabuddhe pāpaṃ aparivajjetvā mahantaṃ anayabyasanaṃ āpajji, evaṃ āpajjeyyāti adhippāyo.
Yathā vā suppabuddho kuṭṭhī mama dhammadesanaṃ āgamma idāni saṃvegappatto pāpāni parivajjento uḷāraṃ visesaṃ adhigañchi, evaṃ aññopi uḷāraṃ visesādhigamaṃ icchanto pāpāni parivajjeyyāti adhippāyo.
Tatiyasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.