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Saraṇagamanakathā Палийский оригинал

пали khantibalo - русский Комментарии
Idāni tesu saraṇagamanesu kosallatthaṃ saraṇaṃ, saraṇagamanaṃ, yo ca saraṇaṃ gacchati, saraṇagamanappabhedo, saraṇagamanaphalaṃ, saṅkileso, bhedoti, ayaṃ vidhi veditabbo.
Seyyathidaṃ – saraṇatthato tāva hiṃsatīti saraṇaṃ.
Saraṇagatānaṃ teneva saraṇagamanena bhayaṃ santāsaṃ dukkhaṃ duggatiparikilesaṃ hanati vināsetīti attho, ratanattayassevetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
Atha vā hite pavattanena ahitā ca nivattanena sattānaṃ bhayaṃ hiṃsati buddho.
Bhavakantārā uttāraṇena assāsadānena ca dhammo; appakānampi kārānaṃ vipulaphalapaṭilābhakaraṇena saṅgho.
Tasmā imināpi pariyāyena ratanattayaṃ saraṇaṃ.
Tappasādataggarutāhi vihatakileso tapparāyaṇatākārappavatto cittuppādo saraṇagamanaṃ.
Taṃ samaṅgīsatto saraṇaṃ gacchati.
Vuttappakārena cittuppādena etāni me tīṇi ratanāni saraṇaṃ, etāni parāyaṇanti evaṃ upetīti attho.
Evaṃ tāva saraṇaṃ, saraṇagamanaṃ, yo ca saraṇaṃ gacchati, idaṃ tayaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Saraṇagamanappabhede pana duvidhaṃ saraṇagamanaṃ – lokuttaraṃ lokiyañca.
Tattha lokuttaraṃ diṭṭhasaccānaṃ maggakkhaṇe saraṇagamanupakkilesasamucchedena ārammaṇato nibbānārammaṇaṃ hutvā kiccato sakalepi ratanattaye ijjhati.
Lokiyaṃ puthujjanānaṃ saraṇagamanupakkilesavikkhambhanena ārammaṇato buddhādiguṇārammaṇaṃ hutvā ijjhati.
Taṃ atthato buddhādīsu vatthūsu saddhāpaṭilābho saddhāmūlikā ca sammādiṭṭhi dasasu puññakiriyavatthūsu diṭṭhijukammanti vuccati.
Tayidaṃ catudhā vattati – attasanniyyātanena, tapparāyaṇatāya, sissabhāvūpagamanena, paṇipātenāti.
Tattha attasanniyyātanaṃ nāma – "ajjādiṃ katvā ahaṃ attānaṃ buddhassa niyyātemi, dhammassa, saṅghassā"ti evaṃ buddhādīnaṃ attapariccajanaṃ.
Tapparāyaṇatā nāma "ajjādiṃ katvā 'ahaṃ buddhaparāyaṇo, dhammaparāyaṇo, saṅghaparāyaṇo'ti.
Maṃ dhārethā"ti evaṃ tapparāyaṇabhāvo.
Sissabhāvūpagamanaṃ nāma – "ajjādiṃ katvā – 'ahaṃ buddhassa antevāsiko, dhammassa, saṅghassa antevāsiko'ti maṃ dhārethā"ti evaṃ sissabhāvūpagamo.
Paṇipāto nāma – "ajjādiṃ katvā ahaṃ abhivādanapaccuṭṭhānaañjalikammasāmīcikammaṃ buddhādīnaṃyeva tiṇṇaṃ vatthūnaṃ karomī'ti maṃ dhārethā"ti evaṃ buddhādīsu paramanipaccākāro.
Imesañhi catunnaṃ ākārānaṃ aññatarampi karontena gahitaṃyeva hoti saraṇaṃ.
Api ca bhagavato attānaṃ pariccajāmi, dhammassa, saṅghassa, attānaṃ pariccajāmi, jīvitaṃ pariccajāmi, pariccattoyeva me attā, pariccattaṃyeva jīvitaṃ, jīvitapariyantikaṃ buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, buddho me saraṇaṃ leṇaṃ tāṇanti ; evampi attasanniyyātanaṃ veditabbaṃ.
"Satthārañca vatāhaṃ passeyyaṃ, bhagavantameva passeyyaṃ, sugatañca vatāhaṃ passeyyaṃ, bhagavantameva passeyyaṃ, sammāsambuddhañca vatāhaṃ passeyyaṃ, bhagavantameva passeyya"nti (saṃ. ni. 2.154).
Evampi mahākassapassa saraṇagamanaṃ viya sissabhāvūpagamanaṃ veditabbaṃ.
"So ahaṃ vicarissāmi, gāmā gāmaṃ purā puraṃ;
Namassamāno sambuddhaṃ, dhammassa ca sudhammata"nti. (su. ni. 194);
Evampi āḷavakādīnaṃ saraṇagamanaṃ viya tapparāyaṇatā veditabbā.
Atha kho brahmāyu brāhmaṇo uṭṭhāyāsanā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā bhagavato pādesu sirasā nipatitvā bhagavato pādāni mukhena ca paricumbati, pāṇīhi ca parisambāhati, nāmañca sāveti – "brahmāyu ahaṃ, bho gotama brāhmaṇo, brahmāyu ahaṃ, bho gotama brāhmaṇo"ti (ma. ni. 2.394) evampi paṇipāto daṭṭhabbo.
So panesa ñātibhayācariyadakkhiṇeyyavasena catubbidho hoti.
Tattha dakkhiṇeyyapaṇipātena saraṇagamanaṃ hoti, na itarehi.
Seṭṭhavaseneva hi saraṇaṃ gaṇhāti, seṭṭhavasena ca bhijjati.
Tasmā yo sākiyo vā koliyo vā – "buddho amhākaṃ ñātako"ti vandati, aggahitameva hoti saraṇaṃ.
Yo vā – "samaṇo gotamo rājapūjito mahānubhāvo avandīyamāno anatthampi kareyyā"ti bhayena vandati, aggahitameva hoti saraṇaṃ.
Yo vā bodhisattakāle bhagavato santike kiñci uggahitaṃ saramāno buddhakāle vā –
"Catudhā vibhaje bhoge, paṇḍito gharamāvasaṃ;
Ekena bhogaṃ bhuñjeyya, dvīhi kammaṃ payojaye;
Catutthañca nidhāpeyya, āpadāsu bhavissatī"ti. (dī. ni. 3.265);
Evarūpaṃ anusāsaniṃ uggahetvā – "ācariyo me"ti vandati, aggahitameva hoti saraṇaṃ.
Yo pana – "ayaṃ loke aggadakkhiṇeyyo"ti vandati, teneva gahitaṃ hoti saraṇaṃ.
Evaṃ gahitasaraṇassa ca upāsakassa vā upāsikāya vā aññatitthiyesu pabbajitampi ñātiṃ – "ñātako me aya"nti vandato saraṇagamanaṃ na bhijjati, pageva apabbajitaṃ.
Tathā rājānaṃ bhayavasena vandato.
So hi raṭṭhapūjitattā avandīyamāno anatthampi kareyyāti.
Tathā yaṃ kiñci sippaṃ sikkhāpakaṃ titthiyampi – "ācariyo me aya"nti vandatopi na bhijjati, evaṃ saraṇagamanappabhedo veditabbo.
Ettha ca lokuttarassa saraṇagamanassa cattāri sāmaññaphalāni vipākaphalaṃ, sabbadukkhakkhayo ānisaṃsaphalaṃ.
Vuttañhetaṃ –
"Yo ca buddhañca dhammañca, saṅghañca saraṇaṃ gato;
Cattāri ariyasaccāni, sammappaññāya passati.
Dukkhaṃ dukkhasamuppādaṃ, dukkhassa ca atikkamaṃ;
Ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ, dukkhūpasamagāminaṃ.
Etaṃ kho saraṇaṃ khemaṃ, etaṃ saraṇamuttamaṃ;
Etaṃ saraṇamāgamma, sabbadukkhā pamuccatī"ti. (dha. pa. 192);
Api ca niccādito anupagamanādivasena petassa ānisaṃsaphalaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Vuttañhetaṃ – "aṭṭhānametaṃ anavakāso, yaṃ diṭṭhisampanno puggalo kañci saṅkhāraṃ niccato upagaccheyya - pe - kañci saṅkhāraṃ sukhato - pe - kañci dhammaṃ attato upagaccheyya - pe - mātaraṃ jīvitā voropeyya - pe - pitaraṃ - pe - arahantaṃ - pe - paduṭṭhacitto tathāgatassa lohitaṃ uppādeyya - pe -. saṅghaṃ bhindeyya - pe - aññaṃ satthāraṃ uddiseyya, netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatī"ti (a. ni. 1.290).
Lokiyassa pana saraṇagamanassa bhavasampadāpi bhogasampadāpi phalameva.
Vuttañhetaṃ –
"Ye keci buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gatāse, na te gamissanti apāyabhūmiṃ;
Pahāya mānusaṃ dehaṃ, devakāyaṃ paripūressantī"ti. (saṃ. ni. 1.37);
Aparampi vuttaṃ – "atha kho sakko devānamindo asītiyā devatāsahassehi saddhiṃ yenāyasmā mahāmoggallāno tenupasaṅkami - pe - ekamantaṃ ṭhitaṃ kho sakkaṃ devānamindaṃ āyasmā mahāmoggallāno etadavoca – "sādhu kho, devānaminda, buddhaṃ saraṇagamanaṃ hoti.
Buddhaṃ saraṇagamanahetu kho, devānaminda, evamidhekacce sattā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjanti - pe - te aññe deve dasahi ṭhānehi adhigaṇhanti – dibbena āyunā, dibbena vaṇṇena, dibbena sukhena, dibbena yasena, dibbena ādhipateyyena, dibbehi rūpehi saddehi gandhehi rasehi phoṭṭhabbehī"ti (saṃ. ni. 4.341).
Esa nayo dhamme ca saṅghe ca.
Api ca velāmasuttādīnaṃ vasenāpi saraṇagamanassa phalaviseso veditabbo.
Evaṃ saraṇagamanassa phalaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Tattha ca lokiyasaraṇagamanaṃ tīsu vatthūsu aññāṇasaṃsayamicchāñāṇādīhi saṃkilissati, na mahājutikaṃ hoti, na mahāvipphāraṃ.
Lokuttarassa natthi saṃkileso.
Lokiyassa ca saraṇagamanassa duvidho bhedo – sāvajjo ca anavajjo ca.
Tattha sāvajjo aññasatthārādīsu attasanniyyātanādīhi hoti, so ca aniṭṭhaphalo hoti.
Anavajjo kālakiriyāya hoti, so avipākattā aphalo.
Lokuttarassa pana nevatthi bhedo.
Bhavantarepi hi ariyasāvako aññaṃ satthāraṃ na uddisatīti.
Evaṃ saraṇagamanassa saṃkileso ca bhedo ca veditabboti.
Upāsakaṃ maṃ bhante bhagavā dhāretūti maṃ bhagavā "upāsako aya"nti evaṃ dhāretu, jānātūti attho.
Upāsakavidhikosallatthaṃ panettha – ko upāsako?
Kasmā upāsakoti vuccati ?
Kimassa sīlaṃ?
Ko ājīvo?
Kā vipatti?
Kā sampattīti?
Idaṃ pakiṇṇakaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Tattha ko upāsakoti yo koci saraṇagato gahaṭṭho.
Vuttañhetaṃ – "yato kho, mahānāma, buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gato hoti, dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gato hoti, saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gato hoti.
Ettāvatā kho, mahānāma, upāsako hotī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1033).
Kasmā upāsakoti ratanattayaṃ upāsanato.
So hi buddhaṃ upāsatīti upāsako, tathā dhammaṃ saṃghaṃ.
Kimassasīlanti pañca veramaṇiyo.
Yathāha – "yato kho, mahānāma, upāsako pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, adinnādānā… kāmesumicchācārā… musāvādā… surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti, ettāvatā kho, mahānāma, upāsako sīlavā hotī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1033).
Koājīvoti pañca micchāvaṇijjā pahāya dhammena samena jīvitakappanaṃ.
Vuttañhetaṃ – "pañcimā, bhikkhave, vaṇijjā upāsakena akaraṇīyā.
Katamā pañca?
Satthavaṇijjā, sattavaṇijjā, maṃsavaṇijjā, majjavaṇijjā, visavaṇijjā.
Imā kho, bhikkhave, pañca vaṇijjā upāsakena akaraṇīyā"ti (a. ni. 5.177).
Kā vipattīti yā tasseva sīlassa ca ājīvassa ca vipatti, ayamassa vipatti.
Api ca yāya esa caṇḍālo ceva hoti, malañca patikuṭṭho ca, sāpissa vipattīti veditabbā.
Te ca atthato assaddhiyādayo pañca dhammā honti.
Yathāha – "pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato upāsako upāsakacaṇḍālo ca hoti, upāsakamalañca, upāsakapatikuṭṭho ca.
Katamehi pañcahi?
Assaddho hoti, dussīlo hoti, kotūhalamaṅgaliko hoti, maṅgalaṃ pacceti, no kammaṃ, ito ca bahiddhā dakkhiṇeyyaṃ pariyesati, tattha ca pubbakāraṃ karotī"ti (a. ni. 5.175).
Kā sampattīti yā cassa sīlasampadā ceva ājīvasampadā ca, sā sampatti; ye cassa ratanabhāvādikarā saddhādayo pañca dhammā.
Yathāha – "pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato upāsako upāsakaratanañca hoti, upāsakapadumañca, upāsakapuṇḍarīkañca.
Katamehi pañcahi?
Saddho hoti, sīlavā hoti, na kotūhalamaṅgaliko hoti, kammaṃ pacceti, no maṅgalaṃ, na ito bahiddhā dakkhiṇeyyaṃ gavesati, idha ca pubbakāraṃ karotī"ti (a. ni. 5.175).
Ajjataggeti etthāyaṃ aggasaddo ādikoṭikoṭṭhāsaseṭṭhesu dissati.
"Ajjatagge, samma dovārika, āvarāmi dvāraṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ nigaṇṭhīna"ntiādīsu (ma. ni. 2.70) hi ādimhi dissati.
"Teneva aṅgulaggena taṃ aṅgulaggaṃ parāmaseyya.
Ucchaggaṃ veḷagga"ntiādīsu (kathā. 281) koṭiyaṃ.
"Ambilaggaṃ vā madhuraggaṃ vā tittakaggaṃ vā vihāraggena vā pariveṇaggena vā bhājetu"ntiādīsu (cūḷava. 317) koṭṭhāse.
"Yāvatā, bhikkhave, sattā apadā vā - pe - tathāgato tesaṃ aggamakkhāyatī"tiādīsu (a. ni. 4.34) seṭṭhe.
Idha panāyaṃ ādimhi daṭṭhabbo.
Tasmā ajjataggeti ajjataṃ ādiṃ katvāti evametthattho veditabbo.
Ajjatanti ajjabhāvaṃ.
Ajjadaggeti vā pāṭho, dakāro padasandhikaro.
Ajja agganti attho.
Pāṇupetanti pāṇehi upetaṃ.
Yāva me jīvitaṃ pavattati, tāva upetaṃ anaññasatthukaṃ tīhi saraṇagamanehi saraṇaṃ gataṃ upāsakaṃ kappiyakārakaṃ maṃ bhagavā dhāretu jānātu.
Ahañhi sacepi me tikhiṇena asinā sīsaṃ chindeyya, neva buddhaṃ "na buddho"ti vā, dhammaṃ "na dhammo"ti vā, saṅghaṃ "na saṅgho"ti vā vadeyyanti.
Evaṃ attasanniyyātanena saraṇaṃ gantvā attanā kataṃ aparādhaṃ pakāsento accayo maṃ, bhantetiādimāha.
Tattha accayoti aparādho.
Maṃ accagamāti maṃ atikkamma abhibhavitvā pavatto.
Dhammikaṃ dhammarājānanti ettha dhammaṃ caratīti dhammiko.
Dhammeneva rājā jāto, na pitughātanādinā adhammenāti dhammarājā.
Jīvitā voropesinti jīvitā viyojesiṃ.
Paṭiggaṇhātūti khamatu.
Āyatiṃ saṃvarāyāti anāgate saṃvaratthāya.
Puna evarūpassa aparādhassa dosassa khalitassa akaraṇatthāya.
251.Tagghāti ekaṃse nipāto.
Yathā dhammaṃ paṭikarosīti yathā dhammo ṭhito tatheva karosi, khamāpesīti vuttaṃ hoti. "Искупает вину согласно правилу": как правило устанавливает, именно так и делает, это означает "просит прощения".
Taṃ te mayaṃ paṭiggaṇhāmāti taṃ tava aparādhaṃ mayaṃ khamāma.
Vuḍḍhihesā, mahārāja ariyassa vinayeti esā, mahārāja, ariyassa vinaye buddhassa bhagavato sāsane vuḍḍhi nāma.
Katamā?
Yāyaṃ accayaṃ accayato disvā yathādhammaṃ paṭikaritvā āyatiṃ saṃvarāpajjanā, desanaṃ pana puggalādhiṭṭhānaṃ karonto – "yo accayaṃ accayato disvā yathādhammaṃ paṭikaroti, āyatiṃ saṃvaraṃ āpajjatī"ti āha.
252.Evaṃ vutteti evaṃ bhagavatā vutte.
Handa ca dāni mayaṃ bhanteti ettha handāti vacasāyatthe nipāto.
So hi gamanavacasāyaṃ katvā evamāha.
Bahukiccāti balavakiccā.
Bahukaraṇīyāti tasseva vevacanaṃ.
Yassadāni tvanti yassa idāni tvaṃ mahārāja gamanassa kālaṃ maññasi jānāsi, tassa kālaṃ tvameva jānāsīti vuttaṃ hoti.
Padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmīti tikkhattuṃ padakkhiṇaṃ katvā dasanakhasamodhānasamujjalaṃ añjaliṃ sirasi patiṭṭhapetvā yāva dassanavisayaṃ bhagavato abhimukhova paṭikkamitvā dassanavijahanaṭṭhānabhūmiyaṃ pañcapatiṭṭhitena vanditvā pakkāmi.
253.Khatāyaṃ, bhikkhave, rājāti khato ayaṃ, bhikkhave, rājā.
Upahatāyanti upahato ayaṃ.
Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – ayaṃ, bhikkhave, rājā khato upahato bhinnapatiṭṭho jāto, tathānena attanāva attā khato, yathā attano patiṭṭhā na jātāti.
Virajanti rāgarajādivirahitaṃ.
Rāgamalādīnaṃyeva vigatattā vītamalaṃ.
Dhammacakkhunti dhammesu vā cakkhuṃ, dhammamayaṃ vā cakkhuṃ, aññesu ṭhānesu tiṇṇaṃ maggānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
Idha pana sotāpattimaggasseva.
Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – sace iminā pitā ghātito nābhavissa, idāni idhevāsane nisinno sotāpattimaggaṃ patto abhavissa, pāpamittasaṃsaggena panassa antarāyo jāto.
Evaṃ santepi yasmā ayaṃ tathāgataṃ upasaṅkamitvā ratanattayaṃ saraṇaṃ gato, tasmā mama sāsanamahantatāya yathā nāma koci purisassa vadhaṃ katvā pupphamuṭṭhimattena daṇḍena mucceyya, evameva lohakumbhiyaṃ nibbattitvā tiṃsavassasahassāni adho patanto heṭṭhimatalaṃ patvā tiṃsavassasahassāni uddhaṃ gacchanto punapi uparimatalaṃ pāpuṇitvā muccissatīti idampi kira bhagavatā vuttameva, pāḷiyaṃ pana na ārūḷhaṃ.
Idaṃ pana suttaṃ sutvā raññā koci ānisaṃso laddhoti?
Mahāānisaṃso laddho.
Ayañhi pitu māritakālato paṭṭhāya neva rattiṃ na divā niddaṃ labhati, satthāraṃ pana upasaṅkamitvā imāya madhurāya ojavantiyā dhammadesanāya sutakālato paṭṭhāya niddaṃ labhi.
Tiṇṇaṃ ratanānaṃ mahāsakkāraṃ akāsi.
Pothujjanikāya saddhāya samannāgato nāma iminā raññā sadiso nāhosi.
Anāgate pana vijitāvī nāma paccekabuddho hutvā parinibbāyissatīti.
Idamavoca bhagavā.
Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
Iti sumaṅgalavilāsiniyā dīghanikāyaṭṭhakathāyaṃ
Sāmaññaphalasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
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